Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Current refinement(s):

Records 1 - 20 / 246

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==discharge
Check title to add to marked list
LPJmL4 model output for the publications in GMD: LPJmL4 - a dynamic global vegetation model with managed land: Part I – Model description and Part II – Model evaluation
Schaphoff, Sibyll ; Bloh, Werner von; Rammig, Anja ; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Biemans, H. ; Forkel, Matthias ; Gerten, Dieter ; Heinke, Jens ; Jägermeyr, Jonas ; Knauer, Jürgen ; Langerwisch, Fanny ; Lucht, Wolfgang ; Müller, Christoph ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Waha, Katharina - \ 2018
soil carbon - vegetation carbon - global carbon balance - permafrost distribution - discharge - fractional burned area - crop yields - global dynamic vegetation model - vegetation dynamics
LPJmL4 is a process-based model that simulates climate and land-use change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere, the water and carbon cycle and on agricultural production. The LPJmL4 model combines plant physiological relations, generalized empirically established functions and plant trait parameters. The model incorporates dynamic land use at the global scale and is also able to simulate the production of woody and herbaceous short-rotation bio-energy plantations. Grid cells may contain one or several types of natural or agricultural vegetation. A comprehensive description of the model is given by Schaphoff et al. (2017a, http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-145). The data presented here represent some standard LPJmL4 model results for the land surface described in Schaphoff et al. (2017a,). Additionally, these results are evaluated in the companion paper of Schaphoff et al. (2017b, http://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-146). The data collection includes some key output variables made with different model setups described by Schaphoff et al. (2017b). The data cover the entire globe with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and temporal coverage from 1901-2011 on an annual basis for soil, vegetation, aboveground and litter carbon as well as for vegetation distribution, crop yields, sowing dates, maximum thawing depth, and fire carbon emissions. Vegetation distribution is given for each plant functional type (PFT), crop yields, and sowing dates are given for each crop functional type (CFT), respectively. Monthly data are provided for the carbon fluxes (net primary production, gross primary production, soil respiration) and the water fluxes (transpiration, evaporation, interception, runoff, and discharge) and for absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and albedo.
LPJmL4 Model Code
Schaphoff, Sibyll ; Bloh, Werner von; Thonicke, Kirsten ; Biemans, H. ; Forkel, Matthias ; Gerten, Dieter ; Heinke, Jens ; Jägermeyr, Jonas ; Müller, Christoph ; Rolinski, Susanne ; Waha, Katharina ; Stehfest, Elke ; Waal, Liesbeth de; Heyder, Ursula ; Gumpenberger, Marlies ; Beringer, Tim - \ 2018
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)
soil carbon - vegetation carbon - global carbon balance - permafrost distribution - discharge - fractional burned area - crop yields - global dynamic vegetation model - vegetation dynamics
LPJmL4 is a process-based model that simulates climate and land-use change impacts on the terrestrial biosphere, the water and carbon cycle and on agricultural production. The LPJmL4 model combines plant physiological relations, generalized empirically established functions and plant trait parameters. The model incorporates dynamic land use at the global scale and is also able to simulate the production of woody and herbaceous short-rotation bio-energy plantations. Grid cells may contain one or several types of natural or agricultural vegetation.
Prerequisites for Accurate Monitoring of River Discharge Based on Fixed-Location Velocity Measurements
Kästner, K. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Vermeulen, B. ; Ningsih, N.S. ; Pramulya, M. - \ 2018
Water Resources Research 54 (2018)2. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 1058 - 1076.
discharge - index velocity - Indonesia - Kapuas River - rating curve - velocity profile
River discharge has to be monitored reliably for effective water management. As river discharge cannot be measured directly, it is usually inferred from the water level. This practice is unreliable at places where the relation between water level and flow velocity is ambiguous. In such a case, the continuous measurement of the flow velocity can improve the discharge prediction. The emergence of horizontal acoustic Doppler current profilers (HADCPs) has made it possible to continuously measure the flow velocity. However, the profiling range of HADCPs is limited, so that a single instrument can only partially cover a wide cross section. The total discharge still has to be determined with a model. While the limitations of rating curves are well understood, there is not yet a comprehensive theory to assess the accuracy of discharge predicted from velocity measurements. Such a theory is necessary to discriminate which factors influence the measurements, and to improve instrument deployment as well as discharge prediction. This paper presents a generic method to assess the uncertainty of discharge predicted from range-limited velocity profiles. The theory shows that a major source of error is the variation of the ratio between the local and cross-section-averaged velocity. This variation is large near the banks, where HADCPs are usually deployed and can limit the advantage gained from the velocity measurement. We apply our theory at two gauging stations situated in the Kapuas River, Indonesia. We find that at one of the two stations the index velocity does not outperform a simple rating curve.
Maatgevende afvoer en maaiveldafvoer in waterschap Vechtstromen : beschouwing over de bruikbaarheid van afvoernormen voor bepaling van veranderingen in de waterhuishouding en het optreden van maaiveldafvoer
Massop, H.Th.L. ; Bakel, P.J.T. ; Louw, P.G.B. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2839) - 71
drainage - waterbeheer - afvoer - oppervlakkige afvoer - klimaatverandering - nederland - water management - discharge - runoff - climatic change - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft (1) een evaluatie van de MA-methodiek (Maatgevende Afvoer) toegepast door harmonisatie van de legger van het waterschap Vechtstromen en brengt (2) de maaiveladafvoer voor het waterschapgebied in beeld.
Mobiele waterzuivering glastuinbouw
Ruijven, Jim van; Os, Erik van; Vermeulen, Peter - \ 2017
Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1424) - 54
kassen - glastuinbouw - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - afvoer - zuiveren - waterzuivering - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - substraten - cultuur zonder grond - mobiele uitrusting - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - waste water treatment - waste water - water pollution - discharge - purification - water treatment - surface water - surface water quality - plant protection - pesticides - substrates - soilless culture - mobile equipment
Application of a mobile unit for discharge water purification is one of four options to apply to the purification obligation per 1-1-2018. Depending on the amount of discharge, future water strategy and investment options, mobile purification can be an interesting option. The amount of discharge water varies with crop, irrigation strategy and quality of the irrigation water and is between 122 and 3.340 m3/ha/year for surveyed companies. About 65% of greenhouse companies discharges
Praktijkimplementatie zuiveringstechnieken
Ruijven, J. van; Os, E. van; Beerling, E. ; Staaij, M. van der - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1419) - 42
kasgewassen - kassen - glastuinbouw - afvoer - zuiveren - gewasbescherming - ozon - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - discharge - purification - plant protection - ozone
To apply to the Dutch generic obligation to purify discharge water, each horticultural company needs to treat it’s discharge water with a technology that removes 95% of plant protection products. This report shows the process that growers need to go through to make a good choice for a purification technology: mapping of water flows, decrease the amount of discharge water, determine the strategy to apply to the generic obligation and make a choice for a purification technology. For a cucumber production company and a company that combines vegetable plant propagation and growth of potted plants this process is followed. A design for a purification system is developed and built for a semi-practice scale cucumber and sweet pepper production system. In the semi-practice scale and the cucumber production company, an ozone installation (Agrozone) is chosen, either to disinfect drain water and eventually purify discharge water. At the propagation company, an Opticlear Diamond (WaterIQ) is chosen to disinfect the drain water and eventually purify discharge water. For both installations the purification efficacy is measured. In the second part of the project the practical format for the generic obligation for discharge water purification is elaborated.
Legitimatie van de nevengeul voor de Waal langs Varik : constructies van risico’s uit onzekerheden die redenen geven voor voorzorg : publieksrapport
During, R. ; Pleijte, M. ; Vreke, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 324a) - ISBN 9789462578180 - 39 p.
klimaatverandering - rivieren - waal - hoogwaterbeheersing - afvoer - burgers - waterbeheer - rivierregulering - climatic change - rivers - river waal - flood control - discharge - citizens - water management - river regulation
“Wat is de legitimatie van de geprojecteerde nevengeul van de Waal bij Varik en Heesselt?” In het onderzoek dat heeft plaatsgevonden is specifiek gekeken naar de onderbouwing van de maatgevende afvoer van 18.000 m3/s bij Lobith eind 21e eeuw en naar de wijze waarop er in de planvorming met de onzekerheden rondom de maatgevende afvoer is omgegaan. Daarbij is in eerste instantie gekeken naar de onderbouwing die door de provincie en door het stafbureau van de Deltacommissaris is aangeleverd aan de bewoners. In tweede instantie moest er veel ruimer gezocht worden naar onderbouwende publicaties, want die onderbouwing had het karakter van “work in progress”.
Legitimatie van de nevengeul voor de Waal langs Varik : constructies van risico’s uit onzekerheden die redenen geven voor voorzorg : achtergrondrapport
During, R. ; Pleijte, M. ; Vreke, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 324b) - ISBN 9789462573895 - 141 p.
klimaatverandering - rivieren - waal - hoogwaterbeheersing - afvoer - burgers - waterbeheer - rivierregulering - climatic change - rivers - river waal - flood control - discharge - citizens - water management - river regulation
“Wat is de legitimatie van de geprojecteerde nevengeul van de Waal bij Varik en Heesselt?” In het onderzoek dat heeft plaatsgevonden is specifiek gekeken naar de onderbouwing van de maatgevende afvoer van 18.000 m3/s bij Lobith eind 21e eeuw en naar de wijze waarop er in de planvorming met de onzekerheden rondom de maatgevende afvoer is omgegaan. Daarbij is in eerste instantie gekeken naar de onderbouwing die door de provincie en door het stafbureau van de Deltacommissaris is aangeleverd aan de bewoners. In tweede instantie moest er veel ruimer gezocht worden naar onderbouwende publicaties, want die onderbouwing had het karakter van “work in progress”.
Slimme oplossing voor te weinig, te veel en te vuil water
Kwakernaak, C. ; Jansen, P.C. ; Kempen, M. ; Smolders, F. ; Rheenen, H. van - \ 2015
Water Matters : Kenniskatern voor Waterprofessionals - Dutch edition (2015)Oktober. - p. 30 - 33.
waterbeheer - waterkwaliteit - drinkwater - watervoorziening - klimaatverandering - watertekort - waterverzadiging - wateropslag - afvoer - hergebruik van water - biomassa productie - waterzuivering - water management - water quality - drinking water - water supply - climatic change - water deficit - waterlogging - water storage - discharge - water reuse - biomass production - water treatment
Water Matters is het kenniskatern van H2O. Het verschijnt twee keer per jaar, als bijlage bij Vakblad H2O. De uitgave van Water Matters (een initiatief van Koninklijk Nederlands Waternetwerk) wordt mogelijk gemaakt door: Alterra Wageningen UR, ARCADIS, KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Royal HaskoningDHV en de Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer (STOWA).
Waterberging op landbouwgrond : wat doet dat met de waterkwaliteit?
Roelsma, J. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Maaswaal, D. van; Wiegman, W. - \ 2015
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 47 (2015)9. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 42 - 43.
landbouwgrond - meervoudig landgebruik - neerslag - wateropslag - afvoer - waterkwaliteit - stikstof - fosfor - monitoring - salland - agricultural land - multiple land use - precipitation - water storage - discharge - water quality - nitrogen - phosphorus
Waterschap Groot Salland heeft de afgelopen jaren een aantal waterbergingen ingericht, waarvan sommige ook voor de landbouw in gebruik zijn. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat het effect van de combinatie landbouw en waterberging – een zogenaamde landbouwberging – op de waterkwaliteit gering is. De verwachting is dat onder normale omstandigheden er zelfs sprake zal zijn van een afname van de stikstof, omdat een deel ervan in de landbouwberging opgeslagen wordt.
Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China
Zhu, J. ; Gao, P. ; Geissen, V. ; Maroulis, J. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Mu, X. ; Zhao, G. - \ 2015
Arid Land Research and Management 29 (2015)1. - ISSN 1532-4982 - p. 1 - 16.
flow-duration curves - loess-plateau - soil-erosion - yellow-river - vegetation changes - streamflow - trend - discharge - afforestation - program
The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the Yellow River Basin has experienced significant sediment regime fluctuations. In this study, we analyzed the sediment regime from the Wuqi catchment which feeds into the upper reaches of the Beiluo River. Results show that a significant decreasing trend in annual suspended sediment discharge and suspended sediment concentration has existed from 1985 to 2008. The change-point year (the year that abrupt changes in sediment regime occurred in the catchment) was detected in 2001 (p <0.05) for suspended sediment discharge and sediment concentration. There was a significant decreasing trend in streamflow discharge with the change-point year detected in 2002. Meanwhile, erosive rainfall and heavy rainfall exhibits an increasing but not significant trend. Coevally, land use has undergone considerable transformation. Compared to rainfall, land use, and land cover change and soil and water conservation have played a major role in influencing the sediment regime post-2000. In order to reduce soil erosion and sediment yield, more attention should be paid to changes in land use pattern and the impacts of soil and water conservation.
The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): a lumped rainfall-runoff model for catchments with shallow groundwater
Brauer, C.C. ; Teuling, A.J. ; Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2014
Geoscientific Model Development 7 (2014)5. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2313 - 2332.
flow route contributions - surface water interactions - soil-moisture - process conceptualization - hydrological models - root-growth - tile drain - scale - calibration - discharge
We present the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS), a novel rainfall-runoff model to fill the gap between complex, spatially distributed models which are often used in lowland catchments and simple, parametric (conceptual) models which have mostly been developed for sloping catchments. WALRUS explicitly accounts for processes that are important in lowland areas, notably (1) groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, (2) wetness-dependent flow routes, (3) groundwater-surface water feedbacks and (4) seepage and surface water supply. WALRUS consists of a coupled groundwater-vadose zone reservoir, a quickflow reservoir and a surface water reservoir. WALRUS is suitable for operational use because it is computationally efficient and numerically stable (achieved with a flexible time step approach). In the open source model code default relations have been implemented, leaving only four parameters which require calibration. For research purposes, these defaults can easily be changed. Numerical experiments show that the implemented feedbacks have the desired effect on the system variables.
Sharp bends associated with deep scours in a tropical river: The river Mahakam (East Kalimantan, Indonesia)
Vermeulen, B. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Berkum, S.W. van; Hidayat, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 119 (2014)7. - ISSN 2169-9003 - p. 1441 - 1454.
circular meander pools - flow separation - mackenzie delta - channel bends - concave-bank - evolution - discharge - division - width - hole
Autogenic scouring in sharp river bends has received ample attention in laboratory and modeling studies. These studies have significantly advanced our understanding of how flow processes are influenced by strong curvature and how they affect the bathymetry. Here we present a 300 km reach of the Mahakam River in Indonesia, which features several sharp bends (W/R > 0.5), providing a unique field data set to validate existing knowledge on sharp bends. Scour depths were found to strongly exceed what can be expected based on existing understanding of sharp bends and are highly correlated with curvature. A comprehensive stream reconnaissance was carried out to compare the occurrence of sharp bends and deep scours with lateral bank migration. Histograms of the occurrence of erosive, stable, advancing, and bar-type banks as a function of curvature quantify the switch from a mildly curved bend regime to a sharp bend regime. In mild bends, outer banks erode and inner banks advance. In sharp bends the erosion pattern inverts. Outer banks stabilize or advance, while inner banks erode. In sharply curved river bends, bars occur near the outer banks that become less erosive for higher curvatures. Inner banks become more erosive for higher curvatures but nevertheless accommodate the larger portion of exposed bars. No relation was found between the land cover adjacent to the river and the occurrence of sharp bends. Soil processes may play a crucial role in the formation of sharp bends, which is inferred from iron and manganese concretions observed in the riverbanks, indicating ferric horizons and early stages of the formation of plinthic horizons. Historical topographic maps show the planform activity of the river is low, which may relate to the scour holes slowing down planimetric development.
Improved flow velocity estmates from oving-boat ADCO measurements
Vermeulen, B. ; Sassi, M.G. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. - \ 2014
Water Resources Research 50 (2014)5. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4186 - 4196.
doppler current profiler - suspended sediment - turbulence measurements - acoustic measurement - river - discharge - transport - division - channel - vessel
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are the current standard for flow measurements in large-scale open water systems. Existing techniques to process vessel-mounted ADCP data assume homogeneous or linearly changing flow between the acoustic beams. This assumption is likely to fail but is nevertheless widely applied. We introduce a new methodology that abandons the standard assumption of uniform flow in the area between the beams and evaluate the drawbacks of the standard approach. The proposed method strongly reduces the extent over which homogeneity is assumed. The method is applied to two field sites: a mildly curved bend near a junction featuring a typical bend flow and a sharply curved bend that features a more complex sheared flow. In both cases, differences are found between the proposed method and the conventional method. The proposed technique yields different results for secondary flow patterns compared with the conventional method. The velocity components estimated with the conventional method can differ over 0.2 m/s in regions of strong shear. We investigate the number of repeat transects necessary to isolate the mean flow velocity vector from the raw ADCP signal, discarding the influences of noise, positioning and projection errors, and turbulence. Results show that several repeat transects are necessary. The minimum number of repeat measurements needed for robust mean velocity estimates is reduced when applying the proposed method
Effecten zoetwaterbelasting via de Krammersluizen op de schlepdiercultuur in de Noordelijke tak van de Oosterschelde
Smaal, A.C. ; Kamermans, P. - \ 2014
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C181/14) - 22
zoet water - afvoer - sluizen - nadelige gevolgen - mariene ecologie - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - oosterschelde - fresh water - discharge - sluices - adverse effects - marine ecology - shellfish culture - eastern scheldt
In dit rapport wordt ingegaan op de vraag naar het effect van respectievelijk 30 en 50 m3/s zoetwaterafvoer van het Krammer-Volkerak door de Krammersluizen naar de Oosterschelde op de schelpdiercultuur en de visserij in de Noordelijke tak van de Oosterschelde. De mogelijk mitigerende werking van het gebruik van de Flakkeese spuisluis op zoutgehalte en verticale menging vereist nadere studie omdat er thans geen kwantitatieve voorspellingen beschikbaar zijn van het te verwachten zoutgehalte en de menging; het is wel waarschijnlijk dat spui van zout water uit het Grevelingenmeer door de Flakkeese spuisluis positief zal uitwerken op het zoutgehalte en de verticale menging in de Noordelijke tak. Het doorspoelwater wordt normaliter afgevoerd via de Bathse Spuisluis naar de Westerschelde, maar bestrijding van de zoutlast voor het VZM kan effectiever gebeuren via de Krammersluizen.
Regional scale impact of tidal forcing on groundwater flow in unconfined coastal aquifers
Pauw, P.S. ; Oude Essink, G.H.P. ; Leijnse, A. ; Vandenbohede, A. ; Groen, J. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2014
Journal of Hydrology 517 (2014). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 269 - 283.
grondwaterstroming - kustgebieden - watervoerende lagen - groundwater flow - coastal areas - aquifers - sea-water intrusion - saline groundwater - fresh - beaches - discharge - dynamics - lenses - table - zone
This paper considers the impact of tidal forcing on regional groundwater flow in an unconfined coastal aquifer. Numerical models are used to quantify this impact for a wide range of hydrogeological conditions. Both a shallow and a deep aquifer are investigated with regard to three dimensionless parameter groups that determine the groundwater flow to a large extent. Analytical expressions are presented that allow for a quick estimate of the regional scale effect of tidal forcing under the same conditions as used in the numerical models. Quantitatively, the results in this paper are complementary to previous studies by taking into account variable density groundwater flow, dispersive salt transport and a seepage face in the intertidal area. Qualitatively, the results are in line with previous investigations. The time-averaged hydraulic head at the high tide mark increases upon a decrease of each of the three considered dimensionless parameter groups: R (including the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity and the precipitation excess), a (the slope of the intertidal area) and AL (the ratio of the width of the fresh water lens and the tidal amplitude). The relative change of the location and the hydraulic head of the groundwater divide, which together characterize regional groundwater flow, increase as a and AL decrease, but decrease as R decreases. The difference between the analytical solutions and numerical results is small. Therefore, the presented analytical solutions can be used to estimate the bias that is introduced in a numerical model if tidal forcing is neglected. The results should be used with caution in case of significant wave forcing, as this was not considered.
Het effect van landbouwkundig gebruik van een waterberging op de waterkwaliteit
Roelsma, J. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Maaswaal, D. van; Wegman, W. - \ 2014
H2O online (2014)9 sept..
landbouwgrond - meervoudig landgebruik - neerslag - wateropslag - afvoer - waterkwaliteit - stikstof - fosfor - monitoring - salland - agricultural land - multiple land use - precipitation - water storage - discharge - water quality - nitrogen - phosphorus
Een van de mogelijkheden om tijdens intensieve regenbuien het water tijdelijk te bergen is het aanleggen van waterbergingsgebieden. Waterschap Groot Salland heeft de afgelopen jaren een aantal waterbergingen ingericht, waarvan sommige ook voor de landbouw in gebruik zijn. Uit onderzoek in 2012 en 2013 blijkt dat het effect van de combinatie landbouw en waterberging – een zogenaamde landbouwberging – op de waterkwaliteit gering is. Per hoogwatersituatie werd per hectare landbouwberging een maximale bijdrage van 0,20% voor stikstof en 0,34% voor fosfor op het oppervlaktewater vastgesteld. Deze toename is niet significant (<10%) en is kleiner dan de onnauwkeurigheid van de waterkwaliteitsmetingen.
Mest snel uit stal via composietroosters en frequent aflaten
Verheijen, R. ; Verdoes, N. - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 37 - 39.
varkenshouderij - varkensmest - afvoer - drukbehandeling - ammoniakemissie - roostervloeren - pig farming - pig manure - discharge - pressure treatment - ammonia emission - grid floors
Op Varkens Innovatie Centrum (VIC) Sterksel heeft eind 2012 en begin 2013 een onderzoek gelopen naar het frequent aflaten van mest uit mestpannen via onderdruk. Na enige aanpassingen is er een systeem voor de praktijk beschikbaar. In de afdeling voldeden composietroosters erg goed.
Skill of a global seasonal streamflow forecasting system, relative roles of initial conditions and meteorological forcing
Yossef, N.C. ; Winsemius, H. ; Weerts, A.H. ; Beek, R. van; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 2013
Water Resources Research 49 (2013)8. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4687 - 4699.
united-states - hydrological model - water-resources - climate-change - discharge - predictability - availability - prediction - validation - balances
We investigate the relative contributions of initial conditions (ICs) and meteorological forcing (MF) to the skill of the global seasonal streamflow forecasting system FEWS-World, using the global hydrological model PCRaster Global Water Balance. Potential improvement in forecasting skill through better climate prediction or by better estimation of ICs through data assimilation depends on the relative importance of these sources of uncertainty. We use the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) and reverse ESP (revESP) procedure to explore the impact of both sources of uncertainty at 78 stations on large global basins for lead times upto 6 months. We compare the ESP and revESP forecast ensembles with retrospective model simulations driven by meteorological observations. For each location, we determine the critical lead time after which the importance of ICs is surpassed by that of MF. We analyze these results in the context of prevailing hydroclimatic conditions for larger basins. This analysis suggests that in some basins forecast skill may be improved by better estimation of initial hydrologic states through data assimilation; whereas in others skill improvement depends on better climate prediction. For arctic and snowfed rivers, forecasts of high flows may benefit from assimilation of snow and ice data. In some snowfed basins where the onset of melting is highly sensitive to temperature changes, forecast skill depends on better climate prediction. In monsoonal basins, the variability of the monsoon dominates forecasting skill, except for those where snow and ice contribute to streamflow. In large basins, initial surface water and groundwater states are important sources of skill.
Tipping from the Holocene to the Anthropocene: How threatened are major world deltas?
Renaud, F.G. ; Syvitski, J.P.M. ; Werners, S.E. ; Kremer, H. ; Kuenzer, C. ; Ramesh, R. ; Jeuken, A. - \ 2013
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 644 - 654.
social-ecological systems - sea-level rise - climate-change - mississippi delta - northern india - river - thresholds - discharge - sediment - impact
Coastal deltas are landforms that typically offer a wide variety of benefits to society including highly fertile soils for agricultural development, freshwater resources, and rich biodiversity. For these reasons, many deltas are densely populated, are important economic hubs, and have been transformed by human interventions such as agricultural intensification, modification of water and sediment fluxes, as well as urbanization and industrialization. Additionally, deltas are increasingly affected by the consequences of climate change including sea level rise, and by other natural hazards such as cyclones and storm surges. Five examples of major deltas (Rhine-Meuse, Ganges, Indus, Mekong, and Danube) illustrate the force of human interventions in shaping and transforming deltas and in inducing shifts between four different social-ecological system (SES) states: Holocene, modified Holocene, Anthropocene and ‘collapsed’. The three Asian deltas are rapidly changing but whereas SES in the Ganges and Indus deltas are in danger of tipping into a ‘collapsed’ state, SES in the Mekong delta, which is at the crossroads of various development pathways, could increase in resilience in the future. The Rhine-Meuse and Danube delta examples show that highly managed states may allow, under specific conditions, for interventions leading to increasingly resilient systems. However, little is known about the long-term effects of rapid human interventions in deltas. It is therefore critical to increase the knowledge-base related to SES dynamics and to better characterize social tipping points or turning points in order to avoid unacceptable changes.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.