Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Early life microbial colonization of the gut and intestinal development differ between genetically divergent broiler lines
    Schokker, D. ; Veninga, G. ; Vastenhouw, S.A. ; Bossers, A. ; Bree, F.M. de; Kaal-Lansbergen, L.M.T.E. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2015
    BMC Genomics 16 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2164
    salmonella-enteritidis colonization - innate immune responsiveness - pro-inflammatory cytokine - barrier function - gastrointestinal-tract - epithelial-cells - host genotype - double-blind - chickens - resistance
    Host genetic makeup plays a role in early gut microbial colonization and immune programming. Interactions between gut microbiota and host cells of the mucosal layer are of paramount importance for a proper development of host defence mechanisms. For different livestock species, it has already been shown that particular genotypes have increased susceptibilities towards disease causing pathogens. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of genotypic variation on both early microbial colonization of the gut and functional development of intestinal tissue. From two genetically diverse chicken lines intestinal content samples were taken for microbiota analyses and intestinal tissue samples were extracted for gene expression analyses, both at three subsequent time-points (days 0, 4, and 16).
    Gut Microbiota Signatures Predict Host and Microbiota Responses to Dietary Interventions in Obese Individuals
    Korpela, K. ; Flint, H.J. ; Johnstone, A.M. ; Lappi, J. ; Poutanen, K. ; Dewulf, E. ; Delzenne, N. ; Vos, W.M. de; Salonen, A. - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
    dna-extraction methods - intestinal microbiota - metabolic syndrome - species response - resistant starch - healthy humans - double-blind - weight-loss - human colon - differentiate
    Background Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host. Methodology Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set – test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters. Principal Findings Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC = 0.77–1; predicted vs. observed correlation = 0.67–0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health. Conclusion This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of microbiota signatures for personalized nutrition.
    Results of 2-year vitamin B treatment on cognitive performance
    Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Wijngaarden, J.P. van; Brouwer, E.M. ; Rest, O. van de; Veld, P.H. in 't; Enneman, A.W. ; Dijk, S.C. van; Ham, A.C. ; Swart, K.M.A. ; Velde, N. van der; Schoor, N.M. van; Cammen, T.J.M. van der; Uitterlinden, A.G. ; Lips, P. ; Kessels, R.P.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
    Neurology 83 (2014)23. - ISSN 0028-3878 - p. 2158 - 2166.
    folic-acid supplementation - randomized controlled-trial - placebo-controlled trial - alzheimers-disease - elderly-patients - double-blind - homocysteine - metaanalysis - impairment - folate
    Objective: We investigated the effects of 2-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on cognitive performance in elderly people with elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 2,919 elderly participants (65 years and older) with Hcy levels between 12 and 50 µmol/L. Participants received daily either a tablet with 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12 (B-vitamin group) or a placebo tablet. Both tablets contained 15 µg vitamin D3. Data were available for global cognitive functioning assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (n = 2,556), episodic memory (n = 2,467), attention and working memory (n = 759), information processing speed (n = 731), and executive function (n = 721). Results: Mean age was 74.1 (SD 6.5) years. Hcy concentrations decreased 5.0 (95% confidence interval -5.3 to -4.7) µmol/L in the B-vitamin group and 1.3 (-1.6 to -0.9) µmol/L in the placebo group. Cognitive domain scores did not differ over time between the 2 groups, as determined by analysis of covariance. Mini-Mental State Examination score decreased with 0.1 (-0.2 to 0.0) in the B-vitamin group and 0.3 (-0.4 to -0.2) in the placebo group (p = 0.05), as determined by an independent t test. Conclusions: Two-year folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation did not beneficially affect performance on 4 cognitive domains in elderly people with elevated Hcy levels. It may slightly slow the rate of decline of global cognition, but the reported small difference may be attributable to chance. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that 2-year supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 in hyperhomocysteinemic elderly people does not affect cognitive performance.
    Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease
    Nylund, L. ; Satokari, R.M. ; Salminen, S. ; Vos, W.M. de - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 73 (2014)4. - ISSN 0029-6651 - p. 457 - 469.
    human-milk oligosaccharides - placebo-controlled trial - pediatric celiac-disease - infant gut microbiota - formula-fed infants - full-term infants - fecal microbiota - atopic eczema - breast-milk - double-blind
    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.
    The effect of a six-month resistance-type exercise training program on the course of high sensitive cardiac troponin T levels in (pre)frail elderly
    Linden, N. van der; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Klinkenberg, L.J.J. ; Verdijk, L. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van; Dieijen-Visser, M.P. ; Meex, S.J.R. - \ 2014
    International Journal of Cardiology 175 (2014)2. - ISSN 0167-5273 - p. 374 - 375.
    placebo-controlled trial - older-adults - double-blind - biomarkers - frailty - stress - people
    Effects of homocysteine lowering with B vitamins on cognitive aging; meta-analysis of 11 trials with cognitive data on 22,000 individuals
    Clarke, R. ; Bennett, D. ; Parish, S. ; Eussen, S.J.P.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 657 - 666.
    randomized controlled-trial - folic-acid supplementation - placebo-controlled trial - alzheimers-disease - older-adults - cardiovascular-disease - plasma homocysteine - stroke prevention - vascular-disease - double-blind
    Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease, but the relevance of homocysteine lowering to slow the rate of cognitive aging is uncertain. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of treatment with B vitamins compared with placebo, when administered for several years, on composite domains of cognitive function, global cognitive function, and cognitive aging. Design: A meta-analysis was conducted by using data combined from 11 large trials in 22,000 participants. Domain-based z scores (for memory, speed, and executive function and a domain-composite score for global cognitive function) were available before and after treatment (mean duration: 2.3 y) in the 4 cognitive-domain trials (1340 individuals); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)–type tests were available at the end of treatment (mean duration: 5 y) in the 7 global cognition trials (20,431 individuals). Results: The domain-composite and MMSE-type global cognitive function z scores both decreased with age (mean ± SE: -0.054 ± 0.004 and -0.036 ± 0.001/y, respectively). Allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine concentrations by 28% in the cognitive-domain trials but had no significant effects on the z score differences from baseline for individual domains or for global cognitive function (z score difference: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.06). Likewise, allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine by 26% in the global cognition trials but also had no significant effect on end-treatment MMSE-type global cognitive function (z score difference: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.02). Overall, the effect of a 25% reduction in homocysteine equated to 0.02 y (95% CI: -0.10, 0.13 y) of cognitive aging per year and excluded reductions of >1 mo per year of treatment. Conclusion: Homocysteine lowering by using B vitamins had no significant effect on individual cognitive domains or global cognitive function or on cognitive aging.
    IgG antibodies in food allergy influence allergen-antibody complex formation and binding to B cells: a role for complement receptors
    Meulenbroek, L.A. ; Jong, R.J. ; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Monsuur, H.N. ; Wouters, D. ; Nauta, A. ; Knippels, L.M. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Ruiter, B. ; Leusen, J.H. ; Hack, C.E. ; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A. ; Knulst, A.C. ; Garssen, J. ; Hoffen, E. van - \ 2013
    The Journal of Immunology 191 (2013)7. - ISSN 0022-1767 - p. 3526 - 3533.
    immune-responses - antigen presentation - blocking antibodies - natural antibody - peanut allergy - double-blind - fc regions - t-cells - activation - inhibition
    Allergen-IgE complexes are more efficiently internalized and presented by B cells than allergens alone. It has been suggested that IgG Abs induced by immunotherapy inhibit these processes. Food-allergic patients have high allergen-specific IgG levels. However, the role of these Abs in complex formation and binding to B cells is unknown. To investigate this, we incubated sera of peanut- or cow's milk-allergic patients with their major allergens to form complexes and added them to EBV-transformed or peripheral blood B cells (PBBCs). Samples of birch pollen-allergic patients were used as control. Complex binding to B cells in presence or absence of blocking Abs to CD23, CD32, complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35), and/or CR2 (CD21) was determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, intact and IgG-depleted sera were compared. These experiments showed that allergen-Ab complexes formed in birch pollen, as well as food allergy, contained IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 Abs and bound to B cells. Binding of these complexes to EBV-transformed B cells was completely mediated by CD23, whereas binding to PBBCs was dependent on both CD23 and CR2. This reflected differential receptor expression. Upon IgG depletion, allergen-Ab complexes bound to PBBCs exclusively via CD23. These data indicated that IgG Abs are involved in complex formation. The presence of IgG in allergen-IgE complexes results in binding to B cells via CR2 in addition to CD23. The binding to both CR2 and CD23 may affect Ag processing and presentation, and (may) thereby influence the allergic response.
    Hepatocyte caspase-8 is an essential modulator of steatohepatitis in rodents
    Hatting, M. ; Zhao, G. ; Schumacher, F. ; Sellge, G. ; Masaoudi, M. Al; Gaßler, N. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Müller, M.R. ; Liedtke, C. ; Cubero, F.J. ; Trautwein, C. - \ 2013
    Hepatology 57 (2013)6. - ISSN 0270-9139 - p. 2189 - 2201.
    fatty liver-disease - attenuates hepatic-injury - duct ligated mouse - nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - insulin-resistance - double-blind - inflammation - fibrosis - mice - steatosis
    In human and murine models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), increased hepatocyte apoptosis is a critical mechanism contributing to inflammation and fibrogenesis. Caspase 8 (Casp8) is essential for death-receptor-mediated apoptosis activity and therefore its modulation might be critical for the pathogenesis of NASH. The aim was to dissect the role of hepatocyte Casp8 in a murine model of steatohepatitis. We generated hepatocyte-specific Casp8 knockout (Casp8hep) mice. Animals were fed with a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Liver injury was assessed by histopathological analysis, apoptotic death, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS), analysis of liver infiltration and inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and liver fibrosis. MCD feeding triggered steatosis, hepatic lipid storage, and accumulation of free fatty acid (FFA) in wildtype (WT) livers, which were significantly reduced in Casp8hep animals. Additionally, lack of Casp8 expression in hepatocytes reduced the MCD-dependent increase in apoptosis and decreased expression of proinflammatory cytokines as well as hepatic infiltration. As a consequence, ROS production was lower, leading to a reduction in the progression of liver fibrosis in Casp8hep livers. Conclusion: Selective ablation of Casp8 in hepatocytes ameliorates development of NASH by modulating liver injury. Casp8-directed therapy might be a plausible treatment for patients with steatohepatitis. (HEPATOLOGY 2013;57:2189-2201)
    Review article: the role of gastrointestinal hormones in the treatment of delayed gastric emptying in critically ill patients
    Luttikhold, J. ; Ruijter, F.M. de; Norren, K. van; Diamant, M. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Leeuwen, P.A.M. ; Vermeulen, M.A.R. - \ 2013
    Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38 (2013)6. - ISSN 0269-2813 - p. 573 - 583.
    glucagon-like peptide-1 - motilin receptor agonist - placebo-controlled trial - early enteral nutrition - body-weight gain - diabetic gastroparesis - pancreatic-polypeptide - double-blind - food-intake - acid-secretion
    Background The role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is supported by migration studies and increasing incidences in line with Westernisation. Aim To give a complete overview of studies associating habitual diet with the onset or relapses in ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). Methods A structured search in Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE was performed using defined key words, including only full text papers in English language. Results Forty-one studies were identified, investigating onset (n = 35), relapses (n = 5) or both (n = 1). Several studies reported high intake of sugar or sugar-containing foods (n = 7 UC, n = 12 CD), and low intake of fruits and/or vegetables (n = 5 UC, n = 10 CD) to be associated with an increased onset risk. However, these findings could not be confirmed by similar or higher numbers of other studies. A possible protective role was found for grain-derived products in CD onset, but results were inconsistent for dietary fibre in UC and CD and grain-derived products in UC. No definite conclusions could be drawn for unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), protein and energy intake due to limited and/or inconsistent results. Six studies reported on diet and relapse risk, of which only two (n = 1 UC, n = 1 CD) had a prospective follow-up. Conclusions The current evidence is not sufficient to draw firm conclusions on the role of specific food components or nutrients in the aetiology of IBD. Furthermore, large prospective studies into the role of habitual diet as a trigger of relapses are needed, to identify new therapeutic or preventive targets
    Probiotics can generate FoxP3 T-cell responses in the small intestine and simultaneously inducing CD4 and CD8 T cell activation in the large intestine.
    Smelt, M.J. ; Haan, B.J. de; Bron, P.A. ; Swam, I. van; Meijerink, M. ; Wells, J. ; Faas, M.M. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
    inflammatory-bowel-disease - influenza-virus infection - cd103(+) dendritic cells - complete genome sequence - lactic-acid bacteria - lactobacillus-plantarum - double-blind - in-vitro - maintaining remission - ulcerative-colitis
    Most studies on probiotics aim to restore intestinal homeostasis to reduce immune-pathology in disease. Of equal importance are studies on how probiotics might prevent or delay disease in healthy individuals. However, knowledge on mechanisms of probiotic actions in healthy individuals is scarce. To gain more insight in how different bacterial strains may modulate the healthy intestinal immune system, we investigated the effect of the food derived bacterial strains L. plantarum WCFS1, L. salivarius UCC118, and L. lactis MG1363, on the intestinal regulatory immune phenotype in healthy mice. All three bacterial strains induced an upregulation of activity and numbers of CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs in the immune-sampling Peyer's Patches. Only L. salivarius UCC118 skewed towards an immune regulatory phenotype in the small intestinal lamina propria (SILP). The effects were different in the large intestine lamina propria. L. salivarius UCC118 induced activation in both CD4 and CD8 positive T-cells while L. plantarum WCFS1 induced a more regulatory phenotype. Moreover, L. plantarum WCFS1 decreased the Th1/Th2 ratio in the SILP. Also L. lactis MG1363 had immunomodulatory effects. L. lactis MG1363 decreased the expression of the GATA-3 and T-bet in the SILP. As our data show that contradictory effects may occur in different parts of the gut, it is recommended to study effects of probiotic in different sites in the intestine. Our strain-specific results suggest that unspecified application of probiotics may not be very effective. Our data also indicate that selection of specific probiotic strain activities on the basis of responses in healthy mice may be a promising strategy to specifically stimulate or suppress immunity in specific parts of the intestine
    Effect of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy on Child Mental Development in Rural China
    Chang, S. ; Zeng, L.M. ; Brouwer, I.D. ; Kok, F.J. ; Yan, H. - \ 2013
    Pediatrics 131 (2013)3. - ISSN 0031-4005 - p. e755 - e763.
    developing rat hippocampus - micronutrient supplementation - double-blind - indonesian infants - controlled-trial - maternal anemia - western china - women - consequences - prevalence
    In humans, the brain growth spurt begins in the last trimester of pregnancy and extends through the first 2 years of life. Studies show poor cognitive and motor development among children who have iron deficiency anemia in infancy. Prenatal iron deficiency anemia in the third trimester affects child mental development. Prenatal micronutrient supplementation with sufficient iron protects child mental development even when the woman’s iron deficiency anemia is not properly corrected during pregnancy
    Influence of fermented milk products, prebiotics and probiotics on microbiota composition and health
    Ceapa, C.D. ; Wopereis, H.J. ; Rezaïki, L. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Knol, J. ; Oozeer, R. - \ 2013
    Best Practice & Research: Clinical Gastroenterology 27 (2013)1. - ISSN 1521-6918 - p. 139 - 155.
    irritable-bowel-syndrome - 1st 6 months - human lactobacillus strain - formula-fed infants - germ-free mice - gut microbiota - intestinal microbiota - atopic-dermatitis - double-blind - human feces
    The gut microbiota is a highly diverse and relative stabile ecosystem increasingly recognized for its impact on human health. The homeostasis of microbes and the host is also referred to as eubiosis. In contrast, deviation from the normal composition, defined as dysbiosis, is often associated with localized diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or colonic cancer, but also with systemic diseases like metabolic syndrome and allergic diseases. Modulating a gut microbiota dysbiosis with nutritional concepts may contribute to improving health status, reducing diseases or disease symptoms or supporting already established treatments. The gut microbiota can be modulated by different nutritional concepts, varying from specific food ingredients to complex diets or by the ingestion of particular live microorganisms. To underpin the importance of bacteria in the gut, we describe molecular mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between gut bacteria and the human host, and review the impact of different nutritional concepts such as pre-, pro- and synbiotics on the gastrointestinal ecosystem and their potential health benefits. The aim of this review is to provide examples of potential nutritional concepts that target the gut microbiota to support human physiology and potentially health outcomes.
    The Impact of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Teichoic Acid D-Alanylation on the Generation of Effector and Regulatory T-cells in Healthy Mice
    Smelt, M.J. ; Haan, B.J. de; Bron, P.A. ; Swam, I. van; Meijerink, M. ; Wells, J. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Faas, M.M. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 14 p.
    placebo-controlled trial - inflammatory-bowel-disease - blood mononuclear-cells - tlr signaling pathways - lipoteichoic acid - double-blind - dendritic cells - ulcerative-colitis - maintaining remission - acidophilus deficient
    To date it remains unclear how probiotics affect the immune system. Bacterial envelope components may play an essential role, as these are the first to establish bacterial-host cell interactions. Teichoic acids (TAs), and especially lipoteichoic acids, are the most pro-inflammatory components of the gram-positive bacterial envelope. This effect is dependent on D-alanyl substitution of the TA backbone and interactions with TLR2 on host cells. Although the pro-inflammatory properties of TAs have been established in vitro, it remains unclear how TAs affect immunomodulation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the role of TA D-alanylation on L. plantarum–induced intestinal and systemic immunomodulation in vivo. For this, we compared the effect of L. plantarum WCFS1 and its TA D-Alanylation negative derivative (dltX-D) on the distribution of dendritic cell and T cell populations and responses in healthy mice. We demonstrated that the majority of the L. plantaruminduced in vivo immunomodulatory effects were dependent on D-alanylation (D-Ala), as some L. plantarum WCFS1-induced immune changes were not observed in the dltX-D-treated group and some were only observed after treatment with dltX-D. Strikingly, not only pro-inflammatory immune responses were abolished in the absence of D-Ala substitution, but also antiinflammatory responses, such as the L. plantarum-induced generation of regulatory T cells in the spleen. With this study we provide insight in host-microbe interactions, by demonstrating the involvement of D-alanylation of TAs on the bacterial membrane in intestinal and systemic immunomodulation in healthy mice.
    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cognitive executive function in Dutch prefrail and frail elderly: a cross-sectional study exploring the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism, cognitive performance and depression
    Brouwer, E.M. ; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, O. ; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Steegenga, W.T. ; Adam, J.J. ; Loon, L.J.C. van; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 14 (2013)1. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 852.e9 - 852.e17.
    randomized controlled-trial - vitamin-d supplementation - placebo-controlled trial - parathyroid-hormone - insulin-resistance - double-blind - older women - risk-factors - us adults - population
    Objectives: The primary objective was to explore the possible association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) and vitamin D intake with markers of glucose metabolism, depression, and cognitive performance. In addition, we examined to what extent the associations between vitamin D and cognitive performance were modified or mediated by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study using data of 127 frail or prefrail Dutch elderly, aged 65 years or older. Frailty was defined according to the criteria of Fried and colleagues. A participant was classified prefrail when 1 to 2 criteria were met; frailty was classified as the presence of 3 or more criteria. Measurements: Associations of 25(OH) D and vitamin D intake with markers of glucose metabolism and domain-specific cognitive performance were examined by multivariable regression analyses. The possible association of vitamin D with depression and global cognitive performance was explored by Poisson regression. Results: No associations were observed for 25(OH) D with FPG, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), Homeostasis Model Assessment-estimated Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), or depression. In contrast, serum 25(OH) D was positively associated with executive functioning (beta 0.007, P=.01) and tended to be associated with information-processing speed (beta 0.006, P=.06). FPG did not modify or mediate these associations. Vitamin D intake was not associated with cognitive performance, glucose metabolism, or depression. Conclusion: This cross-sectional study suggests an association of serum 25(OH) D with domain-specific cognitive performance, in particular executive functioning and possibly information-processing speed, but not with FPG, FPI, HOMA-IR, or depression. Whether these associations are causal is yet to be demonstrated. Copyright (C) 2013 - American Medical Directors Association, Inc.
    Probiotics lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but non iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years
    Agustina, R. ; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J. ; Lukito, W. ; Fahmida, U. ; Rest, O. van de; Zimmermann, M.B. ; Firmansyah, A. ; Wulanti, R. ; Albers, R. ; Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
    The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1184 - 1193.
    c-reactive protein - calcium supplementation - nonheme-iron - deficiency anemia - controlled-trial - dietary calcium - acute diarrhea - double-blind - cows milk - heme-iron
    Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children, whereas milk calcium alone would improve growth but reduce iron and zinc status. A 6-mo randomized trial was conducted in low-socioeconomic urban communities of Jakarta. Healthy children (n = 494) were randomly assigned to receive low-lactose milk with a low calcium content of similar to 50 mg/d (LC; n = 124), a regular calcium content of similar to 440 mg/d (RC group; n = 126), regular calcium with 5 x 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or regular calcium with 5 x 10(8) CFU/d Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Growth, anemia, and iron and zinc status were assessed before and after the intervention. Compared with the RC group, the reuteri group had significantly greater weight gain [0.22 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.42) kg], weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) changes [0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.17)], and monthly weight [0.03(95% CI: 0.002, 0.05) kg/mo] and height [0.03(95% Cl: 0.01, 0.05) cm/mo] velocities. Casei significantly increased monthly weight velocity [0.03 (95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) kg/mo], but not height. However, the changes in underweight, stunting, anemia prevalence, and iron and zinc status were similar between groups. In conclusion, L. reuteri DSM 17938 modestly improved growth by increasing weight gain, WAZ changes, and weight and height velocity, whereas L. casei CRL 431 modestly improved weight velocity. Independent from probiotics supplementation, regular milk calcium did not affect growth or iron and zinc status.
    Microarray analysis reveals marked intestinal microbiota aberrancy in infants having eczema compared to healthy children in at-risk for atopic disease
    Nylund, L. ; Satokari, R. ; Nikkilä, J. ; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M. ; Kalliomäki, M. ; Isolauri, E. ; Salminen, S. ; Vos, W.M. de - \ 2013
    BMC Microbiology 13 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2180
    placebo-controlled trial - gut microbiota - phylogenetic microarray - double-blind - fecal microbiota - galacto-oligosaccharides - gastrointestinal-tract - molecular analysis - primary prevention - immunoglobulin-e
    BACKGROUND: Deviations in composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota in infancy have been associated with both the development and recurrence of atopic eczema. Thus, we decided to use a deep and global microarray-based method to characterize the diversity and temporal changes of the intestinal microbiota in infancy and to define specific bacterial signatures associated with eczema. Faecal microbiota at 6 and 18 months of age were analysed from 34 infants (15 with eczema and 19 healthy controls) selected from a prospective follow-up study based on the availability of faecal samples. The infants were originally randomized to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or placebo. RESULTS: Children with eczema harboured a more diverse total microbiota than control subjects as assessed by the Simpson's reciprocal diversity index of the microarray profiles. Composition of the microbiota did not differ between study groups at age of 6 months, but was significantly different at age of 18 months as assessed by MCPP (p=0.01). At this age healthy children harboured 3 -fold greater amount of members of the Bacteroidetes (p=0.01). Microbiota of children suffering from eczema had increased abundance of the Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, which are typically abundant in adults. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation in early infancy was observed to have minor long-term effects on the microbiota composition. CONCLUSION: A diverse and adult-type microbiota in early childhood is associated with eczema and it may contribute to the perpetuation of eczema
    Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota
    Martinez, R.C.R. ; Cardarelli, H. ; Borst, W. ; Albrecht, S.A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gutierrez, O. ; Maathuis, A. ; Melo Franco, B.D. de; Martinis, E.C.P. de; Zoetendal, E.G. ; Venema, K. ; Saad, S.M.I. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2013
    FEMS microbiology ecology 84 (2013)1. - ISSN 0168-6496 - p. 110 - 123.
    gradient gel-electrophoresis - 16s ribosomal-rna - large-intestine - fecal samples - human feces - gastrointestinal-tract - quantitative pcr - dietary-fibers - gut bacteria - double-blind
    A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) (iii) on GOS degradation, microbial growth (L. amylovorus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and total bacteria) and metabolite production. High performance anion exchange chromatography revealed that GOS degradation was more pronounced in TIM-2 inoculated with pig faeces than with human faeces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected a more complex Lactobacillus spp. community in pig faecal material than in human faecal inoculum. According to 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR, GOS stimulated the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in faecal material from both materials. The cumulative production of short chain fatty acids and ammonia was higher (P <0.05) for pig than for human faeces. However, lactate accumulation was higher (P <0.05) in the human model and increased after co-administration with GOS and Bb-12. This study reinforced the notion that differences in microbiota composition between target host organisms need to be considered when animal data are extrapolated to human, as is often done with pre- and probiotic intervention studies
    Letter to the Editor: Protein supplementation during prolonged resistance type exercise training augments skeletal muscle mass and strength gains
    Cermak, N.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2013
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 14 (2013)1. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 71 - 72.
    placebo-controlled trial - frail elderly-people - double-blind - adaptations - men - performance - consumption - program
    The defecation pattern of healthy term infants up to the age of 3 months
    Hertog, J. ; Leengoed, E. van; Kolk, F. ; Broek, L. van den; Kramer, E. ; Bakker, E.J. ; Bakker-van Gijssel, E. ; Bulk, A. ; Kneepkens, F. ; Benninga, M.A. - \ 2012
    Arch. Dis. Child.-Fetal Neonatal Ed. 97 (2012)6. - ISSN 1359-2998 - p. F465 - F470.
    double-blind - 1st stool - formula - frequency
    Background Defecation problems occur frequently in infants. A clearer insight into the normal defecation pattern is required to gain a better understanding of abnormal defecation. Aim To describe the defecation pattern of healthy infants in The Netherlands. Methods From a research population of 1175 healthy Dutch infants, 600 infants without any complaints were selected. The parents recorded details of feeding and defecation at the age of 1, 2 and 3 months using a standardised questionnaire and bowel diary. Results In breastfed infants, average daily defecation frequency decreased significantly during the first 3 months (from 3.65 to 1.88 times per day), whereas no significant changes were observed in infants fed standard formula or mixed feeding. At every age both the average and the range of defecation frequency of breastfed infants were higher than those of infants receiving formula feeding. Breastfed infants had softer faeces than formula-fed infants and the colour more often was yellow. At the age of 3 months, 50% of stools of formula-fed infants were green coloured. There was no significant difference in quantity between the three types of feeding, but there existed a negative correlation between defecation frequency and quantity. Conclusion This study gives insight into the defecation patterns of the largest cohort of healthy infants published so far. In the first 3 months of life, breastfed infants have more frequent, softer and more yellow-coloured stools than standard formula-fed infants. Green-coloured stools in standard formula-fed infants should be considered normal.
    The impact of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune system.
    Klaenhammer, T.R. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Kopp, M.V. ; Rescigno, M. - \ 2012
    Nature Reviews. Immunology 12 (2012)10. - ISSN 1474-1733 - p. 728 - 734.
    placebo-controlled trial - lactobacillus-rhamnosus gg - randomized controlled-trial - 1st 6 months - irritable-bowel-syndrome - t-regulatory cells - double-blind - lipoteichoic acid - atopic-dermatitis - experimental colitis
    Probiotics and prebiotics are increasingly being added to foodstuffs with claims of health benefits. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are thought to have beneficial effects on the host, whereas prebiotics are ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. But can these products directly modulate immune function and influence inflammatory diseases? Here, Nature Reviews Immunology asks four experts to discuss these issues and provide their thoughts on the future application of probiotics as a disease therapy
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