Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns
    Braga Junqueira, A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Conny Almekinders; C.R. Clement. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574472 - 163
    antropogene horizonten - bodem - agro-ecologie - biodiversiteit - landgebruik - zwerflandbouw - intensivering - diversificatie - amazonia - anthropogenic horizons - soil - agroecology - biodiversity - land use - shifting cultivation - intensification - diversification - amazonia

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming.

    André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summary in English, 163 pp.

    Rural Amazonia is increasingly experiencing environmental and socio-economic changes that directly affect smallholder farmers, with potential negative effects for environmental quality, agrobiodiversity and livelihoods. In this dynamic context, there is an urgent need to support pathways for smallholder agriculture that guarantee farmers’ economic and food security while maintaining and enhancing ecosystem functions. Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE, or Terra Preta) are anthropogenic soils created by pre-Columbian populations. Due to their high carbon content and enhanced fertility, ADE have been considered models for sustainable agriculture, based on the idea that transforming soils by mimicking some of the properties of ADE would benefit farmers, sequester carbon and reduce pressure on forests. Investigating the current use of ADE and surrounding soils by smallholder farmers allows us to evaluate the relevance of anthropogenic soils and of soil heterogeneity for smallholder farming in Amazonia, and to identify opportunities and constraints associated with the cultivation of fertile soils. The main objective of this thesis is to understand how ADE are understood and cultivated by smallholder farmers in Central Amazonia, and how these soils influence cultivation systems, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns.

    Ethnographic data indicated that farmers’ understanding of ADE – and of soils in general – is based on their historical and shared knowledge about soil variation across the landscape, on physical attributes of the soil, and mainly on the recognition of different soil-vegetation interactions. A widespread perception about ADE is that these soils are suitable for the cultivation of ‘almost everything’ and always produce decent yields, but they require much more weeding during cultivation. Farmers’ decision-making in shifting cultivation is grounded in this differential understanding of soil-vegetation relationships, and weighed against the labor demands. Soil and vegetation inventories in swiddens used for shifting cultivation showed that the soil fertility gradient between surrounding soils and ADE was associated with more intensive cultivation (shorter fallow periods, shorter and more frequent cultivation cycles, higher labor requirements) and with changes in the crop assemblages, but with similar or larger numbers of species cultivated. In homegardens, vegetation structure and crop diversity were mainly influenced by natural variation in soil texture (homegardens on sandier soils being denser and more diverse), while the soil fertility gradient between ADE and adjacent soils influenced mainly the crop assemblages. At the farm level, the relationship between farmers’ use of ADE and the need to open areas for shifting cultivation was strongly dependent on the labor availability of the household. Instead of driving specific trends in land use, fertile soils are incorporated into local livelihoods as part of an extensive repertoire of resource management activities; most often, farmers with enough available labor manage multiple plots, combining more intensive cultivation on ADE with typical long-fallow shifting cultivation on poorer soils. Farmers’ access to increased soil fertility, therefore, does not necessarily lead to reduced pressure on forests.

    This thesis has shown that cultivation systems on ADE are associated with specific knowledge, practices and agrobiodiversity, providing increased opportunities for farmers to diversify their cultivation systems and grow a greater diversity of crops. Despite these advantages, ADE can also be associated with conventional intensification practices that can lead to environmental degradation and pose threats to local livelihoods. It cannot be assumed, therefore, that the use of more fertile soils will be associated with sustainable cultivation, neither that it will reduce pressure on forests. Initiatives aiming to promote sustainable pathways for agriculture in Amazonia should promote (and make use of) the heterogeneity of soils and of cultivation strategies, and should aim at increasing and not narrowing farmers’ opportunities for resource use and management.

    The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications
    Edger, P.P. ; Heidel-Fischer, H.M. ; Bekaert, K.M. ; Rota, J. ; Glockner, G. ; Platts, A.E. ; Heckel, D.G. ; Der, J.P. ; Wafula, E.K. ; Tang, M. ; Hofberger, J.A. ; Smithson, A. ; Hall, J.C. ; Blanchette, M. ; Bureau, T.E. ; Wright, S.I. ; dePamphilis, C.W. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Conant, G.C. ; Barker, M.S. ; Wahlberg, N. ; Vogel, H. ; Pires, J.C. ; Wheat, C.W. - \ 2015
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015)27. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8362 - 8366.
    evolutionaire genetica - co-evolutie - diversificatie - brassica - pieridae - papilionidae - glucosinolaten - fylogenie - evolutionary genetics - coevolution - diversification - brassica - pieridae - papilionidae - glucosinolates - phylogeny - diversity - defense - cytochrome-p450 - polymorphism - arabidopsis - metabolism - expression - speciation
    Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary interactions between plants (Brassicales) and butterflies (Pieridae), and uncovered evidence for an escalating evolutionary arms-race. Although gradual changes in trait complexity appear to have been facilitated by allelic turnover, key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical defenses and of molecular counter adaptations were associated with shifts in diversification rates during the arms-race. These findings provide an important connection between the origins of biodiversity, coevolution, and the role of gene and genome duplications as a substrate for novel traits.
    Exploring opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina
    Chavez Clemente, M.D. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Paul Berentsen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734204 - 161
    tabak - gespecialiseerde landbouw - gewasproductie - landbouwbedrijven - diversificatie - specialisatie - inkomen - risico - bodemdegradatie - argentinië - tobacco - specialized farming - crop production - farms - diversification - specialization - income - risk - soil degradation - argentina
    In the Northwest of Argentina tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is economically and socially important. Tobacco mono-cropping, excessive tillage and inadequate irrigation management cause soil degradation. This and also tobacco production dependence on government subsidies and concern about health damage from tobacco consumption calls for research on diversification. The aim of this thesis was to explore opportunities for diversification of specialized tobacco farms in the Northwest of Argentina.
    Institutions in the Mexican coffee sector : changes and responses
    Rodriguez Padron, B. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734181 - 201
    instellingen - institutionele economie - mexico - koffie - landbouwsector - verandering - samenwerking - contracten - diversificatie - onzekerheid - markten - markthandelaars - institutions - institutional economics - mexico - coffee - agricultural sector - change - cooperation - contracts - diversification - uncertainty - markets - market traders

    Keywords: Cooperation, contract arrangements, traders´ performance, market uncertainty, diversification, coffee, Mexico.

    The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the institutional environment prevailing in the Mexican coffee sector and its effect on the producers, traders and households. Specific topics we examine are the contract arrangements and trade performance, the factors influencing the growers´ willingness to join a cooperative, the effects of cooperation on price variability, the influence of cooperation on the growers’ welfare, and coffee producers’ response to the falling coffee price through their engagement in diversification activities. To accomplish the main objectives we have used primary and secondary data. We applied ordinarily least squares, logistic, probit and multivariate probit regressions in the analysis. The main findings indicate that farmers were better off under the quota system than they are under the free market. Results also indicate that being a roaster and selling cherry coffee negatively affects traders’ use of contracts, whereas being vertically integrated has a positive effect on contracting. On the other hand, selling cherry coffee, participating in a competitive environment and having contracts positively influence intermediaries’ performance. Other results show that some individual, family and farm factors, as well as variability of the coffee price at the municipal level favour cooperative affiliation; whereas housing conditions, the proportion of farmers in the municipality and the level of producers selling to intermediaries at the municipal level negatively affect prospects for cooperative membership. We discovered overall positive effects of cooperative participation on household welfare through an increase in the price and total coffee income; results also indicate that households responded to the low coffee price periods with an increase in diversification.

    Multifunctionele landbouw in Nederland : meer dan boeren alleen
    Kierkels, T. ; Ypma, T. ; Kars, J. ; Veen, E.J. ; Vijn, M.P. ; Elings, M. ; Oostindië, H.A. ; Methorst, R.G. ; Winter, M.A. de; Engelsma, K.A. ; Kempenaar, J. ; Visser, A.J. ; Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2012
    Zutphen : Roodbont - ISBN 9789087401184 - 140
    multifunctionele landbouw - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - ondernemerschap - diversificatie - boerderijwinkels - zorgboerderijen - boerderijeducatie - dagopvang - agrarisch natuurbeheer - boerderijtoerisme - multifunctional agriculture - non-farm income - entrepreneurship - diversification - on-farm sales - social care farms - farm education - day care - agri-environment schemes - farm tourism
    Multifunctionele landbouw combineert verschillende functies op het boerenbedrijf: een agrarische tak met bijvoorbeeld huisverkoop of zorglandbouw. Inmiddels vormt de sector met bijna een half miljard euro omzet, die vergelijkbaar is met de bollensector, een sterke economische drager van het platteland. In het boek komen thema’s aan bod als economie, ondernemerschap, verbinding, vers voedsel en beleving. Verder worden de belangrijkste deelsectoren belicht: kinderopvang, boerderijverkoop, zorglandbouw, agrarisch natuurbeheer, recreatie/toerisme en boerderij-educatie. In tien ‘dubbelportretten’ komen mensen aan het woord die via de multifunctionele landbouw met elkaar in verbinding staan, zoals gastvrouw en gast, leverancier en verwerker, educatieboerin en docent.
    Dynamiek en robuustheid van multifunctionele landbouw : rapportage onderzoeksfase 3: leren en competentieontwikkeling
    Seuneke, P.L.M. ; Lans, T. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Rurale Sociologie, Wageningen University - 27
    multifunctionele landbouw - diversificatie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - kennis van boeren - inventarisaties - multifunctional agriculture - diversification - farm management - farm income - farmers' knowledge - inventories
    Het onderzoek geeft inzicht in de dynamiek van het leren en competentieontwikkeling binnen de multifunctionele landbouw. Naarmate het multifunctionele karakter sterker wordt doet zich een duidelijke verandering voor in zowel het leergedrag als de leerinhoud. Daarmee wordt op dit vlak ook de waarde en het belang van multifunctionele landbouw zichtbaar: het is geen afbouwstrategie maar juist een bedrijfsontwikkelingstraject dat een sterk beroep doet op de competenties van de ondernemers en vraagt om de ontwikkeling van andere kennis, houdingen en competenties dan bij gangbare landbouw het geval is
    Modeling patterns of farm diversification in a Dutch landscape
    Pfeifer, C. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Jetse Stoorvogel; Marthijn Sonneveld; Roel Jongeneel. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858416 - 144
    diversificatie - landbouwbedrijven - nevenactiviteiten - multifunctionele landbouw - landbouw - landschap - besluitvorming - plattelandsontwikkeling - ruimtelijke verdeling - gelderse vallei - nederland - diversification - farms - ancillary enterprises - multifunctional agriculture - agriculture - landscape - decision making - rural development - spatial distribution - gelderse vallei - netherlands
    In agrarische landschappen zijn het de beslissingen van de agrariërs die medebepalend zijn voor zowel het aanbod als de kwaliteit van de voortgebrachte landschapsdiensten. Het doel van dit proefschrift is inzicht te verschaffen in de ruimtelijke patronen van bedrijfsdiversificatie en na te gaan hoe deze patronen mogelijk in de toekomst zouden kunnen veranderen. De studie richt zich op de Gelderse Vallei
    Diversification of farm enterprises in the USA: legal incentives and legal obstacles
    Grossman, M.R. - \ 2010
    Tijdschrift voor Agrarisch Recht 1 (2010)70. - ISSN 1874-9674 - p. 4 - 15.
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - diversificatie - nevenactiviteiten - landgebruik - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - pachtovereenkomsten - vs - farm management - entrepreneurship - diversification - ancillary enterprises - land use - farm development - farm leases - usa
    This article focuses on legal incentives and legal obstacles to diversification in the US. It first outlines some farm characteristics that may influence diversification. It then turns to the possible impact of the agricultural tenancy relationship on diversification and the relevance of land-use restrictions and other laws for the producer who plans to undertake a new activity. The article then discusses a number of activities that are typical of farm diversification in the US, with an emphasis on federal government programs that support diversification. These activities include organic production, alternative crops and livestock, marketing strategies, agritourism, conservation, and production of renewable energy
    Multifunctioneel ondernemerschap in het concept van Farm & Fun : een aanzet tot een visie
    Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2009
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 14
    plattelandsontwikkeling - recreatie op het platteland - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - nevenactiviteiten - diversificatie - relaties tussen stad en platteland - multifunctionele landbouw - betuwe - rural development - rural recreation - farm management - entrepreneurship - ancillary enterprises - diversification - rural urban relations - multifunctional agriculture - betuwe
    De functie van agrarische bedrijven is niet beperkt tot het produceren van voedsel en groene grondstoffen. Multifunctionele bedrijven spelen in op maatschappelijke vragen en versterken de verbinding met de samenleving. Ondernemerschap is daarbij een belangrijk thema: enerzijds omdat ondernemerschap bij zou kunnen dragen aan het verbreden van agrarische bedrijven, anderzijds omdat ondernemerschap ook nodig is om deze bedrijven verder te professionaliseren. Een interessante vraag die voortdurend terugkomt is: Is multifunctioneel ondernemerschap anders dan ‘gewoon’ ondernemerschap? Stelt multifunctionele landbouw andere eisen aan het ondernemerschap dan productielandbouw? Deze vraag werd in 2009 aan Wageningen UR gesteld door Farm & Fun, een initiatief om het aanbod van recreatieve activiteiten van multifunctionele agrarische bedrijven in de Betuwe te bundelen en te vermarkten. Een van de vragen daarbij was: Past het ondernemerschap van Betuwse ondernemers bij dit concept?
    Dynamiek en Robuustheid van Multifunctionele Landbouw, Rapportage fase 1: stand van zaken
    Oostindië, H.A. ; Broekhuizen, R.E. van; Seuneke, P.L.M. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Leerstoelgroep Rurale Sociologie, Wageningen University - 35
    landbouw - nevenactiviteiten - diversificatie - karakteristieken - multifunctionele landbouw - sociale zorg - toekomst - sociale factoren - agriculture - ancillary enterprises - diversification - characteristics - multifunctional agriculture - social care - future - social factors
    Op 1 maart 2009 is het project ‘Dynamiek en Robuustheid van Multifunctionele Landbouw’ van start gegaan. Het project heeft een looptijd van twee jaar en wordt gefinancierd door het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit. Inhoudelijk is het project ondersteunend aan de activiteiten van de Taskforce Multifunctionele Landbouw. De hoofdvraag van het project luidt: Welke factoren zijn van invloed op de dynamiek en robuustheid van multifunctionele landbouw? In dit rapport wordt een eerste aanzet gegeven tot een antwoord op deze hoofdvraag
    Spelen met verbreding : achtergrondinformatie
    Vuijk, M. ; Geerdink, E. ; Visser, A.J. ; Migchels, G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Werkdocument ) - 9
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nevenactiviteiten - diversificatie - relaties tussen stad en platteland - sociaal bewustzijn - multifunctionele landbouw - zorgboerderijen - farm management - ancillary enterprises - diversification - rural urban relations - social consciousness - multifunctional agriculture - social care farms
    Hoe kun je multifunctionele landbouw omschrijven : al die activiteiten die plaatsvinden op of vanuit het agrarisch bedrijf die niet primair met voedselproductie te maken hebben, maar die erop gericht zijn anderen te laten delen in de waarden van het landleven én die waarden te gelde te maken. Het gaat dus om bedrijven waarin een substantieel deel van het inkomen wordt gegenereerd uit meer dan productie: de boer wordt zelf leverancier en gebruikt zijn onderneming als een actieve setting en meewerkend décor voor maatschappelijke diensten. Daarbij gaat het om (verschillende vormen van) zorg, recreatie, educatie, productverwerking en huisverkoop, natuurbeheer, en/of de inzet van het totale bedrijf als vitale schakel in samenlevingsprocessen (stadsboerderij).
    Evaluation of economic and environmental performance of two farm household strategies: diversification and integration : conceptual model en case studies
    Langeveld, J.W.A. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Ruben, R. ; Dixon, J. ; Verhagen, A. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : C.T. de Wit Graduate School for Production Ecology & Resource Conservation (PE&RC) (Quantitative approaches in systems analysis 29) - 114
    bedrijfssystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - hulpbronnenbehoud - systeemanalyse - diversificatie - kringlopen - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - agro-ecosystemen - farming systems - sustainability - resource conservation - systems analysis - diversification - cycling - integrated farming systems - agroecosystems
    Kansen voor beschermde tuinbouw in Saoedi-Arabie en de Verenigde Arabische Emiraten
    Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Maaswinkel, R.H.M. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151776 - 63
    agrarische economie - tuinbouw - kunststoftunnels - teelt onder bescherming - vruchtgroenten - supermarkten - diversificatie - economische ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agro-industriële sector - perzische golfstaten - saoedi-arabië - verenigde arabische emiraten - agricultural economics - horticulture - plastic tunnels - protected cultivation - fruit vegetables - supermarkets - diversification - economic development - sustainability - agroindustrial sector - persian gulf states - saudi arabia - united arab emirates
    Beschermde tuinbouw heeft potentie in de Golfstaten. De overheden streven naar diversificatie van de economie om in de toekomst minder afhankelijk van olie-inkomsten te zijn. De huidige situatie van de keten van beschermde teelten wordt geanalyseerd met Porters diamant. Ontwikkelingsstrategieën voor Saoedi-Arabië en de Verenigde Arabische Emiraten zijn aangeven. Vanuit de perspectieven zijn samenwerkingsmogelijkheden voor Nederland afgeleid.
    Schaalvergroting en verbreding in de Nederlandse landbouw in relatie tot natuur en landschap
    Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Bruchem, C. van; Helming, J.F.M. ; Leneman, H. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : WOT Natuur en Milieu (WOt-rapport 36) - 98
    landgebruik - overheidsbeleid - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - natuurbescherming - landschapsbescherming - diversificatie - landbouwontwikkeling - nederland - natuur - cultuurlandschap - nationale landschappen - multifunctionele landbouw - land use - government policy - farm size - nature conservation - landscape conservation - diversification - agricultural development - netherlands - nature - cultural landscape - national landscapes - multifunctional agriculture
    Dit rapport geeft zicht op de mogelijke veranderingen in de landbouw in de komende ruim tien jaar en de gevolgen ervan voor de natuur en het landschap. Het rapport gaat hierbij uit van twee scenario's voor de landbouw, die zijn geënt op wereldbeelden van het CPB en het RIVM. In de landbouw wordt onder meer de ontwikkeling van het grondgebruik en de structuur van de bedrijven verkend. Schaalvergroting en verbreding, waaronder specifiek het agrarisch natuurbeheer, komen nader aan bod. In het bijzonder wordt aandacht gegeven aan de landbouw in de Nationale Landschappen. Trefwoorden: Langetermijnscenario’s, beleidsvarianten, landbouw, natuur, landschap, schaalvergroting, verbreding, Nationale Landschappen.
    Bedrijfsontwikkeling in zorg en recreatie in de agrarische sector : aspecten rond investeringen en financiering
    Oltmer, K. ; Jager, J.H. ; Uenk, H.C. ; Venema, G.S. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151523 - 51
    agrarische economie - boeren - investering - financiële planning - diversificatie - nevenactiviteiten - kamperen - nederland - ondernemerschap - zorgboerderijen - agricultural economics - farmers - investment - financial planning - diversification - ancillary enterprises - camping - netherlands - entrepreneurship - social care farms
    Het ministerie van LNV wil zicht op het investeringsgedrag en de financieringswijzen van agrarische ondernemers met een verbredingstak. Het onderzoek is gebaseerd op kwantitatieve informatie uit het Bedrijven-Informatienet en interviews met sectordeskundigen. Er is gekeken naar de verbredingstakken zorg en recreatie. Het blijkt dat veel ondernemers nog beperkt zicht hebben op bedrijfseconomische kengetallen, zoals de kostprijs, van de verbrede tak. Investerings- en financieringsbeslissingen op basis van rendement en cashflow zijn daarom moeilijk. The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality wants to get insight into the investment behaviour and finance strategies of farmers who diversify their farm with a secondary activity. The research is based on information from the Dutch FADN and on interviews with experts in the sector. The research focuses on care farms and farms with recreation facilities. It shows that many farmers know little about the economic data, such as the cost price, of the secondary activities. Investment decisions on the basis of returns or cash flow are hence difficult to make.
    Creativity in everyday practice : resources and livelihoods in Nyamira, Kenya
    Ontita, E. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; M. Omosa. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086174 - 356
    rural development - rural sociology - resources - agricultural households - tea - daily living skills - diversification - small farms - kenya - africa - livelihood strategies - plattelandsontwikkeling - rurale sociologie - hulpbronnen - landbouwhuishoudens - thee - dagelijkse vaardigheden - diversificatie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - kenya - afrika - strategieën voor levensonderhoud
    The introductory Chapter raised the intriguing question: "how are we to understand the continued survival and apparent social functioning of rural people amidst officially acknowledged absolute poverty?" The question had a rhetorical function and in seeking to answer it I took the view that rural people construct their livelihoods in ways that are largely invisible to policy makers. This book is about the creativity of ordinary rural people. It seeks to unravel the diverse ways in which such villagers create resources and use them to make their living in a variety of ways and with different results.

    Various theoretical perspectives in the literature can be drawn upon to address the principal question of this study: how do villagers in Nyamira District, mid south-westernKenya, create and use resources to make a living and with what results? The actor-oriented perspective emphasises that actors have agency, that is, the knowledge and capacity to act creatively and strategically. The perspective points towards the notion that villagers create resources through their everyday practices, but does not deal with the specific processes through which this happens. Livelihood approaches stress the centrality of resources, expressed in terms of various 'capitals' to the lives of poor people. The approaches thus emphasise that poor people interact in various ways with resources to make their living. However, they define resources narrowly from a materialist and economics perspective, focusing on issues of (un)availability and (in)accessibility. They do not deal with how resources come into being as social, rather than natural elements, or the roles of actors in such processes. The landscape perspective takes the view that livelihood is co-produced by nature and human action, and that the landscape is co-produced through human actions upon 'nature', undertaken in pursuit of livelihoods. The perspective thus recognises a dialectical relationship between 'nature' and humans. Not all resources, however, are the result of this relationship; furthermore the dynamics on both sides are not fully accounted for. As Urry (2000:138) has shown, the view or appearance of a landscape can deceive. In practice, a landscape is the result of social experience; and includes what has gone into creating it, both the struggles and the cooperation. While the dynamics on the natural side of the equation are largely beyond the scope of this study, I proceeded to consider the socio-cultural context of social action and to 'privilege' creativity in the resource moulding processes. Therefore, this thesis emphasises the creativity involved in the acts of defining and using resources to make a living. Yet, this emphasis recognises the reality of creativity being situational hence, since human agency is not unlimited.     

    Resources are fluid, that is, they unfold and are often transformed by actors. The livelihood - resources nexus in everyday practice implies that material and non-material resources are equally central to making a living. Non-material resources include social relationships, but are also constituted on the basis of those relations. Issues such as identity, self-esteem, intergenerational respect and interdependence are both relational and constitutive of non-material resources. Non-material resources are socio-culturally constructed and differ between 'fields', or contexts of social action (Crossley, 2001: 87). Yet, social actors do not necessarily stick to the 'rules' and 'timelessness' of socio-economic structures; they renegotiate their relations with other individuals by manipulating common understandings about the situations in which they operate (King, 2000: 421). This explains for instance, why 'ghost farmers' silently infiltrated the TBC committee elections to get their supporters elected, pose as helpers or employees of the TBC clerk and buy glasses of tea for farmers from neighbouring kiosks. All this is done to legitimise their 'illegitimate' positions in the buying centres. The shifts and calculations that villagers make around friendships and through gift exchanges in local brew-drinking places is also negotiated on the bases of re-working kin relations and embracing emerging needs in a cash economy based on the consumption of local brew.

    One thread that runs throughout the entire thesis is how villagers rely on social relationships to create and use resources to make their living. This book seeks to describe and explain this process. At the outset the research question is specified and elaborated as being located in a setting that is described in official Kenyan governmental discourse, and within the meaning of development experts, as one of extreme poverty. Chapter1,contrasts this discourse with villagers' socially embedded efforts to create resources for 'commencing life' in terms of marriage and bride price exchange. The setting of the research is elaborated in Chapter 2, which discusses the historical construction of the Nyamira landscape with a view to locating the villagers of Sengeta in it. This is done through available secondary data, which do not provide a complete picture, although they do allow a detailed charting of the spatial setting of the study. Using concepts from the actor-oriented, livelihood and landscape perspectives, the study problem is further amplified in Chapter 3. The main outcome of the discussions in Chapter 3 is that villagers do have a certain restricted, capability to create resources through situated creativity in everyday practice (Long, 1992, 2001; Joas and Kilpinnen, 2006). The methodological process for exploring the study question is provided in Chapter 4. An important aspect of the methodological approach is the emphasis on the extended case study method to capture resource creation and use practices from a historical, social and cultural perspective. This enables me to bring out the variety that exists in the processes through which livelihoods are constructed and to map the various lifestyles people deploy for protecting their livelihoods.

    Chapters 5 and 6 present the findings relating to resource creation and livelihood construction organised around smallholder tea production, which is the dominant economic activity in Nyamira District. The study shows that migrant labour to the tea plantations in the former 'White Highlands' during the colonial period played an important role in the uptake of smallholder tea farming. The remoulding of traditional work parties, risaga helped spread interest in tea, especially among the kin of these 'pioneers'. After taking up tea farming, villagers moulded it in diverse ways in order to make their living, reflecting their preferences and lifestyles and defying the formal view of tea as a government dominated resource. An important finding is how tea earnings percolate into and support social networks through local brew drinking, church, cultural ceremonies, gift exchanges, labour exchanges and rites. Some villagers have successfully moulded tea and tea earnings into accumulation in land, cattle and children's education, leading to what they describe as 'successful lives'. Others have moulded their tea into entertainment in local brew and related consumption leading to low accumulation in children's education and eventually to what they refer to as 'not so successful lives'. From the villagers' perspective the success or failure of livelihood is socially embedded. For example, a patriarch evaluates his life together with those of his entire family, including grown up and married children, especially sons. If the children are comfortable, respectful and supportive to the parents, then the livelihood of the patriarch is successful, and vice versa. This extends the meaning of livelihood beyond material wellbeing to include symbolic and social capitals like good social relationships, intergenerational harmony, identity and self-esteem. These non-material livelihood preferences imply that sharing of resources is crucial to livelihood pursuits and actors' evaluations of their success.

    Beyond the tea farm, villagers face a variety of problems that present new opportunities for resource creation and livelihood construction. The overzealous enforcement of leaf quality by the KTDA tea buying centre clerks, and their practice of cheating farmers on the weight of their tea leaf has turned farmers towards alternative markets ( soko huru) for their leaf. The soko huru has two implications for resource creation and livelihood construction. First, as adherence to quality is not so important in soko huru, it provides an opportunity for villagers to recreate value in poor quality leaf resulting from weather conditions such as drought or hailstones. Soko huru also allows villagers to mould their tea leaf into cash earnings on a daily basis if they choose; unlike the regular KTDA buyers who pay only once a month. This allows villagers to run their lives in different, hitherto unthought-of, ways. Second, soko huru has created an opportunity for village scouts who mobilise people to sell their tea leaf in that alternative market. The village scout mobilises farmers to support his claim for commissions from the soko huru dealers and has thus relied on his social ties with other villagers to create a resource in the form of commissions. Villagers embraced soko huru in an off and on fashion to resist those who wiled power in the regular market and in to moderate their relations with them in some way. The tea buying centre clerks' practice of cheating farmers on their tea leaf weight is linked to the phenomenon of mashabiki; the clerks' handlers who also 'purchase kilograms stolen' from farmers. Some of the mashabiki do not grow any tea and are 'ghost farmers' who have falsified farmer registration in the tea buying centre. Other mashabiki are tea growers but still 'buy stolen kilograms'. The mashabiki phenomenon envelops and enables 'ghost farmers' to create resources in tea and make a living from it, even if they are actually not tea farmers. In the same way, the tea buying centre clerks have transformed their work situations into sites for theft and have shown ingenuity in creating new resources that help form the basis of their livelihoods. Non-ghost farmer mashabiki rely on reworking their social relationships with tea buying centre clerks to secure more kilograms and a higher income. Irrespective of outsiders' possible moral appraisal of the corruption involved these processes are all based on relationships of trust and secrecy and require close-knit social ties. These findings show that the governance of smallholder tea and the tea sub-sector in general is weak and could be strengthened.

    Another important issue is deagrarianisation, which is covered in Chapter 7. It is clear from the case material that villagers disengage with farming from time totime,and for a variety of reasons. Yet, from an actor-oriented perspective this process is by no means unilinear, villagers also return to agriculture at different times in their life course. The persistent return to agriculture even when land is becoming scarce can be explained in terms of socio-cultural dispositions and socialisation, the prevailing agricultural landscape and economic difficulties in urban areas. Deagrarianisation is the result of intra- and inter-household dynamics including land scarcity and disputes, aging and inheritance, and emigration. During deagrarianisation episodes, villagers create resources through formal and informal employment in urban and rural areas. In rural areas local brew production and salesarean important avenue for resource creation and making a living. In some instances, this becomes a full time job and a basis for temporary deagrarianisation. Social relationships are central in villagers' efforts to secure formal and informal jobs in and outside the villages and in running local brew businesses. Yet deagrarianisation does not proceed unhindered. It is checked by actor initiatives and resistance, and people re-enter farming even under difficult circumstances. This evidence challenges conventional views about the linear nature of deagrarianisation. It shows instead that people move in and out of agriculture as they rework their contexts and re-orient their capabilities and opportunities in diverse ways.

    This brings us to the question of how villagers combine farming with other activities to make a living, which is dealt with in Chapter 8. It is recognised that in trying to diversify, villagers are seeking new or additional opportunities to create resources and make a living. Therefore, the various forms of diversification are identified, described and explained. The discussion departs from conventional analyses of diversification such as Ellis' (2000) because the cases show that diversification is a historical process and that actors work and rework resources differently, transforming the diversification process itself. The forms of diversification discussed result from villagers moulding opportunities in new ways to create resources. For instance, villagers exchange resources through kinship, friendship and gift giving thereby creating and maintaining relationships on the basis of which additional resources are created. Bride-price exchange creates a host of other exchange processes that extend over many generations. Labour exchange has found mixed anchorages in kinship and cash economies. Formal employment and remittances provide another form of diversification. Remittances often generate social forces that transform the landscape and engender further diversification by providing employment opportunities for some people in emerging activities such as dairy farming andnapiergrass sales. Trading by the road-side, in kiosks and in open-air markets is another form of diversification. Although this is a historical phenomenon, the range of goods and services involved has changed over time, in response to changing lifestyles and local needs. Local brew production is also, in some instances, combined with agriculture to make a living. This is a negotiated form as it is 'illegal' but bribery and the cultural veil and discourse thrown around it ensures its continued existence. A final form of diversification is crafts, ballast and brick making. Crafts mainly include basket making and thatching houses. These involve approaching familiar phenomena in new ways such as weaving baskets for carrying tea leaf and making them with splitnapiercanes as opposed to sticks that have disappeared with the forests. This illustrates how livelihood diversification is a socially constructed historical process, as the forms of diversification themselves transform through time.

    Livelihoods can be (re)constructed and consolidated in different ways. So, how do villagers protect their livelihoods? How do they search for social security in everyday life? These issues are discussed in Chapter 9, which deploys the concept of lifestyle to characterise the various ways in which villagers protect their livelihoods. The lifestyles presented are analytical representations of observed everyday practices in Sengeta. Several lifestyles are distinguished. The first is the accumulators' lifestyle where people strive to accumulate through land, cattle and children's education, and invest in social relationships - both ecclesiastical and secular. When faced with difficulties they first attempt to resolve them on their own before involving relatives and friends. Their accumulation gives them room for manoeuvre in protecting their livelihoods. If they fail to protect them effectively, they fall into a lifestyle on the edge, where accumulation has largely failed and investment in social relationships is weakened, although they still benefit from relationships in sustaining their livelihoods. This lifestyle is defined by the reality or possibility of experiencing intergenerational conflict over resources. A villager may slip into a lifestyle in the shadows, in which livelihood is protected largely through 'invisible activities' such as leasing out land and/or tea, and tenant keeping. Social relationships are highly crucial in this lifestyle for locating 'customers' and maintaining relationships of trust that sustain livelihood protection. Villagers in this lifestyle invest in social and symbolic capital. The grey lifestyle may beckon those who fail to protect a livelihood in the lifestyle of the shadows. In this lifestyle the main activities are crime such as theft and corruption, and the production and/or sale of local brew and marijuana. Here social relationships are crucial, but are sometimes ignored. Finally, there is the opportunistic dependency lifestyle. In this lifestyle villagers invest less in social relationships but emphasise them to get quick cash, by doing piece work for short periods of time before disappearing back to local brew drinking places. These people, who are mainly nyakenywa, are usually by the roadsides and to a casual observer they may pass for idlers, but they are usually hawk-eyed for opportunities to protect their livelihoods. The opportunities include a cash handout from a relative or a friend or some brief piecework like giving directions to a stranger. Such people often operate on the margins by choice, because of the primacy they attach to local brew consumption. Overall the analysis shows how villagers continually struggle to construct their livelihoods and do so with mixed results, they move in and out of these lifestyles through both negative and positive linkages.

    Analysis of the ways in which villagers differently create resources in these cases leads to the conclusion that their creativity is socially, culturally and economically situated. This means that some structural conditions are impenetrable and any creativity eventually meet a dead end. Such tensions between agency and structure are discussed in Chapter 10, which presents fluctuations in natural and economic environments as restricting creativity in some instances, while in others enhancing people's room for manoeuvre in their endeavours to create resources and make a living. For instance when trees are scarce and there are no sticks for weaving baskets, demand for the baskets from the smallholder tea sub-sector provides opportunities for weaving baskets usingnapiergrass canes.

    Resource Creation, Livelihood and Lifestyle: Some Reflections

    This study has shown that villagers create or mould resources through creative everyday practices. They do this by naming and renaming phenomena and in the process they endow them with new or additional meanings and uses. This process is socially embedded and hinges on the quality of social relationships that villagers enlist from within, and beyond, their households. As a socially constructed process, it implies co-creation in league with others in an interactive process. This study extends the notion of co-creation to include creation in league with 'nature', with other individuals, with groups or institutions (such as markets or state agencies). This is clear in the example of poor quality tea leaf being transformed into a resource through collective action by farmers, village scouts and soko huru dealers and networks, a practice which only emerged in the context of policy liberalisation, which threw up opportunities for the emergence of multiple tea markets.

    Co-creation of resources also leads to livelihoods being a shared undertaking and process. In using the resources created, villagers emphasise sharing with each other in diverse arenas, including family, church, drinking place, ceremonies and rites. Livelihood cannot then be separated from social life including the relationships that peoplebuild,how they spend their time after work and, indeed, their sense of belonging, and autonomy. Sharing constitutes a form of identity affirmation and is a central theme in resource creation and making a living. The striking importance attached to a sense of belonging and acceptance within the extended family and locality, which 'makes one feel alive' is arguably as, or perhaps even more, important than putting food on the table (Wallman, 1984). Therefore, struggles in rural life are arguably motivated both by material and non-material satisfaction.  

    This brings us to the realisation that resource creation and livelihood construction are like two sides of the same coin (cf. Wartena, 2006: 76). How can the linkage between the two be understood? The concept of lifestyle as conceived in Chapter 3 and developed in subsequent chapters provides this link. Lifestyle connotes an actor's preferences, disposition, identity, primary resource creation and use processes, social relationships, and use of time and information. These concepts have been weaved into the discussion throughout the thesis and were expounded in detail in Chapters 9 and 10. Throughout, the concept of lifestyle has been used to represent the social constructions around which villagers secure their livelihoods and struggle to avoid disruptions. Lifestyle therefore embodies creativity in terms of showing what villagers do to remain afloat in their circumstances, in other words how they live everyday. Lifestyle also implies the constraints of creativity because it also represents what emerges from negotiations and struggles with 'environments' in, for example, the context of actor preferences, dispositions and identity. This concept of lifestyle resonates well with Bourdieu's (1990) habitus , which represents creativity as tied to the specific socio-cultural fields that an actor engages with (Dalton, 2004: 613). For instance, villagers in Nyamira evaluate their livelihoods in terms of intergenerational respectability and support. Resource creation and livelihood construction need to be understood in the context in which they take place.

    In Nyamira livelihood diversification involves many clashes with the state. These include practices around local brew production and sales, market rates and business permits. This shows how the livelihood directions pursued by villagers in Nyamira are constrained by wider policies. The conventional policy discourse that local brew is 'illegal' needs to be reconciled to the reality that local brew has been an important arena for resource creation and livelihood construction in Nyamira for a long period of time (cf. Orvis, 1997). Local efforts at livelihood protection reflect the nature of relations between villagers and the state and with other actors in diverse sites beyond their villages. These efforts are largely informal and socially constructed within extended family and clan/ neighbourhood circles. The conventional belief that African rural society provides adequate social security through informal socio-cultural arrangements is misplaced. The extended family system is under strain especially due to increased family nucleation and migration. However, people continue to struggle to anchor onto social relationships through which they can construct and protect livelihoods; and to creatively coin social arrangements to take care of them from cradle to grave. The retreat to social relationships as a basis for resource creation and livelihood construction amidst 'wider development discourses and practices' implies that the social embeddedness of livelihoods, are not a remnant of 'village ethics' but the result of villagers' interactions with the external environments, including the state (Schrauwers, 1999: 105-107). A case in point was the emergence of many sorts of savings clubs [merry-go-rounds] in the 1990s, in response to the introduction of charges for education and health and the collapse of farmers' cooperative societies due to SAPs. These merry-go-round clubs constitute strategies for creating additional resources and securing livelihoods that are based on existing, intergenerational, relations of trust.

    Creativity in social relationships also faces an institutional challenge. For instance cyclical deagrarianisation is based on widespread and continuous attachment to the land. This is largely the result of socialisation about ancestral land as 'home', from a socio-cultural and physical security perspective that has become more deeply entrenched in response to the nationwide land politics of the 1990s (Abdullahi, 1997; Cohen and Odhiambo, 1992). This notwithstanding the movement towards non-farm activities and migration to other places also reflects local land scarcity. Therefore institutional and natural factors are both constraints that put creativity under pressure and demonstrate that human agency is not unlimited. Counter-tendencies such as 'ghost farmers' indicate that the institutional leash on creativity can often be overcome through intuitive and unconventional practices. The location of these counter-tendencies inter alia in the smallholder tea sector, the brainchild of the Kenyan government, which has historically maintained a watch over it, indicate a disconnection of governance (Due, 1969; Steeves, 1978; Nyangito, 2000 and Gitu, 2004). These governance problems have permitted the emergence of 'ghost farmers' and soko huru and this emergenceimpliesthat there is much competition over tea, which is an important resource for livelihood construction. This leads some people to create livelihoods at the expense of others as checks and balances in the sub-sector have weakened. At the same time the quick income from emergent markets, like soko huru, facilitates the maintenance of viable everyday livelihoods and moves tea farming beyond entrepreneurship to a form of 'reinvented moral economy', in which people often do not seek the highest returns in an economic sense (Schrauwers, 1999: 107). Overall the results of this study indicate a continuous tension between agency and structure in everyday life and that neither aspect should be over-emphasised. Long's (2001: 16) contention that actors have the capacity to process their social experiences and to devise ways of coping with life, even under the most extreme forms of coercion, extends the role of agency in social action beyond realistic limits. While it is true that actors do survive even under conditions of extreme coercion, this survival should be understood as dynamic, resulting from the interaction of many factors, and not simply driven by agency. A look at the soko huru phenomenon shows that it results partly from actor ingenuities and partly from institutional changes (in terms of liberalisation policies in the tea sub-sector). Soko huru enables farmers to negotiate with the KTDA from a position of strength, to secure attention and seek to shift the balance of power in tea markets. Markets, like other institutions, are socially constructed and continually reworked to create space for moulding resources, providing diverse opportunities for making and protecting livelihoods. Engaging with such actor - structure tensions with an open mind, enables us to illuminate the multiple dimensions of problems, instead of focusing on and privileging one angle at the expense of another.

    Complexity, Uncertainty and the Future

    Reality in rural areas such as Nyamira is in constant flux. That fluidity is partly a result of complex and often 'invisible' rural livelihoods, knowledge, policies and governance that are all trapped in uncertainty. Uncertainty 'describes a situation where 'we don't know what we don't know' (Mehta, et al, 2001: 2). Given the findings of this study, that villagers create and co-create resources and use them to make their living in diverse ways, how do we deal with the conventional wisdom and 'official discourse' organised around powerlessness, inaccessibility, laziness, passivity and unavailability that is used to depict the poor and their circumstances? The findings confirm that social life is always provisional and continually being worked and reworked. In a sense, this means that making a living is like tending a garden, it remains unfinished business, a continuous process. Creativity sometimes leads to unintended consequences or unexpected happenings. In other words, life is not linear and predictable; rather it continually unfolds through actors' situated creativity and its futures and outcomes are less than certain. This confirms uncertainty as the "reality of living in an emergent world, where every moment gives birth to new possibilities and new categories, where existing items constantly create, dissolve and reconfigure themselves, meshing with others to make new entities and new classes of things"(Rocheleau, 2001: 86). This all occurs through and within socially embedded processes. Therefore, knowledge and learning about the rural poor needs to be recast in a process of iteration that privileges the everyday experiences of rural people and positions their actions in ensuing negotiations of expertises - both scientific and lay (Scoones, 1999). This process constitutes and simultaneously gives rise to a 'pro-poor science' that values and supports poor people's preferences, aspirations and initiatives (Kaimowitz, 2002). This science begins with poor people's creativity and should form the basis for formulating and implementing policies that are relevant, legitimate and relate to the multiple realities of poor people. This challenges conventional notions of and approaches to planning. It suggests that blueprint planning is particularly misplaced. One alternative forward is indicative planning that is anticipatory, flexible and responsive to changing realities, and the multiple activities that constitute livelihoods.

    Implications for policy

    Chapter 1 began with a litany of policy statements about absolute poverty and its causes. The rural poor, counted as every seven in ten people (67 percent) in Nyamira District, are depicted as incapable of accessing food, shelter, clothing, health and education. I have shown in this study that in making a living, villagers attempt to meet such needs and many others (such as 'proper' marriage, identity, self-esteem and intergenerational support) by themselves. In pursuing these goals villagers mould resources in diverse ways through creative everyday practice and use them to meet their objectives to their satisfaction. This implies that some rural people are poor only in terms of the way development experts define them. The expert definition and the attribution of poverty need to be revisited so as to include actor attributes and especially to deconstruct the official Kenyan view that the poor are lazy. This view appears to follow logically from the flawed notion of resources as being material, available or unavailable, accessible or inaccessible: a view that depicts resources as 'already processed' and static. This is paternalistic and ignores poor people's creativity and capabilities to process and negotiate reality.

    I have shown that the policy environment in the smallholder tea industry is weak, allowing a lack of checks and balances that leads to 'theft of tea' at the tea buying centre, and the unruly tea market, soko huru . The governance and regulatory structures in the sector require reinvigorating and strengthening especially the rolesof theTBK and KUSSTO. Activities based on the presumed shrinking role of agriculture in rural economies should prepare to contend with the socio-cultural and landscape dominance of agriculture in those areas. Promotion of rural non-farm employment (RNFE) programmes should recognise this, and take it into account. It also means that such programmes should recognise the constraints that exist within the policy environment in which important small-scale rural traders, such as cattle traders, butchers, kiosk operators and local brew producers and sellers operate. Finally, the assumed social security of the elderly within extended families is crumbling. Land laws recognise the holder of a property title as the legitimate owner for as long as they live and do not relinquish those rights. This uncovers the difficult practical problem of what happens to a patriarch's grown-up children who may have families and no other means of making a living except a claim on their father's insufficient land. If they take up the land how does the patriarch or matriarch make a living? Intergenerational conflict over resources increasingly threatens to displace the elderly inKenya's rural areas where unemployment is the rule, and employment the exception. These complex and continually changing contexts and processes of resource creation and livelihood construction imply that rural development policy needs to be more adaptive. In particular, it should be less prescriptive, because of the uncertainty that surrounds everyday living, leaving experts with a misguided and incomplete comprehension of these happenings.  

    From commencing life to everyday practice

    I started this book by explaining how marriage presents a highly challenging time for many Abagusii villagers and represents the actual commencement of life, through the search for resources in the form of cattle for bride-price. This takes villagers in many different directions including migration to find work and income to finance emerging needs. Over time more people have had to 'marry' before they obtain the resources to pay the bride-price. This reflects the changing circumstances of life in Nyamira. Whether they commence life and marriage through payment of bride-price or they postpone it (which, as shown in chapter 9, is becoming increasingly common), villagers set off in life along any one of five observable lifestyles, which provide the basis on which they attempt to secure their livelihoods in diverse ways. Everyday life is a struggle to defend resource creation and use opportunities in particular lifestyles and to rework circumstances into improved prospects for the future or to move into other preferred lifestyles. The struggles in everyday life also proceed on the basis of social relationships and resource sharing, which depend on peoples' socio-cultural and historical orientations, and local and macro level dynamics. Personal preferences, disposition and experience interact with agency in dynamic ways to shape movements between lifestyles that can be used to represent and profile villagers' everyday practices.

    In Chapter 4, I indicated my implication in the study, having been born and raised in Nyamira. I am therefore a product of ordinary villagers' motions, from commencing life at marriage through bride-price exchange to struggles in everyday life to invest in tea growing and children's education. The education of children and their possible formal employment constitute important ladders out of poverty. My father commenced life and marriage using his sister's bride-price in the early 1940s. Thereafter he teamed up with one of his brothers to acquire a plough and a pair of trained oxen. Working in turns between their fields in wider work groups, he produced maize for the market and by 1963 had enough money to secure tea stumps for planting, his friendship with a tea extension officer enabling him to plant over three thousand stumps at once. Using tea earnings, he invested in his c hildren's education, bought more land in the village and in the former White Highlands, engaged in dairy farming, retail trade and participated in several self-help groups. I had the opportunity of growing up on a mixed farm organised around tea; plucking tea during weekends and school holidays. In those days there were no 'ghost farmers', mashabiki or soko huru . The TBC clerk was less influential because quality control was mostly done in the farms by the patriarchs and matriarchs who, being first generation tea growers, wielded unquestionable power in the farms. In a sense I have seen tea farming unfold in Nyamira over the past three decades and in the process, my parents used me as 'free' family labour, invested in my education and eventually look up to me to support them in their old age. My father contributed cattle for my marriage as he did for all his other sons. In retrospect, I can see that he did this partly to redirect our sisters' bride price to our marriages and to weave a relationship between us and our sisters, but also to bind our commencement of life to his magnanimity to strengthen our loyalty to him. It is tea earnings that enabled him to do this and to disperse his sons to the former 'White Highlands', while he remained at home with most of his tea and sufficient room for manoeuvre in his old age. When family land was being shared out for inheritance I was in Wageningen and only participated in the family meeting through a cell phone connection. I was allocated land and tea; although to date I am not a registered tea farmer! I have brought some of these experiences of my life in Nyamira and in tea farming in particular to bear on this study. The changes that have taken place in the smallholder tea sub-sector are better understood in the context of economic change and liberalisation, family nucleation, land scarcity and even the political democratisation that informs the struggles between the KTDA and farmers. But farmers' choices on how to sustain or improve their various lifestyles and what resources to use in doing this cannot be fully understood if we do not include the everyday relevance of creating and recreating the social relationships as resources for actively participating in these struggles.

    Handboek agrarische arrangementen
    Top, W. van den; Werkhoven, C. van; LEI, - \ 2006
    Den Haag [etc.] : LEI [etc.] - 48
    plattelandstoerisme - boerderijtoerisme - diversificatie - kwaliteitsnormen - recreatie op het platteland - bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - belevingswaarde - rural tourism - farm tourism - diversification - quality standards - rural recreation - management - entrepreneurship - experiential value
    Verbreding onder de loep : potenties van verbreding
    Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Munneke, F.J. ; Braker, M.J.E. - \ 2006
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport / PPO-AGV 357) - 33
    landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - diversificatie - boerderijtoerisme - alternatieve landbouw - innovaties - onderzoek - multifunctionele landbouw - agriculture - farming systems - diversification - farm tourism - alternative farming - innovations - research - multifunctional agriculture
    Dit rapport is het resultaat van een verkennende studie in opdracht van het Ministerie van LNV. Hierin is aandacht besteed aan de potenties van multifunctionele landbouw met nadruk op zorglandbouw, recreatie en educatie, en productverwerking en huisverkoop
    'Multifunctionele landbouw heeft wel degelijk potentie in ons land'
    Dubbeldam, R. - \ 2006
    Syscope Magazine (2006)10. - p. 3 - 4.
    bedrijfssystemenonderzoek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - nevenactiviteiten - innovaties - ondernemerschap - diversificatie - systeeminnovatie - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - multifunctionele landbouw - farming systems research - farm management - ancillary enterprises - innovations - entrepreneurship - diversification - system innovation - integrated farming systems - multifunctional agriculture
    Het ministerie van LNV kent een grote waarde toe aan multifunctionele landbouw. Maar de ondernemers moeten het zelf tot een succes maken. De taak van het ministerie is vooral ruimte geven. Dit zei Annemie Burger als directeur Landbouw tijdens de slotbijeenkomst van het onderzoeksprogramma Systeeminnovatie multifunctionele bedrijfssystemen, op landgoed De Olmenhorst in Lisserbroek.
    Assessing and modelling farmers' decision-making on integrating aquaculture into agriculture in the Mekong Delta
    Bosma, R.H. ; Thanh Phong, Le; Kaymak, U. ; Berg, J. van den; Udo, H.M.J. ; Mensvoort, M.E.F. van; Quang Tri, Le - \ 2006
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 53 (2006)3/4. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 281 - 300.
    diversificatie - bedrijfssystemen - visteelt - visserij - bedrijfsvoering - besluitvorming - modellen - vietnam - landgebruik - wetlands - agro-ecologie - diversification - farming systems - land use - wetlands - fish culture - fisheries - management - decision making - models - vietnam - agroecology
    Contrary to the global trend of specialization within agriculture, the rice-based Vietnamese production systems have diversified into integrated agriculture¿aquaculture systems. Economic liberalization in 1986 resulted in an explosive increase in rice production and a rapid diversification. This paper describes the history and dynamics of these systems in the Mekong Delta, and the farmers¿ decisionmaking in this process. Subsequently, we use fuzzy logic to simulate farmers¿ decisions to opt for no aquaculture or one of four fish-production systems: waste-fed, pellet-fed, rice¿fish, and ditch¿dike, i.e., fish¿fruit. In a reaction to changing market opportunities the farmers developed these systems either from the depressions left after building a homestead or after raising dikes to improve irrigation and drainage for rice and fruit trees. The decision-making was simulated in a two-level hierarchy decisiontree. The first layer handles the farmer¿s production preferences for rice, fruit or fish, with composed variables for land, water, labour, capital and market. The second layer simulates the choice between five options: no fish, and the four alternative fish-production systems. The model allowed a farmer to practise different aquaculture systems at the same time. The fuzzy model simulation predicted the frequency distribution of fish production systems fairly accurately, but performed poorly when classifying individual farmers. To improve the accuracy of the simulation, additional rules can be specified and more factors considered for each product by adding a third layer to the decision-tree and replacing the composed variables with fuzzy rules
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