Rein sensor leash tension measurements in owner-dog dyads navigating a course with distractions
Rombout van Herwijnen, Ineke ; Borg, Joanne van der; Naguib, Marc ; Beerda, Bonne - \ 2020
Journal of Veterinary Behavior 35 (2020). - ISSN 1558-7878 - p. 45 - 46.
dog - dog-owner relationship - leash pressure - rein sensor
Consistent owner-dog interaction patterns such as dog-directed parenting styles could reflect in the leash tension applied when walking a dog. Rein sensors are commonly used to measure tension applied to a horse's bit and our research aim was to evaluate the performance of this methodology for measuring leash tension. We evaluated the consistency of leash tension measurements in owner-dog dyads walking a food-distraction course and a more complex zigzag object-distraction course to confirm our prediction that the more challenging course would trigger increased leash tension. Leash tension sample points were averaged per owner-dog dyad per course, and we used restricted maximum likelihood to analyze leash tensions for effects of course difficulty and dog body weight. In 24 participating owner-dog dyads, leash tension was an average (±standard deviation) 18.29 ± 14.03 newtons. Leash tensions were 1.6 times higher (P < 0.001) during the more challenging second course than during the easier first one and variation between owner-dog dyads was consistent across the two courses (rank correlation of 0.63, P = 0.001, N = 24). Our findings support the usefulness of rein sensors for measuring leash tension, with potential applications in studies on the owner-dog relationship such as how leash exerted levels of control relate to dog-directed parenting styles.
In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type
Zelst, M. van; Hesta, M. ; Alexander, L.G. ; Gray, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Laing, G. Du; Meulenaer, B. de; Goethals, K. ; Janssens, G. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1888 - 1894.
nutrient digestion - organic selenium - bioavailability - absorption - dog - bioaccessibility - selenomethionine - metabolism - prediction - fiber
Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (P<0·001). Canned and steamed meat diets had a lower Se Aiv than pelleted and raw meat diets. Se Aiv correlated positively with CP digestibility in extruded diets (kibbles, n 19; r 0·540, P =0·017) and negatively in canned diets (n 16; r - 0·611, P =0·012). Moreover, the canning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.
The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries
Haubenhofer, D.K. ; Elings, M. ; Hassink, J. ; Hine, R.E. - \ 2010
Explore : the Journal of Science & Healing 6 (2010)2. - ISSN 1550-8307 - p. 106 - 111.
animal-assisted therapy - one-year survival - health - exercise - dog
This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different sectors of green care intervention that vary from each other regarding their structure, specific goals, and purpose. These traits will be investigated in this review. And lastly, how these interventions are designed and their approach to promote and provide health will be examined.