Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The risks of drinking sugar sweetened drinks | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen :
sugar - health - diseases - blood sugar - carbohydrates - soft drinks
The consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks increases rapidly. What is the danger of these drinks? This lesson is part of the WageningenX MOOC called 'Nutrition and Cancer'.
Zweven boven de afgrond : gieren in Afrika ernstig bedreigd
Nijland, Rik ; Buij, R. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 22 - 25.
accipitridae - bedreigde soorten - uitsterven - afrika - ziekten - pathogenen - dierecologie - accipitridae - endangered species - extinction - africa - diseases - pathogens - animal ecology
Ze worden opgegeten, vergiftigd door boeren en stropers en verwerkt in traditionele medicijnen. Afrikaanse gieren zijn daardoor in vijftig jaar met 80 procent achteruitgegaan. Als de gieren het laten afweten, worden rottende karkassen mogelijk verspreidingshaarden van ziekten die gevaarlijk zijn voor mens en dier.
Mucus and gut barrier in health and disease
Sovran, B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jerry Wells; P. de Vos, co-promotor(en): J. Dekker. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574892 - 233
slijm - spijsverteringskanaal - darmen - muizen - probiotica - eilandjes van peyer - colitis - transcriptomen - immunohistologie - veroudering - geslacht (sex) - homeostase - gezondheid - ziekten - mucus - digestive tract - intestines - mice - probiotics - peyer patches - colitis - transcriptomes - immunohistology - senescence - sex - homeostasis - health - diseases

This publication describes his work as a PhD student in the Host-Microbe Interactomics Chair group at Wageningen University within the Gastrointestinal Health theme. It has been completed under the supervision of Prof. Dr Jerry M Wells, Dr Jan Dekker and the TIFN project leader, Prof. Dr Paul de Vos.

Mucus serves as a protective layer between the intestinal content and the intestinal wall. It facilitates the passage of the luminal content through the intestine, reducing the risk of mechanical damage to the intestinal epithelium. The overarching goal of this thesis was to investigate the role of mucus in the maintenance of the intestinal immune barrier and the effects of ageing and gender differences on mucus production and the gut barrier.

We found by using a mouse model that decreased mucus production leads to changes in microbiota and mucosal stress responses, without the appearance of pathology, demonstrating the importance of mucus in intestinal homeostasis. The mucus barrier was shown to deteriorate during aging but this could be prevented with specific probiotics. Furthermore gender-specific differences in the effects of ageing on the mucosal barrier were found. Increased knowledge on these mechanisms might contribute significantly to disease prevention and treatment, for instance by optimizing gender-specific dietary and pharmacological requirements.

The study presented in this thesis was performed within the framework of Top Institute Food and Nutrition, within the GH002 project.

Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments
Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. - \ 2015
Applied Soil Ecology 94 (2015). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 72 - 79.
bacterial communities - nematode control - diversity - rhizosphere - variability - microflora - pathogens - fusarium - diseases - waste
The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay tank was significantly reduced up to 86, 83, 52, and 48% after amending the non-sterilized soil with yeast or chitin at a rate of 0.3% (w/w) in consecutive experiments. Inexpensive protein-rich waste products from food industry (i.e., feather, hoof, meat, blood and fish meal) also effectively increased Rhizoctonia-disease suppression. Several plant-derived products (e.g., spent mushroom compost, dried algae, spent brewer’s grain, Brassica seed meal) were not effective. Lysobacter populations naturally present in the soil were increased 3–10 fold (measured by a TaqMan quantitative PCR) in soils amended with organic compounds that stimulated Rhizoctonia-disease suppression. The role of Lysobacter as a key factor in Rhizoctonia-disease suppression, however, could not be confirmed by adding Lysobacter isolates to a sterilized soil amended with yeast or chitin. Hence, we hypothesize that unexplored biological factors were involved in disease suppression, since the tested soil became conducive after gamma-sterilization. The consistent enhancement of Rhizoctonia-disease suppression in sugar beet with yeast and chitin amendments, and the efficacy of inexpensive protein-rich waste products such as feather meal and hoof meal in our bio-assays, warrants further study in field experiments
Inventarisatie zoönosen bij het paard in Nederland
Swanenburg, M. ; Vos, C.J. de; Visser, E.K. ; Nodelijk, G. - \ 2014
Lelystad : CVI Wageningen UR (CVI report 14/CVI0155) - 62
dierenwelzijn - paarden - ziekten - diergezondheid - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - risicoschatting - inventarisaties - ziekteoverdracht - animal welfare - horses - diseases - animal health - zoonoses - public health - risk assessment - inventories - disease transmission
Het ministerie van EZ heeft laten onderzoeken of het paard in Nederland een rol speelt bij het ontstaan van infectieziekten die kunnen worden overgedragen van dieren op mensen (zoönosen).
Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes
Ifende, V.I. ; Derks, M. ; Hooijer, G.A. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
Veterinary Record 175 (2014)9. - ISSN 0042-4900
dutch dairy farms - netherlands - mastitis - cattle - cows - objectives - diseases - model
Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes are meant to support herd health and farmers’ income (Brand and Guard 1996). They were introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s (Sol and Renkema 1984) and at present many veterinarians provide them to farmers. VHHM comprises a basic structure of goal setting, planning, execution and evaluation. Farms are visited every four to six weeks, where the veterinarian inspects the animals, evaluates gathered data and provides advice (Brand and Guard 1996). Ideally, VHHM combines animal health, food safety, animal welfare and public health with farm management and economics (Noordhuizen and Wentink 2001, LeBlanc and others 2006). VHHM programmes are used not only in the Netherlands, but on a wider scale, for instance in the UK (Wassell and Esslemont 1992) and Denmark (Kristensen and Enevoldsen 2008). The farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious, regulations while competing with commercial farmers outside the EU who are not subjected to the same rules (Cannas de Silva and others 2006). As dairy farmers strive for further efficiency in production, driven by market economics, the risks and consequences of poor health and suboptimal production increase (Sibley 2006). VHHM programmes are meant to help farmers to produce products of high quality for a low cost price (Brand and Guard 1996). Its primary objectives include the optimisation of herd health, productivity, quality of products and profitability of the dairy enterprise (Blood and others 1978). In practice, some farms or veterinarians embrace the concepts of VHHM by active participation, while others do not (Derks and others 2012). Also, veterinarians are not always able to meet farmers’ requirements for VHHM (Hall and Wapenaar 2012, Derks 2013). Its efficiency is hard to determine. There is, for instance, no recent information on the cost implications of this programme with regard to perceived profitability in farms. A limited number of controlled studies were carried out in the early 1970s and 1980s to evaluate the effects of VHHM on farm performance (Williamson 1980, Sol and others 1984). It was shown that a VHHM programme produced considerable benefits to participating farmers. A follow-up study showed approximately 8 per cent increase in margin per cow compared with the initial margin, using 1974–1975 as a base year (Hogeveen and others 1992). Since that time, no economic studies were carried out on the effects of these programmes. This study evaluates the economic relationship between participation in a VHHM programme and farm performance on dairy farms and estimates the costs incurred by the participation in this programme as well as the net returns (NR), including factors that influence the NR on a farm.
Diaporthe species associated with Vaccinium, with specific reference to Europe
Lombard, L. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; Guarnaccia, V. ; Polizzi, G. ; Rijswick, P.C.J. van; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M. ; Gabler, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2014
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53 (2014)2. - ISSN 0031-9465 - p. 287 - 299.
phomopsis-vaccinii - maximum-likelihood - south-africa - stem canker - blueberry - grapevines - cranberry - australafricana - inference - diseases
Species of the genus Vaccinium are commercially cultivated in Europe for their berries, which are highly valued for dietary and pharmaceutical properties. Cultivation is severely limited due to a range of fungal diseases, especially those caused by species of Diaporthe. A number of Diaporthe isolates have been collected from Vaccinium growing regions in Europe, and initially identified as D. vaccinii based on host association. Using DNA sequence inference of the combined ß-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA, along with morphological characteristics, six species were characterised. Diaporthe eres, D. vaccinii and D. viticola are known species and three novel taxa are described here as D. asheicola, D. baccae and D. sterilis. This study is the first confirmed report of D. vaccinii in Latvia and the Netherlands.
Spatiotemporal monitoring of allergic rhinitis symptoms in the Netherlands using citizen science
Weger, L.A. de; Hiemstra, P.S. ; Buysch, E. op den; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2014
Allergy 69 (2014)8. - ISSN 0105-4538 - p. 1085 - 1091.
pollen - europe - diseases - impact
Background Airborne pollen is a major symptom trigger in allergic rhinitis patients, but the impact of pollen differs among patients and regions and is influenced by environmental factors. To study these complex relationships, there is a need for data on the severity of symptoms in space and time. ‘Citizen science’ is increasingly recognized as an effective tool to monitor changes in our environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a citizen science-based survey to monitor spatiotemporal variation in allergic rhinitis symptoms. Methods Participants were recruited through the Web site Allergieradar.nl. After registering by completing an extensive questionnaire, they entered (preferably daily) their symptoms of eyes, nose, and lungs on a scale from 1 to 10, as well as their geographic location. Results The registration questionnaire revealed that the majority of the participants (77%) had physician-diagnosed hay fever and 65% of the participants had been tested positively for their allergy. This study shows that the symptom scores of the participants are related to (i) pollen concentrations in the air, (ii) the self-reported sensitivity profile, and (iii) the sales of prescription antihistamines in the Netherlands. Conclusion Our data indicate that the collection of allergic rhinitis symptom data by ‘citizen science’ is feasible and has an added value in studies on the impact of pollen.
Unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen Fusarium falciforme
Sarmiento-Ramírez, J.M. ; Voort, M. van der; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
caretta-caretta - biological-control - gut microbiota - dna-sequences - costa-rica - streptomyces - diseases - community - fungal - health
Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species.
Expert involvement in policy development: A systematic review of current practice
Fischer, A.R.H. ; Wentholt, M.T.A. ; Rowe, E.J. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2014
Science and Public Policy 41 (2014)3. - ISSN 0302-3427 - p. 332 - 343.
participation - diseases - delphi - consultation - science
In what ways are experts involved in policy development, and with what results? This paper attempts to answer these questions through a structured review of the academic literature, focusing on the identification of ‘methodologies’ of expert involvement, and on analying the subsequent policy impact of those exercises. Coding was applied to 103 articles, revealing that only a small range of methods has been utilised, that method choice is infrequently justified, and with little evidence of evaluation (either of the expert involvement process or of policy impact). We argue that robust evaluative processes are necessary to refine the efficacy of involvement processes (and the accuracy with which involvement methods are aligned to specific types of policy questions) and to document policy translation of outcomes. We therefore propose a framework to identify appropriate consultation methods for specific policy questions, and suggest some criteria for reporting expert involvement processes in the future. Keywords: expert involvement; policy development; policy translation; stakeholder involvement; systematic review.
Torradoviruses are transmitted in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner by three whitefly vectors
Verbeek, M. ; Bekkum, P.J. van; Dullemans, A.M. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2014
Virus Research 186 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1702 - p. 55 - 60.
plant-virus transmission - picorna-like virus - bemisia-tabaci - tomato - aleyrodidae - efficiency - diseases
Members of the genus Torradovirus (family Secoviridae, type species Tomato torrado virus, ToTV) are spherical plant viruses transmitted by the whitefly species Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci. Knowledge on the mode of vector transmission is lacking for torradoviruses. Here, the mode of transmission was determined for Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). A minimal acquisition access period (AAP) and inoculation access period (IAP) of approximately 2h each was required for its transmission by T. vaporariorum, while optimal transmission required an AAP and IAP of at least 16h and 8h, respectively. Whiteflies could retain the virus under non-feeding conditions for at least 8h without loss of transmission efficiency, but upon feeding on a non-host plant in between the AAP and IAP they retained the virus for no more than 8h. Similar conditions supported transmission of isolates of ToTV and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) by T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci. Additionally, similar experiments revealed the banded-winged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutilonea) as a vector for all three virus species. The results are congruent with acquisition and retention periods for semi-persistent virus transmission. RT-PCR detection analysis of ToTV and ToMarV in the vector's body revealed their presence in the stylet, but not in the head where the pharynx of the foregut is located. The results altogether indicate a semi-persistent stylet-borne mode of vector transmission for torradoviruses. Additionally, this is the first group of spherical viruses transmitted by at least three different species of whiteflies
The average culling rate of Dutch dairy herds over the years 2007-2010 and its association with herd reproduction performance, and health
Mohd Nor, N. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Research 81 (2014)01. - ISSN 0022-0299 - p. 1 - 8.
finnish ayrshire cows - pregnancy status - early lactation - risk-factors - diseases - reasons - disposal - farms - patterns - survival
Optimising the number of replacement heifers needed will have positive economic and environmental consequences on herds that rear their own young stock. The number of heifers needed to be kept is closely related with the number of culled dairy cows in the herd. This study therefore looked at the variation that exists in culling rate and herd level factors associated with it. A dataset from 1903 dairy herds available included information at animal level (dates of culling, slaughter/death) and herd level (characteristics of reproduction, performance, health) over the years 2007 to 2010. The average culling rate for slaughter/death was used and was defined for each year as percentage of the herd size that died within 30 d after theywere culled. The analysis of the association between average culling rate for slaughter/death and the characteristics of the herd was performed using a mixed model. The results showed that the average culling rate for slaughter/death was 25·4% and varied between 23% (2007) and 28% (2010). More than 70% of the herds have an average culling rate for slaughter/death of less than 30%, showing that there is room for lowering the average culling rate for slaughter/death. A higher average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average calving interval, a higher average 305-d protein production, a higher average somatic cell count (SCC), a higher percentage of new high SCC, a more than 5% decrease in herd size, and herds that bought more than 1% of animals per year. A lower average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average age, herds that bought less than 1% of animals per year and a more than 5% increase in herd size. In conclusion, the average culling
Alternative states and population crashes in a resource-susceptible-infected model for planktonic parasites and hosts
Gerla, D.J. ; Gsell, A.S. ; Kooi, B.W. ; Ibelings, B.W. ; Donk, E. van; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2013
Freshwater Biology 58 (2013)3. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 538 - 551.
fresh-water phytoplankton - aquatic food webs - asterionella-formosa - viral-infection - dynamics - growth - diseases - diatoms - blooms - fungi
1. Despite the strong impact parasites can have, only few models of phytoplankton ecology or aquatic food webs have specifically included parasitism. 2. Here, we provide a susceptible-infected model for a diatom-chytrid hostparasite system that explicitly includes nutrients, infected and uninfected hosts, reproduction of the parasite on the hosts and free-living infective stages. 3. A distinguishing feature of the model is that parasite reproduction on host increases with nutrient availability to the infected host, as has been observed for many parasites and viruses. 4. It follows from this assumption that the parasite's basic reproduction number, R0, increases with nutrient concentration, because at higher nutrient concentrations, infected hosts consume more nutrients that are used for the reproduction of the parasite. 5. Another important result is that there may be two alternative states to which population densities can converge: one with only the host and one with host and parasite co-existing. In the latter, the parasite can invade a host population only if it is introduced above a threshold density. 6. Furthermore, the model shows a strong tendency for hostparasite cycles, which may be chaotic. Nutrient enrichment leads to increasing amplitude of these cycles, which may cause host or parasite population extinction caused by stochastic fluctuations during periods of low population density, which is the Paradox of Enrichment. 7. Finally, if alternative states and cycles co-occur, increased population cycle amplitude may drive the parasite below its threshold density for successful invasion, causing parasite extinction in a deterministic Paradox of Enrichment'. Published results confirm that hostparasite cycles and collapse of hostparasite systems may occur in real plankton communities. 8. Our results underline that ecological detail in hostparasite models may have consequences for disease dynamics that may be overlooked when ecological interactions between environment, host and parasite are not explicitly taken into account.
Global collection of mushroom pathogens
Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendrickx, P.M. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Korsten, L. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Plant Breeding - 40
eetbare paddestoelen - ziekten - diagnostische technieken - resistentie van variëteiten - alternatieve methoden - pathogenen - bedrijfshygiëne - monitoring - maatregelen - edible fungi - diseases - diagnostic techniques - varietal resistance - alternative methods - pathogens - industrial hygiene - measures
In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of pathogens (diagnostics), alternative crop protection agents and disease resistant mushroom varieties have to play an important role. The number of researchers in several mushroom producing countries is decreasing already for a number of years. For an effective use of research funds, international collaboration on topics of mutual interest is important. At the workshop of the Global Mushroom Disease Diagnostic Initiative, held in 2008 just before the ISMS conference in Cape Town, it was decided to try and build a collection of reference pathogen strains for the white button mushroom diseases present world wide. This collection will play a vital role in the development of diagnostic methods for mushroom diseases. This project was funded in part by the ISMS and in part by the Dutch Horticultural Board.
Coral aquaculture to support drug discovery
Leal, M.C. ; Calado, R. ; Sheridan, C. ; Alimonti, A. ; Osinga, R. - \ 2013
Trends in Biotechnology 31 (2013)10. - ISSN 0167-7799 - p. 555 - 561.
reef restoration - natural-products - sinularia-flexibilis - cultivation - growth - mucus - bacteria - diseases - ecology - sponges
Marine natural products (NP) are unanimously acknowledged as the blue gold in the urgent quest for new pharmaceuticals. Although corals are among the marine organisms with the greatest diversity of secondary metabolites, growing evidence suggest that their symbiotic bacteria produce most of these bioactive metabolites. The ex hospite culture of coral symbiotic microbiota is extremely challenging and only limited examples of successful culture exist today. By contrast, in toto aquaculture of corals is a commonly applied technology to produce corals for aquaria. Here, we suggest that coral aquaculture could as well be a viable and economically feasible option to produce the biomass required to execute the first steps of the NP-based drug discovery pipeline.
Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback
Hol, W.H.G. ; Boer, W. de; Hooven, F. ten; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
community structure - grassland - ecology - ecosystems - diversity - pathogens - diseases - fungi
Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.
Actionable Knowledge and Strategic Decision-Making Related to Bio- and Agroterrorism Threats: Educational Needs on How to Build a Collaborative Early-Warning Culture
Martensson, P.A. ; Hedström, L. ; Sundelius, B. ; Skiby, J. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Knutsson, R. - \ 2013
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: biodefense strategy, practice and science 11 (2013)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1538-7135 - p. S46 - S54.
surveillance - diseases - bioterrorism
Current trends in biosecurity and cybersecurity include (1) the wide availability of technology and specialized knowledge that previously were available only to governments; (2) the global economic recession, which may increase the spread of radical non-state actors; and (3) recent US and EU commission reports that reflect concerns about non-state actors in asymmetric threats. The intersectoral and international nature of bioterrorism and agroterrorism threats requires collaboration across several sectors including intelligence, police, forensics, customs, and other law enforcement organizations who must work together with public and animal health organizations as well as environmental and social science organizations. This requires coordinated decision making among these organizations, based on actionable knowledge and information sharing. The risk of not sharing information among organizations compared to the benefit of sharing information can be considered in an “information sharing risk-benefit analysis” to prevent a terrorism incident from occurring and to build a rapid response capability. In the EU project AniBioThreat, early warning is the main topic in work package 3 (WP 3). A strategy has been generated based on an iterative approach to bring law enforcement agencies and human and animal health institutes together. Workshops and exercises have taken place during the first half of the project, and spin-off activities include new preparedness plans for institutes and the formation of a legal adviser network for decision making. In addition, a seminar on actionable knowledge was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2012, which identified the need to bring various agency cultures together to work on developing a resilient capability to identify early signs of bio- and agroterrorism threats. The seminar concluded that there are a number of challenges in building a collaborative culture, including developing an education program that supports collaboration and shared situational awareness.
Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland pony mares
Schurink, A. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Frankena, K. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van - \ 2013
Animal Genetics 44 (2013)1. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 44 - 52.
icelandic horses - sweet itch - genetic association - complex traits - summer eczema - polymorphisms - netherlands - sequence - diseases - british
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic disease present in horses worldwide. It has been shown that IBH is under genetic control, but the knowledge of associated genes is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify and quantify genomic regions contributing to IBH in the Dutch Shetland pony population. A total of 97 cases and 91 controls were selected and matched on withers height, coat colour and pedigree to minimise the population stratification. A blood sample was collected from participating Shetland pony mares, their IBH phenotype was scored and the owner filled in a questionnaire. A total of 40 021 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were fitted in a univariable logistic model fitting an additive effect. Analysis revealed no effects of population stratification. Significant associations with IBH were detected for 24 SNPs on 12 chromosomes [log10(P-value) > 2.5]. Odds ratios of allele substitution effects of the unfavourable allele were between 1.94 and 5.95. The most significant SNP was found on chromosome 27, with an odds ratio of 2.31 and with an allele frequency of the unfavourable allele of 0.72 in cases and 0.53 in controls. Genome-wide association studies on additional horse populations are desired to validate the identified associations, to identify the genes involved in IBH and to develop genomic tools to o decrease IBH prevalence.
Operational efficiency and sustainability of vector control of malaria and dengue: descriptive case studies from the Philippines
Berg, H. van den; Velayudhan, R. ; Ebol, A. ; Catbagan, B.H.G. ; Turingan, R. ; Tuso, M. ; Hii, J. - \ 2012
Malaria Journal 11 (2012). - ISSN 1475-2875
eliminate lymphatic filariasis - aedes-aegypti - anopheles-flavirostris - community involvement - larval distribution - management - diseases - risk
Background: Analysis is lacking on the management of vector control systems in disease-endemic countries with respect to the efficiency and sustainability of operations. Methods: Three locations were selected, at the scale of province, municipality and barangay (i.e. village). Data on disease incidence, programme activities, and programme management were collected on-site through meetings and focus group discussions. Results: Adaptation of disease control strategies to the epidemiological situation per barangay, through microstratification, brings gains in efficiency, but should be accompanied by further capacity building on local situational analysis for better selection and targeting of vector control interventions within the barangay. An integrated approach to vector control, aiming to improve the rational use of resources, was evident with a multi-disease strategy for detection and response, and by the use of combinations of vector control methods. Collaboration within the health sector was apparent from the involvement of barangay health workers, re-orientation of job descriptions and the creation of a disease surveillance unit. The engagement of barangay leaders and use of existing community structures helped mobilize local resources and voluntary services for vector control. In one location, local authorities and the community were involved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of malaria control, which triggered local programme ownership. Conclusions: Strategies that contributed to an improved efficiency and sustainability of vector control operations were: micro-stratification, integration of vector control within the health sector, a multi-disease approach, involvement of local authorities, and empowerment of communities. Capacity building on situational analysis and vector surveillance should be addressed through national policy and guidelines.
High prevalence of a fungal prion
Debets, A.J.M. ; Dalstra, H.J.P. ; Slakhorst, S.M. ; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B. ; Hoekstra, R.F. ; Saupe, S.J. - \ 2012
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (2012)26. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 10432 - 10437.
podospora-anserina - vegetative incompatibility - het-s - heterokaryon incompatibility - neurospora-crassa - meiotic drive - yeast prion - mechanism - diseases - genes
Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the fungus Podospora anserina. The het-s locus exists as two antagonistic alleles that constitute an allorecognition system: the het-s allele encoding the protein variant capable of prion formation and the het-S allele encoding a protein variant that cannot form a prion. We document here that het-s alleles, capable of prion formation, are nearly twice as frequent as het-S alleles in a natural population of 112 individuals. Then, we report a 92% prevalence of [Het-s] prion infection among the het-s isolates and find evidence of the role of the [Het-s]/het-S allorecognition system on the incidence of infection by a deleterious senescence plasmid. We explain the het-s/het-S allele ratios by the existence of two selective forces operating at different levels. We propose that during the somatic stage, the role of [Het-s]/HET-S in allorecognition leads to frequency-dependent selection for which an equilibrated frequency would be optimal. However, in the sexual cycle, the [Het-s] prion causes meiotic drive favoring the het-s allele. Our findings indicate that [Het-s] is a selected and, therefore, widespread prion whose activity as selfish genetic element is counteracted by balancing selection for allorecognition polymorphism
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