Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda
Ingabire, C.M. ; Rulisa, A. ; Kempen, L. van; Muvunyi, C. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vugt, M. van; Mutesa, L. ; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J. - \ 2015
Malaria Journal 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2875
management - knowledge - district - uganda
Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering the acceptability and use of available malaria preventive measures to better inform area specific strategies that can lead to malaria elimination. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGD) covering a cross-section of 81 lay community members and local leaders were conducted in Ruhuha, Southern Eastern Rwanda in December 2013 to determine: community perceptions on malaria disease, acceptability of LLIN and IRS, health care-seeking behaviours and other malaria elimination strategies deployed at household and environmental levels. Discussions were recorded in Kinyarwanda, transcribed into English and coded using Nvivo 10 software. Results Participants ranked malaria as the top among five common diseases in the Ruhuha sector. Participants expressed comprehensive knowledge and understanding of malaria transmission and symptoms. The concept of malaria elimination was acknowledged, but challenges were reported. Sleeping under a bed net was negatively affected by increase of bedbugs (and the associated irritability) as well as discomfortable warmness particularly during the dry season. These two factors were reported as common hindrances of the use of LLIN. Also, widespread use of LLIN in constructing chicken pens or as fences around vegetable gardens was reported. Participants also reported that IRS appeared to lead to an increase in number of mosquitoes and other household bugs rather than kill them. Prompt health centre utilization among participants with presumed malaria was reported to be common particularly among subscribers to the subsidized community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme. In contrast, the lack of CBHI and/or perceptions that health centre visits were time consuming were common reasons for the use of over-the-counter medicines for malaria management. Conclusion In this study, identification of behavioural determinants in relation to LLIN use, IRS acceptability and health care seeking is a critical step in the development of effective, targeted interventions aiming to further reduce malaria transmission and elimination in the area.
Integrated analysis of land use changes and their impacts on agrarian livelihoods in the western highlands of Kenya
Mutoko, M.C. ; Hein, L.G. ; Bartholomeus, H. - \ 2014
Agricultural Systems 128 (2014). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 1 - 12.
soil fertility management - proximate causes - cover - deforestation - africa - sustainability - expansion - dynamics - district - growth
Land degradation is affecting rural livelihoods across sub-Saharan Africa. Promoting sustainable land management requires a thorough understanding of land use change drivers, processes and effects. However, in most African countries reliable data for such investigations are missing. We therefore test an integrated approach to analyse land use dynamics, combining remote sensing images, an in-depth quantitative survey, stakeholder interviews and local statistics. We analyse land dynamics and agricultural production over a 25-year period in Vihiga District, Western Kenya. Specifically, we examine how land use has changed in this period, the main drivers for land use change, and the main effects of these changes on agricultural production. Vihiga District is one of the most densely populated rural areas in Africa. We find that the district has undergone rapid land use change in the past 25 years. In particular, there has been a major conversion of forest and bare land to agricultural land use. Often, it is stated that increasing population pressure triggers agricultural intensification; however, we find little evidence of such a process in Vihiga District. Productivity of tea and, to a lesser extent, vegetables increased but the yields of maize and beans, the most common crops, fluctuated around a ton per hectare. Overall, per capita food crop production dropped by 28% during the past two decades. Our study shows that high and increasing population pressures do not necessarily lead to agricultural intensification, and that there is a need to consider more explicitly off-farm income in development and land management policies and projects.
Mangrove conservation or shrimp farmer’s livelihood? The devolution of forest management and benefit sharing in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha ; Dijk, H. van; Bush, S.R. - \ 2012
Ocean & Coastal Management 69 (2012). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 185 - 193.
resource degradation - aquaculture - communities - district - africa - land
Large parts of the world's remaining mangrove forest are lost due to the expansion of shrimp farming in coastal areas. Current forest allocation and subcontracting policies of the Vietnamese government with respect to the devolution of forest management and participation of local people in sustainable forest management reflect both environmental and economic concerns. The paper aims at investigating how the devolution of rights over forestland and benefit sharing mechanisms are related to actual rights and the distribution of benefits of forest management practices. The findings show that farmer's decision-making over mangroves is very much influenced by shrimp farming since the income from mangroves is very low compared to that from shrimp. Farmer's decision making over forest is very much influenced by the way in which the benefit sharing policy is implemented by the state-owned forestry companies and management boards. However, their attitudes towards mangrove plantation and protection are far from negative. The study supports the claim that shrimp farmers may well be able to plant, protect and manage mangroves if they have more rights and responsibilities over forests and are able to benefit more from the production of mangroves. In this way more sustainable management of mangrove forests may be promoted.
Gloriosa superba L. (family Colchicaceae): Remedy or poison?
Maroyi, A. ; Maesen, L.J.G. van der - \ 2011
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5 (2011)26. - ISSN 1996-0875 - p. 6112 - 6121.
folk herbal medicines - plants - india - rajasthan - district - tribes - seeds
This article gives an overview of medicinal uses and poisonous properties of Gloriosa superba L., and the available literature related to these aspects drawn from studies done in areas where the species is utilized as traditional medicine or reported as poisonous. A list of 45 ethnobotanical applications practiced in 31 tropical African and Asian countries was drawn. A considerable convergence in ethnobotanical uses and practices emerged from these data. This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethnobotanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge of plant resources. Further ethnopharmacological studies are necessary to increase our understanding of the links between the documented traditional uses of G. superba, public health issues and its phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.
A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas
Zurn, P. ; Vujicic, M. ; Lemiere, C. ; Juquois, M. ; Stormont, L. ; Campbell, J. ; Rutten, M.M. ; Braichet, J.M. - \ 2011
Human Resources for Health 9 (2011). - ISSN 1478-4491
recruitment - incentives - countries - district - workers - malawi
Background: Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods: This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and rural areas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results: We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions: These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability
Land and Agrarian reform in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province: Caught by continuities
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Fay, D. ; Kondlo, K. - \ 2011
Journal of Agrarian Change 11 (2011)2. - ISSN 1471-0358 - p. 220 - 240.
conservation - transkei - district - politics
Investigating continuities and discontinuities is useful for an analysis of changes over time. Continuity is not just a simple, unbroken line of events, but involves a set of institutional and discursive linkages. The paper explores continuities in that relate to the agricultural expert system that has gradually taken shape in South Africa and that plays a prominent role in the design of land reform. The persistence of continuities indicates the extent to which dramatic transformations of the institutional infrastructure in agriculture have occurred, but with fewer changes in its content. Historical and contemporary analysis allows us to underline the continuity of prescriptions and modes of ordering in the past and present, evident in three land and agrarian reform projects in the Eastern Cape
Nutritional constraints and possibilities for pig production on small-holders farms in Central Vietnam
Pham, K.T. ; Hoang, N.D. ; Duc, N.L. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2010
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 23 (2010)2. - ISSN 1011-2367 - p. 253 - 262.
solomon-islands - dairy farms - reproduction - district - weight - kenya - diet
This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional situation of pigs kept in three ecological zones of central Vietnam: Upland, Lowland and Coastal Area. An interview-based questionnaire was made and surveys were conducted in 27 villages and data were collected from 1,200 participating households. The current study showed that amounts of feed and crude protein content in the diets for fattening pigs and sows are deficient for all three regions. Amounts of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 20-50 kg BW was deficient by 0.54 kg (29%) in Lowland, 0.53 kg (28.6%) in the Coastal area and 0.42 kg (22.4%) in Upland. The deficiency in CP in the diets of growing pigs in this period (20-50 kg) was largest at 20.7 g/d (62.1%) in Lowland, following by 22.1 g/d (66.4%) in Coastal and 23.2 g/d (69.7%) in Upland. Amount of feed as DM (kg/d) fed to growing pigs of 50-90 kg BW had a deficiency of 1.26 (48.9%), 1.25 (51.2%) and 1.14 (51.5%) kg/d in Lowland, Coastal and Upland, respectively. The deficiencies in crude protein in the growing diet during this period in Lowland, Coastal and Upland regions were 27 g/d (68.3%), 29 g/d (71.9%) and 30 g/d (74.6%), respectively. The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of pregnant sows in the Lowland area was 0.3 kg (15%), 0.33 kg (16%) in the Coastal area and 0.47 kg (23.5%) in the Upland area. Crude protein content in the diet of pregnant sows raised in Lowland was 8 g/d (32.0%) deficient, in the Coastal region the deficiency was 11 g/d (42.7%) and in Upland this deficiency was 15 g/d (61.2%). The deficiency in DM intake (kg/d) of lactating sows raised in Lowland was 1.47 kg (31.1%), in the Coastal area this was 1.69 kg (39.2%) and in Upland it was most deficient at 2.46 kg (57.1%). The lack of crude protein content in the diets of sows raised in Lowland was 45 g/d (63.4%), in the Coastal region it was 46 g/d (65%), and in Upland it was 55 g/d (78.9%). The low input of feed in these areas is especially due to low quality and to the insufficient intake of nutrients by the pig. As a result, production and income of farmers are low.
Does heterogeneity in goals and preferences affect efficiency? A case study of farm households in northern Nigeria
Berkhout, E.D. ; Schipper, R.A. ; Kuyvenhoven, A. ; Coulabily, O. - \ 2010
Agricultural Economics 41 (2010)3-4. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 265 - 273.
decision-making - dairy farms - attitudes - kenya - performance - objectives - management - district
Household characteristics are commonly used to explain variation in smallholder efficiency levels. The underlying assumption is that differences in intended behavior are well described by such variables, while there is no a priori reason that this is the case. Moreover, heterogeneity in farmer goals and preferences, in relation to the role of the farm enterprise, are not well documented in developing countries. This article makes a contribution to fill this gap, by empirically determining heterogeneity in farmer goals and attitudes in Nigeria through a pair-wise ranking, supplemented with Likert scales. Factor analysis is used to reduce these data into behavioral factors. We estimate technical and allocative efficiency levels and analyze how these are related to farm characteristics and the identified behavioral factors. The models in which both intended behavior and farmer characteristics are included give a significantly better fit over models in which only household characteristics are included. These regression results suggest that the socioeconomic environment affects efficiency levels both directly and indirectly, through changes in goals and attitudes.
Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya
Rufino, M.C. ; Herrero, M. ; Wijk, M.T. van; Hemerik, L. ; Ridder, N. de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2009
Animal 3 (2009). - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1044 - 1056.
holstein-friesian cattle - boran bos-indicus - lactational performance - economic-evaluation - management - feed - model - reproduction - district - heifers
Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the highlands of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be increased on average by 1400 kg per lactation by supplementing the diet with 5 kg of concentrates during early lactation and 1 kg during late lactation, although the optimal supplementation may change according to milk and concentrate prices. Reducing involuntary culling must be included as a key goal when designing interventions to improve productivity and sustainability of smallholder dairy systems, because increasing lifetime productivity may have a larger impact on smallholders¿ income than interventions targeted to only improving daily milk yields through feeding strategies.
Shaping the landscape: Agricultural policies and local biodiversity schemes
Turpin, N. ; Dupraz, P. ; Thenail, C. ; Joannon, A. ; Baudry, J. ; Herviou, S. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2009
Land Use Policy 26 (2009)2. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 273 - 283.
land-use change - farmland birds - model - sustainability - dynamics - patterns - district - futures - europe - rates
This paper analyses the potential effect of local agro-environmental policies in promoting multifunctionality in a rural landscape, with a two-scale modelling framework: a regional scale for food demand and a local scale for the forces driving land use. The framework has been designed in four steps. First, the relative influence of the driving factors on the current land use pattern has been analysed. Two scenarios are designed that vary the external demand for the total land use, and alter more or less quickly the specific location factors that drive the landscape pattern. The first scenario considers trends in the external and internal driving forces. The second relies both on totally decoupled farm subsidies and unregulated housing growth. In both scenarios a local agro-environmental policy is introduced and we compare its consequences with the previous scenario's landscape pattern. The third step consists of a modelling exercise that analyses the likely outcome of each scenario on the development of land use patterns oil a local scale. Last, these landscape patterns hive been translated into ecological indexes that assess the effect of the policy options on the multifunctionality of the local landscape. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The supply of bioavailable iron and zinc may be affected by phytate in Beninese children
Mitchikpe, C.E.S. ; Dossa, R.A.M. ; Ategbo, E.A.D. ; Raaij, J.M.A. van; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2008
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 21 (2008)1. - ISSN 0889-1575 - p. 17 - 25.
absorption - maize - foods - availability - fermentation - consumption - nutrition - district - calcium - soaking
Food composition data are important for estimating energy and nutrient intakes. The objectives of this study were, first, to evaluate the proximate and inorganic composition of foods eaten in northern Benin and second, to estimate the potentially inhibiting effect of phytate on iron and zinc bioavailability. Chemical analyses were performed in 23 samples of most frequently consumed foodstuffs collected from retailers in local markets. Proximate composition was analysed by routine methods. Inorganic constituents and phytate were analysed using ICP-AES and HPLC. Protein contents were in agreement with those in FAO food composition database. Fat and fibre were in general higher whereas carbohydrate and energy were lower. Differences were mainly due to analytical or calculation methods. The most important sources of iron and zinc in children's diets were maize, sorghum and millet. In these cereals, iron and zinc ranged from 2.6 to 8.4 and 2.2 to 3.4 mg/100 g, respectively. Phytate ranged from 104 to 503 mg/100 g. Phytate/iron and phytate/zinc molar ratios ranged from 1 to 11 and 3 to 22, respectively. They suggest poor iron and zinc bioavailability. Reducing phytate and polyphenol contents in order to improve iron and zinc bioavailability from the most frequently consumed cereal food needs to be studied.
Heterogeneity of crop productivity and resource use efficiency within smallholder Kenyan farms: Soil fertility gradients or management intensity gradients?
Tittonell, P.A. ; Vanlauwe, B. ; Ridder, N. de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2007
Agricultural Systems 94 (2007)2. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 376 - 390.
african semiarid tropics - organic-matter - exploring diversity - nutrient balances - savanna - maize - allocation - highlands - dynamics - district
The decrease in crop yields at increasing distances from the homesteads within smallholder farms of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is normally ascribed to the existence of within-farm soil fertility gradients. Field observations also suggest that a large part of such variability is concomitantly caused by poor agronomy. To understand the interaction between soil fertility (S factors) and management decisions (M factors) affecting crop variability, we combined field research conducted in western Kenya (Vihiga, Kakamega and Teso districts; rainfall: 1600, 1800 and 1200 mm, respectively) with explorations using the simple dynamic crop/soil model for dynamic simulation of nutrient balances, previously tested for the region. Field measurements indicated within-farm differences in average maize grain yields of 48% (2.7 vs. 1.4 t ha¿1) in Vihiga and of 60% (1.5 vs. 0.6 t ha¿1) in Teso, between fields that were close and far from the homestead, respectively. Extreme values ranged widely, e.g. between 4.9 and 0.3 t ha¿1 for all the farms surveyed in Vihiga, where the average farm size was 0.6 ha. Maize grain yields tended to increase with increasing contents of soil C, total N, extractable P and exchangeable bases. However, the negative relationship between S factors and distance from the homestead was not as strong as expected, and yield variability was better explained by multiple regression models considering M factors such as planting date, plant density, resource use and weed infestation (40¿60% across sites). Then, we analysed the variation in resource (cash, labour, N) use efficiency within farms of different resource endowments with the aid of the simulation model. N balances at plot scale varied from ca. +20 to ¿18 kg ha¿1, from ¿9 to ¿20 kg ha¿1 and from ¿16 to ¿18 kg ha¿1 for the different fields of the high, medium and low resource endowment case-study farms, respectively. Labour productivities ranged between ca. 10 and 38 kg grain man-day¿1 across field and farm types. The results indicate the need of considering within farm heterogeneity when designing soil fertility management interventions. Resource use efficiency was strongly affected by soil quality. As farmers invest more effort and resources in the more productive and less risky fields, the interaction between S and M factors leads to farmer-driven resource use efficiency gradients within smallholder farms.
Fine-resolution remote-sensing and modelling of Himalayan catchment sustainability
Quincey, D.J. ; Luckman, A. ; Hessel, R. ; Davies, R. ; Sankhayan, P.L. ; Balla, M.K. - \ 2007
Remote Sensing of Environment 107 (2007)3. - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 430 - 439.
landscape change pattern - mid elevation zone - land-use dynamics - soil-erosion - nepal - india - management - district - impact - cover
A number of studies have reported on environmental degradation in the Nepal Himalaya as a result of large-scale deforestation and the associated agricultural extension. In contrast to many previous regional scale studies, we consider land cover and its environmental impact on an individual catchment-scale, using fine-resolution Quickbird data and a soil erosion model. First, using a detailed land cover map generated from Quickbird imagery, we establish basic relationships between land cover, dwelling density and topographic variability, which exist in a typical mid-elevation Nepalese catchment, the Pokhare Khola. These data suggest a strongly subsistence type of household economy based predominantly on terraced arable farming. We demonstrate using multitemporal vegetation indices that this farmland has existed in the region since the late 1980s, and that widespread deforestation has not taken place since then, possibly as a result of specific forest conservation policies of the government coupled with efforts by local communities. Further, through the use of soil erosion modelling we demonstrate the role that the terraced farming practices can play in reducing runoff and hence soil nutrient loss, thereby enabling restoration of vegetation in the previously deforested land terrains. Finally, by combining this information with regional land cover data, we show that the findings of this research can be scaled up to draw conclusions about environmental degradation across the Nepal Himalayan region.
Nutrient flows in smallholder production systems in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon
Kanmegne, J. ; Smaling, E.M.A. ; Brussaard, L. ; Gansop-Kouomegne, A. ; Boukung, A. - \ 2006
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 76 (2006)2-3. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 233 - 248.
burn agriculture - cropping systems - soil fertility - management - balances - dynamics - farmers - district - africa
The flows and balances of N, P and K were studied in 20 farms in the Campo Ma'an area in Cameroon between March and August 2002 to assess the nutrient dynamics in smallholder farms. Data were collected through farmer interviews, field measurements and estimates from transfer functions. Nutrient input from mineral (IN1), animal feed (IN2a) and inorganic amendments (IN2b) was absent. Major outputs were through crop (OUT1a) and animal (OUT1b) products sold. Partial budgets for farmer managed flows were negative: -65 kg N, -5.5 kg P and -30.8 kg K ha-1 year-1. For inflows not managed by farmers, deep capture (IN6) was the major source: 16.6, 1.4 and 6.6 kg ha -1 year-1 of N, P and K, respectively. Atmospheric deposition (IN3) was estimated at 4.3 kg N, 1.0 kg P and 3.9 kg K ha -1 year-1, and biological nitrogen fixation (IN4) at 6.9 kg N ha-1 year-1. Major losses were leaching (OUT 3a): 26.4 kg N, and 0.88 kg K ha-1 year-1. Gaseous losses from the soil (OUT 4a) were estimated at 6.34 kg N, and human faeces (OUT 6) were estimated at 4 kg N, 0.64 kg P and 4.8 kg K ha-1 year-1. The highest losses were from burning (OUT 4c), i.e. 47.8 kg N, 1.8 kg P and 14.3 kg K ha-1 year-1. Partial budgets of environmentally controlled flows were negative only for N -4.8 kg N, +2.4 kg P and +9.6 kg K ha-1 year-1. The overall farm budgets were negative, with annual losses of 69 kg N, 3 kg P and 21 kg K ha-1. Only cocoa had a positive nutrient balance: +9.3 kg N, +1.4 kg P and +7.6 kg K ha-1 year-1. Nutrients reaching the household waste (1.9 kg N, 2.8 kg P and 18.8 kg K ha-1 year-1), animal manure (4.9 kg N, 0.4 kg P and 1.6 kg K), and human faeces (4 kg N, 0.64 kg P and 4.8 kg K ha -1 year-1) were not recycled. Five alternative management scenarios were envisaged to improve the nutrient balances. Recycling animal manure, household waste and human faeces will bring the balance at -62.6 kg N, 0 kg P and +1 kg K ha-1 year-1. If, additionally, burning could be avoided, positive nutrient balances could be expected
Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification
Bebe, B.O. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Rowlands, G.J. ; Thorpe, W. - \ 2003
Livestock Production Science 82 (2003). - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 211 - 221.
district - policy
A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of intensification of the farms. Additional data were collected in a follow-up survey of 50 households from the main survey sample. In the main survey there were 987 cattle-keeping households, of which 44, 33 and 23% practised zero-, semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Compared to free-grazing, zero-grazing farms had a higher proportion of cows in the herd (0.62 vs. 0.51) but lower calving rates (0.52 vs. 0.69), higher losses of potential heifer replacements (0.47 vs. 0.38), fewer heifer replacements as a proportion of cows disposed (0.46 vs. 1.11) and shorter productive life (3.8 vs. 4.8 years). Semi-zero-grazing farms had intermediate performance. They and the zero-grazing farms were unable to maintain their herds without acquiring replacements externally. Animal class mortality rates were high (7-19%) regardless of grazing system practised. Diseases accounted for the largest proportion of animal exits: 85% of heifer-calves, 38% of heifers and 36% of cows. According to farmers' ranking, East Coast fever and Anaplasmosis diseases assumed less importance with a shift from free-grazing to zero-grazing system. A household's needs for cash was the second most frequent reason after disease for animal exits: 33% of heifers and 27% of cows, indicating the importance of cattle as liquid capital assets. The results showed that many zero-grazed herds required external sources of replacement animals to sustain their populations. Solutions to this constraint will include technical and institutional innovations to serve small-scale farms that may result in greater complementarities between, the small- and large-scale production components of the dairy sub-sector. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.