Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices
    Bos, Colin - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Ivo van der Lans; F.J. van Rijnsoever; E. Kampman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579125 - 169
    food preferences - health foods - vending machines - low calorie foods - consumer behaviour - beverages - nutritional intervention - consumer attitudes - voedselvoorkeuren - gezondheidsvoedsel - verkoopautomaten - caloriearm voedsel - consumentengedrag - dranken - maatregel op voedingsgebied - houding van consumenten

    The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis therefore aims to examine the process underlying acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices. Particularly the role that intervention characteristics (e.g. the source and the location of an intervention) and individual characteristics (i.e. consumers’ perceived barriers for behaviour) play in this process is investigated. Three research questions are formulated: 1) What are the drivers of consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices?; 2) How do consumers’ barriers for healthy food choices influence both food choices in real-life and acceptance of interventions?; 3) How does intervention intrusiveness influence acceptance and effectiveness of intervention strategies for healthy food choices?

    General beliefs about the obesity problem and intervention-specific beliefs are identified as the main drivers of intervention acceptance in the food domain (Chapter 2). General beliefs comprised both people’s ideas about the magnitude of the obesity problem and the responsibility for food choices that consumers make. Intervention-specific beliefs, on the other hand, concerned people’s perceptions of whether an intervention will be effective, both personally and societally, in stimulating healthy food choices (perceived effectiveness) as well as whether the intervention is a fair way of stimulating healthier choices (perceived fairness).

    Consumers’ motivation-related barriers are associated strongest with real-life food choices, with higher levels of motivation to choose healthy foods being related to higher proportions of healthy choices (Chapter 3). Barriers related to the perceived opportunity and ability to choose healthy foods are associated less strongly with real-life choices, with higher levels of opportunity and ability being related to higher proportions of healthy food choices. Three distinct barrier profiles regarding choosing healthy foods are identified: the no-barrier profile (consisting of those who perceive to have no barriers), the lack-of-opportunity profile (consisting of those who perceive to lack opportunity), and the lack-of-motivation profile (consisting of those who report not being motivated). Consumers with a no-barrier profile or a lack-of-opportunity profile perceive interventions to be more effective, more fair, and more acceptable than those with a lack-of-motivation profile (Chapter 4 and 5).

    Acceptance of less intrusive interventions, such as calorie information provision, is higher than those of more intrusive interventions, such as elimination of unhealthy choices, both in hypothetical (Chapter 4) and realistic (Chapter 5) settings. In the hypothetical setting, the effect of intrusiveness on acceptance is mediated by both the perceived effectiveness and the perceived fairness of interventions: the more consumers perceive an intervention to be effective and fair, the more they accept it (Chapter 4). In the realistic setting, the effect of perceived intrusiveness on acceptance is mediated only by the perceived fairness of interventions (Chapter 5).

    In a vending machine setting, the implementation of an intervention that eliminates 50% of unhealthy choices leads to higher proportions of healthy choices than the implementation of less intrusive interventions (providing calorie information through labelling and not intervening at all). Since acceptance does not differ between these interventions (Chapter 5), elimination of unhealthy choices appears to be the best way to stimulate consumers to make healthy choices.

    Overall, this thesis show that consumers’ general- and intervention-specific beliefs drive acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices. Intervention intrusiveness partly influences acceptance, depending on the setting in which consumers are confronted with them (hypothetical vs. realistic). Furthermore, barriers that consumers perceive to have in relation to choosing healthy foods impact acceptance of interventions as well. These insights provide implications for policy makers, both in terms of the development and the communication of intervention strategies for healthy food choices.

    Cater with Care : impact of protein-enriched foods and drinks for elderly people
    Beelen, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Nicole de Roos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578814 - 142
    undernutrition - hospital catering - hospitals - protein - elderly - protein intake - food - beverages - diet studies - dietetics - dietitians - randomized controlled trials - ondervoeding - ziekenhuiscatering - ziekenhuizen - eiwit - ouderen - eiwitinname - voedsel - dranken - dieetstudies - diëtetiek - diëtisten - gestuurd experiment met verloting

    Protein undernutrition is a major health concern for older adults, especially for those who are ill. There is growing consensus for a protein intake target of 1.2 - 1.5 gram per kg bodyweight per day (g/kg/d) for these older adults. However, this target is not reached by the majority of older adults. Therefore, more effective and novel strategies to increase protein intake are warranted, including the use of protein-enriched foods and drinks. This thesis evaluated the impact of the developed protein-enriched foods and drinks on protein intake and physical performance among older adults. The studies in this thesis were done as part of the Cater with Care® project; a collaboration between the university, care organizations, and partners from the food industry. The industrial partners developed the products, focusing each on different product categories: Carezzo Nutrition developed bread, pastry, and fresh juices and soups; The Kraft Heinz Company focused on long shelf-life and convenience foods; and the Veal Promotion Foundation produced veal meat.

    To fit the products to the needs of the target group, interviews with undernourished older adults (at home or hospitalized) and with dietitians were conducted (chapter 2). These interviews showed that undernutrition awareness is low among older adults. To treat undernutrition by changing their eating habits, older adults need to be aware of their health problem, they need to be willing to change, and they need to be able to understand and implement the dietitian’s advices. This process takes time while undernutrition should be treated immediately. For immediate treatment, enriched products could be used, without first creating awareness. According to the interviewees, enriched products should fit within older adults’ eating habits, and have small portion sizes.

    To gain insights in food choices of hospitalized older adults (65 years and older) an observational study was conducted. In this study, energy and protein intakes of 80 hospitalized older patients at low and high risk of undernutrition were assessed (chapter 3). Patients who received an energy- and protein-rich menu, because of their risk of undernutrition, were better able to reach the protein and energy targets than patients with a low risk of undernutrition receiving a standard menu. Based on these results we proposed that all hospitalized older adults – both at low and high risk of undernutrition – should receive an energy- and protein-rich menu.

    Subsequently, a pilot study was done in a care home and a rehabilitation center with the aim to explore the potential of the developed protein-enriched products to increase protein intake (chapter 4). Participants did not compensate their consumption of regular protein-rich foods (e.g. dairy, cheese) upon the introduction of protein-enriched foods and drinks. The 22 institutionalized elderly (mean age 83 years) consumed 12 gram protein per day more than they did before the intervention. Consequently, more people met the protein target of 1.2 g/kg/d than before the intervention. We concluded that protein-enriched products enabled institutionalized elderly to reach protein intake targets. Furthermore, we gained valuable feedback to improve the assortment of protein-enriched products for the effectiveness study.

    In the final study, effects of the protein-enriched products on protein intake and physical performance were studied in a randomized controlled trial during hospitalization and subsequent recovery at home. During the hospital period in which 147 older patients participated, patients that received protein-enriched products increased their protein intake compared to the control group that already received a protein-rich hospital menu (chapter 5). As a result, 79% of the intervention group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d, compared to 48% of the control group. Finally, effects of the protein-enriched products were tested at home, for a longer period (chapter 6). Half of the hospital phase participants (n = 75) continued the intervention at home for 12 weeks. The protein-enriched products were successfully implemented in the daily menu of the older adults: the intervention group had a higher average protein intake (1.5 ± 0.6 g/kg/d) than the control group (1.0 ± 0.4 g/kg/d) during the 12-week intervention period. Seventy-two percent of the intervention group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d during the 12-week intervention, compared to 31% of the control group. Protein intake of the intervention group was mainly increased by the following protein-enriched products: bread, dairy drinks, dairy desserts, soups, and fruit juices. However, despite the successful improvement of protein intake, we found no added value on physical performance in the first 6 months after hospitalization.

    It was concluded that with the protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks, we have a feasible, acceptable, and appetizing long-term strategy to increase protein intake of older adults in various settings. We envisage a beneficial role of these protein-enriched products in combination with physical activity in older adults with lower protein intakes.

    Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
    He, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
    stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

    Background and aim

    Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.


    Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.


    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.


    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

    Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation
    Sarkar, P.K. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2014
    Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press (Fermented Foods and Beverages Series ) - ISBN 9781466565302 - 629
    fermentation - fermented foods - foods - food microbiology - food preservation - food products - food quality - beverages - fermentatie - gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - voedingsmiddelen - voedselmicrobiologie - voedselbewaring - voedselproducten - voedselkwaliteit - dranken
    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant microorganisms occurring in AFFs. Presented in nine chapters, the book explains how microorganisms or enzymes transform raw ingredients into AFFs. It discusses the safety aspects of AFFs, and considers the challenges associated with the technological aspects in modernizing AFFs. It stresses the significance of the microbiological and biochemical processes in the fermentations, as well as the factors that influence the development of the characteristic microbiota, and the biochemical and organoleptic changes induced by them. It also proposes solutions, discusses the value of AFFs and related dominant microorganisms, and assesses the future of AFFs. The authors highlight commonly known foods and beverages of plant and animal origin. They provide insight into the manufacture, chemical and microbiological composition, processing, and compositional and functional modifications taking place as a result of microbial and enzyme effects. The text examines safety, legislation, traditional and industrialized processes, as well as new product development, and opportunities for developing commodities from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. In addition, it also assesses the value of food processing by-products, biotechnology, and engineering of solid-state processes, modern chemical and biological analytical approaches to safety, and health and consumer perception.
    Environmental innovation in chains and networks : assessing determinants and performance implications in Dutch food and beverage firms
    Grekova, E. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers; Jacques Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572232 - 150
    milieubeheer - ketenmanagement - firma's - bedrijven - prestatieniveau - innovaties - voedselindustrie - dranken - nederland - environmental management - supply chain management - firms - businesses - performance - innovations - food industry - beverages - netherlands

    Challenged by the increasing scale of environmental degradation and corresponding stakeholders’ pressure, firms are increasingly integrating environmental concerns into their operations and into the relationships with external partners. Mainly through the theoretical lens of the Resource-based view and its spins-offs, this dissertation focuses on environmental innovation and environmental management (EM) that involves supply chain partners as means of promoting sustainable industry growth, using the Dutch food and beverage processors as a subject of the study. In–house environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM have a promising potential to induce sustainable growth in the industry because they are increasingly connected not only to improved environmental but also to an improved economic performance. However, the implications of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM for the firm performance are not clear-cut and require further investigation. Prompted by the promising potential of environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM, the current research agenda focuses on their determinants: internal organizational capabilities and external factors (such as the roles of public policies, consumer demand, and other stakeholder pressures). Therefore, the present dissertation aims to investigate determinants of environmental innovation and of supply chain-oriented EM and their impact on firm performance.

    Chapter 2 illustrates in a dynamic perspective how changing institutional pressures and internal organizational factors influence the development of chain-oriented EM. Overall, institutional pressures are proven to be an important determinant. However, pressures on different levels vary considerably with respect to their impact. We found that pressures from supply chain partners and increasingly from long-term public–private environmental covenants significantly influence the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Interestingly, regulative institutional pressure from public authorities appeared to have no impact on supply chain-oriented EM. These findings are of particular interest as they suggest that Dutch public policy has chosen to rely on a responsibility culture, initiative, and self-organization, rather than on direct steering. This policy setting seems to work since our data evidence a progress in the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM. Furthermore, the findings show that food processors with more developed EM systems, associated with the presence of continuous improvement capabilities, are more likely to advance their EM by implementing supply chain-oriented EM. In course of time, as firms increasingly consider the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM as appropriate behaviour, institutional pressures become less influential and internal organizational factors become crucial to enable the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM.

    Chapter 3 offers further insights into organizational capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Prior research rarely considered how firms use their existing capabilities and the capabilities developed within their environmental strategy to come up with new and better ways to reduce the environmental impact. We investigate whether the integration of environmental concerns within the firm can provide an additional impetus to the implementation of supply chain-oriented EM, when combined with innovative orientation. In this context, we assess performance implications of capabilities for supply chain-oriented EM. Compared with the past research, we consider supply chain-oriented EM as an organizational capability for the integration of supply chain partners into EM, not as a set of environmental practices. The findings show that the development of supply chain-oriented EM is supported by both capabilities of innovative orientation and environmental integration and is accelerated by their combination. Furthermore, integration capabilities on in-house and supply chain levels appeared to be interconnected. The capability to integrate environmental concerns within the firm induces the integration of environmental concerns in the supply chain relationships. Finally, it is shown that the overarching capability to engage supply chain in EM pays off. This capability is induced by the implementation of interconnected environmental practices that involve supply chain partners (green purchasing, environmental collaboration with customers, and eco-design).

    Chapter 4 advances the understanding of the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on firm performance by introducing in environmental research the problem of appropriation of benefits created by the partners. Grounded in the Resource based view spin-offs, we claim that supply chain-oriented EM can enhance the performance of the focal firm not only directly, but also indirectly. The indirect relationship implies that supply chain-oriented EM stimulates the focal firm to implement more environmentally sustainable processes that in turn contribute to firm's performance. We found that supply chain-oriented EM involving customers can induce in-house environmental innovation that results in strong performance improvements. Interestingly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers brings about weak performance improvements as a result of appropriation of the advantage realized by suppliers. Therefore, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers has a limited value and potential for Dutch food processors. Possibly, supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers can induce process changes among suppliers, not focal firms. In this context, Chapter 4 illustrates the necessity to integrate the characteristics of supply chain actors into the research on the implications of supply chain-oriented EM. The findings regarding the impact of supply chain-oriented EM on the sustainability of internal operations have a link with firm performance. Supply chain-oriented EM that involves suppliers was shown to induce no significant improvements in environmental sustainability of operations among food processors. Unlike supply chain-oriented EM involving suppliers, supply chain-oriented EM involving customers has an indirect effect on the firm performance via environmental innovation.

    Firm’s network can be seen as a rich source of knowledge. Having access to knowledge and resources of the partners in supply chains and networks does not imply that a firm can appropriate (i.e. capture) corresponding benefits that could enhance environmental sustainability of in-house operations and performance. The exploitation of external knowledge requires the development of organizational capability to realize the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it and ultimately exploit it – absorptive capacity. Chapter 5 brings absorptive capacity into the discussion regarding the role of external partners in environmental innovation. Environmental innovation can also rely on internal knowledge sources. Development and accumulation of internal knowledge can be supported by the continuous improvement capability vested in the EM system. Therefore, Chapter 5 informs the discussion of the roles of internal and external knowledge for environmental innovation by considering organizational capabilities for knowledge sourcing: absorptive capacity to exploit external knowledge and continuous improvement to develop and accumulate internal environmental knowledge. The findings demonstrate that Dutch food processors develop environmental innovations relying on both external knowledge in their network tapped with the help of absorptive capacity and on internal knowledge built within the EM system with the help of continuous improvement capabilities. These findings challenge the presence of a substitution effect between internal and external knowledge. We expand the research on the determinants of environmental innovation by considering not only different knowledge sources but by providing insights into the knowledge sourcing process.

    Overall, the dissertation evidences an increasing importance of internal organizational capabilities to enable sustainable industry growth. Internal organizational capabilities appeared to be decisive to induce environmental innovation and supply chain-oriented EM. Also the appropriation of benefits created in cooperation with external partners and exploitation of external knowledge require certain organizational capabilities. In the earlier periods of corporate environmentalism, external pressures were of primary importance to induce the reduction of the environmental impact. Nowadays, the increasing role of organizational capabilities implies that a lot of power is concentrated in the hands of managers. For public policy, these findings suggest a focus on the development of instruments to stimulate the accumulation of organizational capabilities and capacity building.

    Voedselfraudeur ontmaskerd (interview met Saskia van Ruth en Rita Boerrigter-Eenling)
    Smit, A. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. - \ 2014
    WageningenWorld 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 28 - 31.
    biologische voedingsmiddelen - authenticiteit - dranken - voedselanalyse - identificatie - voedseltechnologie - melkproducten - voedselinspectie - organic foods - authenticity - beverages - food analysis - identification - food technology - milk products - food inspection
    Producenten die sjoemelen met de herkomst van levensmiddelen kunnen vaker op het matje worden geroepen. RIKILT Wageningen UR ontwikkelt steeds meer tests die duidelijk maken waar de ingrediënten vandaan komen én of ze wel echt op biologische wijze zijn gemaakt. Koffie en eieren blijken wat dat betreft verrassend herkenbaar.
    Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Pretz, Th. ; Feil, A. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1440) - ISBN 9789461739803 - 229
    dranken - verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakking - recycling - verzamelen - nederland - beverages - packaging materials - packaging - recycling - collection - netherlands
    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with various separate collection systems and 2 recovery facilities.
    RIKILT developed a test to determine the difference between organic and conventional coffee
    Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR RIKILT
    koffie - biologische voedingsmiddelen - tests - dranken - voedselonderzoek - coffee - organic foods - tests - beverages - food research
    Saskia van Ruth, Professor Food Authenticity at RIKILT Wageningen UR, developed a method to distinguish organic from conventional coffee.
    Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages
    Chen, J. ; Zhu, Y. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Sarkar, P.K. - \ 2013
    Boca Raton, FL : CRC (Fermented foods and beverages series ) - ISBN 9781439844960 - 408
    voedingsmiddelen - dranken - fermentatie - vast-substraatfermentatie - voedselverwerking - gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - fermentatieproducten - foods - beverages - fermentation - solid-state fermentation - food processing - fermented foods - fermentation products
    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional foods produced by SSF such as sufu, vinegar, soy sauce, Chinese distilled spirit, and rice wine. The author address such engineering issues as mass and heat transfer and energy equation calculation of solid-state fermentation, dynamic modeling of solid-state fermentation, and process control of solid-state fermentation. The book provides a detailed introduction to various solid-state fermented foods and beverages, including product category, characteristics, functionalities, safety issues, and consumer perception. It explores real advantages of SSF processes and how their application at real scale for high-quality production that is more efficient and less costly.
    Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report
    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Pretz, Th. ; Feil, A. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1439) - ISBN 9789461739797 - 32
    verpakkingsmaterialen - dranken - recycling - verzamelen - packaging materials - beverages - recycling - collection
    This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with various separate collection systems and 2 recovery facilities. The pilot demonstrated that it is technically possible to collect and recycle Dutch beverage cartons. The recycled pulp from all tested collection methods is relatively similar in properties. Also, the fibres are relatively strong and the microbiological load is relative high, this limits the applicability. Hence, corrugated boxes are a well-suited application for these pulps. Four different collection and recycling schemes were tested; separate collection, co-collection with plastics, co-collection with paper & board and recovery. The efficiency of most schemes is limited by the net collection yields and for some schemes also the sorting yield. The net collection yields are determined by different factors, such as the percentage of high rise buildings, the execution of the collection system (service level, communication, etc.) and the space inside the houses to store and keep beverage cartons separate until collection. The recovery recycling chains were most efficient, although one of the two chains suffered from a relative low sorting yield. Nevertheless, this sorting step can be improved. Two different co-collection chains with plastic packages were studied; the Milieuzakken and the Kunststof Hergebruik chains. The Milieuzakken-chain is already established for several years and the collection retrieves almost all the beverage cartons that are expected to be present in its collection area. However, the collected material contains also relative large amounts of residual waste, which hampers the sorting and recycling and reduces the overall efficiency. The Kunststof Hergebruik co-collection chain was set-up specially for this pilot and suffered from low collection yields and low sorting yields. Although the rural area around Deventer already reached a near complete collection of all beverage cartons, for most other collection areas more time is necessary to mature the collection system and obtain higher collection yields. For improved sorting ideally an investment is required which would make the sorting process much more efficient, since the current facility was not designed and equipped for the efficient sorting of beverage cartons. The separate collection scheme suffered from relative low net collection yields, varying from 3% to 57% with a weight-averaged mean of 20%. This collection system needs time to mature and obtain higher net collection yields. For a few municipalities (with relatively low collection yields) some adjustments to the system are necessary. Also, the co-collection scheme with paper & board in general suffered from low net collection yields. Although in the high-rise area of Etten-Leur the largest net collection yield for a high-rise area was recorded of 50%. The subsequent sorting was inefficient, due to the similarity of the materials. In the future, an ideal co-collection chain would be constructed without a sorting facility. The mixture would be integrally pulped and recycled as is now the current operation in a new facility in Nortrup (Germany).
    Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry
    Setiawan, M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Grigorios Emvalomatis. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733979 - 137
    voedselproductie - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelen - dranken - drankenindustrie - economische ontwikkeling - marktstructuur - voedselprijzen - indonesië - ontwikkelingslanden - zuidoost-azië - food production - food industry - foods - beverages - beverage industry - economic development - market structure - food prices - indonesia - developing countries - south east asia

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations

    The Indonesian food and beverages industry contributes significantly to the Indonesian GDP and is an important provider of employment. However, this industry is characterized by high industrial concentration which may affect pricing and performance. The objective of this thesis is to examine market structure, price rigidity, and performance as well as their relationship in the Indonesian food and beverages industry. To investigate the relationship between market structure, price rigidity, and performance, this research uses two main frameworks: Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) and new empirical industrial organization (NEIO).

    This thesis uses firm-level (establishment) data of 59 subsectors of the food and beverages industry sourced from the manufacturing survey of the Bureau of Central Statistics (BPS) over the period 1995-2006. Econometric methods and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are used to address the overall objective.

    Empirical results show that industrial concentration converges to the same value across subsectors in the long run. Seven years after the introduction of the competition law in 1999, industrial concentration and price-cost margin are still high. Industrial concentration has a positive effect on the price-cost margin. Besides stopping the upward trend of the price-cost margin, the introduction of the 1999 competition law reduced the effect of industrial concentration on the price-cost margin. The results also suggest that there is only a one-way relationship between industrial concentration and technical efficiency with industrial concentration affecting technical efficiency negatively. Furthermore, this thesis finds evidence that high industrial concentration increases price flexibility with the speed of price adjustment being higher when costs go up than down in the concentrated subsectors. Finally, the results show that there is a simultaneous relationship between industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, and price-cost margin. A bi-directional relationship between industrial concentration and price-cost margin was found.

    Alternatieve aanwending van (incidentele) reststromen buiten de diervoedersector
    Bouwmeester, H. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Bondt, N. ; Roest, J.G. van der - \ 2006
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT 2006.008) - 60
    voedselafval - stimulerende middelen - dranken - afvalhergebruik - voer - diervoedering - biomassa - energie - technologie - kennis - food wastes - stimulants - beverages - waste utilization - feeds - animal feeding - biomass - energy - technology - knowledge
    Melk, sap of cola? : een onderzoek naar de invloed van anderen op de drankenkeuze van de jeugd
    Tacken, G.M.L. - \ 2002
    Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052427751 - 84
    consumentengedrag - consumptie - dranken - kinderen - ouder-kind relaties - nederland - consumer behaviour - consumption - beverages - children - parent child relationships - netherlands
    Verandering van de smaak van mineraalwater als gevolg van wisselwerking met de verpakking.
    Linssen, J.P.H. ; Janssens, J.L.G.M. ; Roozen, J.P. ; Posthumus, M.A. - \ 1992
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 25 (1992). - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 24 - 26.
    dranken - ingeblikte producten - inblikken - afdeklagen - uitrusting - geur en smaak - voedselbewaring - voedingsmiddelen - latex - mineraalwaters - verpakking - verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakken - producten - rubber - sensorische evaluatie - smaak - water - macromoleculaire stoffen - machines - beverages - canned products - canning - coatings - equipment - flavour - food preservation - foods - latex - mineral waters - packaging - packaging materials - packing - products - rubber - sensory evaluation - taste - water - macromolecular materials - machines
    Mineraalwater verpakt in polyethyleen gecoat aluminium blikjes en de wisselwerking met de verpakking
    Onderzoek op nauwkeurigheid van vier fruitsorteermachines 1977 - 1978
    Krieke, H. van de; Veltman, B.J.L. ; Mann, J.C. - \ 1978
    Wageningen : Sprenger Instituut (Rapport / Sprenger instituut no. 2017) - 6
    dranken - appels - malus - landbouwproducten - schoonmaakapparaten - sorteermachines - plantaardige producten - behandeling - beverages - apples - malus - agricultural products - cleaners - sorters - plant products - treatment
    Het gebruik van zetmeel in melkprodukten
    Anonymous, - \ 1968
    Wageningen : [s.n.] (Literatuurlijst / Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdocumentatie no. 2910)
    dranken - bibliografieën - melk - mineraalwaters - bewerkte producten - water - beverages - bibliographies - milk - mineral waters - processed products - water
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