The power of regression to the mean: A social norm study revisited
Verkooijen, K.T. ; Stok, F.M. ; Mollen, S. - \ 2015
European Journal of Social Psychology 45 (2015)4. - ISSN 0046-2772 - p. 417 - 425.
field-experiment - alcohol-use - implementation intentions - descriptive norms - injunctive norms - college-students - peer norms - behavior - drinking - interventions
This research follows up on a study by Schultz et al. (2007), in which the effect of a social norm intervention on energy consumption was examined. The present studies included control groups to examine whether social norm effects would persist beyond regression to the mean. Both studies had a 2 (baseline consumption: below mean versus above mean)¿×¿2 (message condition: no-message control versus norm message) design. Based on baseline fruit (Study 1) or unhealthy snack (Study 2) consumption, students were classified as above mean or below mean for consumption. One week later, half of the students in the above-mean and below-mean groups received normative feedback; control groups did not. Neither study showed an effect of norm messages on behavior relative to control, providing evidence for regression to the mean as an alternative explanation. Findings highlight the importance of control groups to distinguish social norm intervention effects from mere regression to the mean.
I was totally there! : understanding engagement in entertainment-ducation narratives
Leeuwen, L. van - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; S.J.H.M. Putte, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573369 - 153
communicatie - communicatietheorie - volksgezondheid - alcoholisme - vertier - onderwijs - drinken - gedrag - psychologie - adolescenten - educatieve televisie - communication - communication theory - public health - alcoholism - entertainment - education - drinking - behaviour - psychology - adolescents - educational television
I was totally there!: Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives
By Lonneke van Leeuwen
Then, the roles of the NE dimensions attentional focus, narrative understanding, emotional engagement, and narrative presence in E-E impact were investigated. It was shown that the NE dimensions attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence were positively associated with E-E impact. Attentional focus was associated both with stronger beliefs about the severity of the negative outcomes of BD and with a lowered intention to engage in BD. Emotional engagement and narrative presence were associated with stronger beliefs that BD leads to negative outcomes (negative outcome beliefs), and with stronger beliefs about being vulnerable to these negative outcomes (vulnerability beliefs). Surprisingly, the NE dimension narrative understanding was associated with increased willingness to engage in BD.
No evidence was found that negative thoughts about BD mediated associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact. Relations between NE dimensions, positive thoughts about BD, and E-E impact could not be investigated: only one participant reported a positive thought about BD in response to Verliefd. Based on these findings we conclude that attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence are important for E-E impact, and that thoughts about BD do not play a role therein.
Because NE dimensions were found to be associated with E-E impact, it was investigated which psychological processes contribute to NE dimensions. Negative thoughts about the perceptual persuasiveness of Verliefd negatively associated with emotional engagement and narrative presence. Furthermore, it was shown that enjoyment of Verliefd was a strong contributor to NE, mainly through contributing to attentional focus. Another strong contributor to NE was narrative realism, mainly through contributing to narrative understanding. Finally, personal relevance, character involvement, and perceived severity contributed mainly through emotional engagement.
This dissertation shows that E-E narratives can be an effective health communication strategy to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in young people. Furthermore, this dissertation provides health communication researchers and media psychologists with insights into the role of NE in E-E impact, and offers E-E developers practical recommendations about how to create engaging and impactful E-E narratives.
Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being
Schrieks, I.C. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): H.F.J. Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572904 - 211
alcoholinname - drinken - doseringseffecten - emoties - welzijn - kwaliteit van het leven - alcohol intake - drinking - dosage effects - emotions - well-being - quality of life
Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical well-being remain unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to further explore the acute effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being and the association between habitual alcohol consumption and emotional well-being and 2) to provide more insight into physiological markers that may be related to alcohol-induced emotional well-being.
Methods: We compared the acute effects of alcohol (20-30 g) vs. alcohol-free drinks on mood, food reward and mental stress in three randomized crossover trials. To explore the short-term effects of alcohol on physiological markers of emotional well-being, we conducted four randomized crossover trials of 3-6 weeks in which 25-41 g alcohol/day, or no alcohol was consumed. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 randomized intervention trials with at least 2 weeks of alcohol intervention. Finally, the association between long-term alcohol consumption and health-related quality of life was investigated with a bidirectional, longitudinal analysis among 92,448 U.S. women of the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort.
Results: Moderate alcohol consumption in an unpleasant ambiance resulted in higher happiness scores in women as compared to the consumption of alcohol-free drinks. Consumption of 20 gram alcohol increased subsequent intake and rewarding value of savoury foods in men, as measured by an increased implicit wanting and explicit liking of savoury foods. When alcohol was consumed by male volunteers immediately after a mental stressor, a reduced response of the stress hormones ACTH and cortisol, the inflammatory marker IL-8, and the percentage of monocytes in blood were observed. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was found to attenuate meal-induced NF-κB and to increase total antioxidant capacity in men. Four weeks of moderate alcohol consumption reduced circulating fetuin-A, while increasing urinary F2-isoprostanes in men. In women, short-term moderate alcohol consumption did not reduce fetuin-A but it tended to increase insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a higher physical health-related quality of life 2 years later. Vice versa, higher physical health-related quality of life was associated with a higher alcohol intake 2 years later. Moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with mental health-related quality of life in either direction, although moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher scores on the scales for social functioning and vitality.
Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption may acutely improve emotional well-being by improving mood, increasing food reward and reducing mental stress. In the short-term, moderate alcohol consumption may attenuate meal-induced oxidative stress and circulating fetuin-A in men. In women, moderate alcohol consumption may improve insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a small increase in physical health related quality of life but not with mental health related quality of life in women.
The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Schrieks, I.C. ; Stafleu, A. ; Kallen, V.L. ; Grootjen, M. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
heart-rate-variability - food-intake - individual-differences - emotion elicitation - frequency-domain - effects scale - red wine - carbohydrate - performance - drinking
Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state.
Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum
Leen, F. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Fowers, R. ; Martin-Tereso, J. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)10. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 1752 - 1756.
diet selection - rumen function - behavior - cattle - choice - concentrate - performance - drinking - silage - system
The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake patterns of cows on ad libitum and separated access to CF and hay. Meal pattern analysis was performed to evaluate feed intake behaviour of two different isoenergetic and isonitrogenous CF (starch vs fibre), contrasting in neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and starch content. Twenty primi- and multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (203 ± 35.4 days in milk) received grass hay ad libitum with one of the two CF also offered ad libitum. Meal criteria, the shortest non-feeding interval between feeding events separating two consecutive meals, were used to cluster feeding events into separate meals. The meal criteria were determined per cow by fitting the log10-transformed feeding intervals to Gaussian–Gaussian probability density functions. The DMI of CF fibre (18.8 ± 0.54 kg) tended to be greater (P = 0.09) than starch (18.1 ± 0.54 kg/day), while that of grass hay (4.8 ± 0.29 kg) was unaffected (P = 0.23). The CF meal size did not differ (P = 0.26) between treatments (starch 2.9 vs fibre 3.0 ± 0.11 kg/meal), but number of meals per day (6.36 ± 0.229, P = 0.87) and meal durations (64 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.87) did not differ between treatments. The differences in CF formulation were insufficient to create detectable differences in feed intake nor intake behaviour patterns
Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010
Sluik, D. ; Lee, L. van; Geelen, A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (2014). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 287 - 294.
wine - drinking - habits - health - beer - mortality - patterns - association - guidelines - adherence
Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Subjects/Methods: A total of 2100 men and women from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage preference and two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls assessed overall diet. Mean nutrient and food group intakes, and adherence to the 2006 Dutch dietary guidelines across categories of alcoholic beverage preference were compared and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and frequency and absolute alcohol consumption. Results: Largest differences in dietary habits were detected between persons who preferred wine and those who preferred beer. Persons with a beer preference had a higher absolute intake of meat, soft drinks, margarine and snacks. In contrast, persons with a wine preference had a higher absolute consumption of healthy foods. However, after multiple adjustments, wine consumers still consumed less energy and more vegetables and fruit juices compared with beer consumers. Adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines did not differ between preference categories after multiple adjustments. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional analysis in a representative sample of the Dutch population, a beer preference was associated with less healthy dietary behaviour, especially compared with wine preference. However, these differences were largely explained by other socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference may not be independently related to diet.
Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Neve, M. De; Shelton, N.J. ; Tielemans, S.M.A.J. ; Stamatakis, E. - \ 2013
American Journal of Cardiology 112 (2013)3. - ISSN 0002-9149 - p. 380 - 386.
coronary-heart-disease - updated metaanalysis - cohort profile - health survey - leisure-time - risk-factors - follow-up - drinking - prevention - adults
Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as >= 5 and >= 4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p
Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract
Harter, T.S. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
rainbow-trout - salmo-gairdneri - single meal - in-vivo - absorption - drinking - feed - eels - dry
The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after the consumption of a single meal. Chyme was collected quantitatively and was analysed for osmolality and dry matter (DM) content. Postprandial water fluxes were calculated, while using yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker to account for the absorption of DM along the GIT. The largest differences in chyme characteristics between diets were observed in the stomach and decreased towards subsequent compartments. A high initial osmotic pressure was measured in the stomach for both diets (up to 49862 mOsm kg21) and was likely the driver for the endogeneous water influx to this compartment. Large additions of water were recorded to the stomach and proximal intestine for both diets and absorption of water took place in the mid- and distal intestine. Interestingly, the dietary treatment had an impact on water balance in the stomach and proximal intestine of the fish, but not in the mid- and distal intestine. A strong complementary relationship suggested that 59% of the water fluxes in the proximal intestine could be explained by previous additions to the stomach. Therefore, a higher dietary inclusion of starch led to a shift in water additions from the proximal intestine to the stomach. However, the sum of water additions to the GIT was not different between diets and was on average 6.5260.85 ml water g21 DM. The interactions between osmoregulation and digestion, in the GIT of fed freshwater fish, deserve further attention in future research.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: A population-based case-control study in China
Wu, M. ; Chang, S. ; Kampman, E. ; Kok, F.J. - \ 2013
International Journal of Cancer 132 (2013)8. - ISSN 0020-7136 - p. 1868 - 1877.
squamous-cell carcinoma - alcohol-dehydrogenase - aldehyde dehydrogenases - risk-factors - metabolism - consumption - variants - drinking - japanese - associations
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case–control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12–2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54–1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.
Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.
Berends, H. ; Reenen, C.G. van; Stockhofe, N. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Dairy Science 95 (2012)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3190 - 3199.
carbohydrate-composition - animal performance - calf diets - concentrate - milk - provision - mucosa - fermentation - frequency - drinking
The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2 successive 12-wk periods (period 1 and period 2). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 and partially replacing dry matter (DM) intake from maize silage and barley straw by concentrate during period 2 were tested. Solid feed during period 1 consisted of maize silage, barley straw, and concentrate (25:25:50 on a DM basis). Solid feed during period 2 consisted of maize silage and barley straw (50:50 ratio on DM basis) for the nonconcentrate groups, and maize silage, barley straw and concentrates (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for the concentrate groups. At the end of period 1 (n = 16) and at the end of period 2 (n = 90), parameters of animal performance, rumen development, rumen fermentation, ruminal drinking, and abomasal damage were examined. Partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 resulted in early rumen development (ERD) at the end of period 1, characterized by increased rumen weight, and an increased epithelial and absorptive surface area. Both ERD and partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased the rumen development score at the end of period 2. Although ERD calves consumed more solid feed and less milk replacer during period 1 and 2 than non-ERD calves, carcass weight gains at 25 wk were identical, and utilization of the solid feed provided appeared similar to that of milk replacer. Partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased dressing percentage and warm carcass weight. Plaque formation at the rumen mucosa was unaffected by ERD or partially replacing roughage by concentrates and generally low in all calves. The prevalence of large scars in the abomasum in ERD calves was decreased compared with non-ERD calves. This may indicate that ERD provided protection against abomasal lesions. In conclusion, early compared with late rumen development improves feed utilization and may be beneficial for abomasal health
Alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes mellitus: The Second Manifestations of ARTerial (SMART) disease study
Beulens, J.W.J. ; Algra, A. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Visseren, F.L.J. ; Grobbee, D.E. ; Graaf, Y. van der - \ 2010
Atherosclerosis 212 (2010)1. - ISSN 0021-9150 - p. 281 - 286.
coronary-heart-disease - acute myocardial-infarction - density-lipoprotein - men - cholesterol - drinking - health - adults - women - wine
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and specific vascular events and mortality in a high risk population of patients with clinical manifestations of vascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: Patients with clinically manifest vascular disease or diabetes (n=5447) from the SMART study were followed for cardiovascular events and mortality. Alcohol consumption was assessed with a baseline questionnaire and analysed in relation with coronary heart disease (CHD), amputations, stroke, and all-cause and vascular death. RESULTS: After a follow up of 4.7 years, we documented 363 cases of CHD, 187 cases of stroke, 79 amputations and 641 cases of all-cause death, of which 382 were vascular. In multivariate-adjusted models, alcohol consumption was inversely associated with CHD (p(linear trend)=0.007) and stroke (p(linear trend)=0.051) with respective hazard ratios of 0.39 (95%CI: 0.20-0.76) and 0.67 (0.31-1.46) for consuming 10-20 drinks/week compared with abstainers. We observed significant U-shaped associations between alcohol consumption and amputations (p(quadratic trend)=0.001), all-cause death (p(quadratic trend)=0.001) and vascular death (p(quadratic trend)=0.013). Hazard ratios for consuming 10-20 drinks/week were 0.29 (0.07-1.30) for amputations, 0.40 (0.24-0.69) for all-cause death and 0.34 (0.16-0.71) for vascular death compared with abstainers. Similar associations were observed for red wine consumption only. CONCLUSION: Moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) is not only associated with a reduced risk of vascular and all-cause death in a high risk patients with clinical manifestations of vascular disease, but also with reduced risks of non-fatal events like CHD, stroke and possibly amputations
Motivation for additional water use of growing-finishing pigs
Vermeer, H.M. ; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2009
Livestock Science 124 (2009)1-3. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 112 - 118.
requirements - drinking - behavior - demand - sows
Liquid fed growing-finishing pigs receive an amount of water in their ration that is more than their physiological requirement. For welfare reasons it can be argued that in addition to this diet, pigs may be motivated to obtain additional fresh water. The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypotheses that liquid fed pigs will work harder to obtain extra fresh water, compared to dry fed pigs which receive water in a conventional way. A consumer-demand technique was used, in which flow rate from an extra (test) drinker determined the ease with which pigs could obtain the water. The more persistent pigs were to obtain water from the test drinker (with declining flow rates), the harder they were assumed to work for it. Four treatments were divided over 48 pens of 12 finishing pigs in 2 batches (566 pigs). There was one Dry Feed treatment (D, with standard drinking nipple in a single space trough) and three liquid feeding systems: Long trough (LT); Sensor Feeding (S) and Variomix (V). Each pen had an additional drinker with a weekly randomly changing flow rate of 134, 356, 733 or 1041 ml/min. From the extra drinker pigs used on average 3.39a (D), 0.76b (LT), 0.58bc (S) and 0.44c (V) litre per day (different superscripts indicate differences P <0.05). The persistence to obtain water differed between the four treatments. This was indicated by the rate of decline (¿i) of the asymptotic curve depicting water disappearance at decreasing flow rates: ¿i = 0.00378a, 0.00274ab, 0.00122b and 0.00275ab for D, LT, S and V, respectively. This suggests that liquid fed pigs work equally hard (LT and V) or less hard (S) to obtain water from an extra drinking nipple, compared to dry fed pigs (D)
Applications of Calendar Instruments in Social Surveys: a review
Glasner, T.J. ; Vaart, W. van der - \ 2009
Quality and quantity: international journal of methodology 43 (2009)3. - ISSN 0033-5177 - p. 333 - 349.
life-history-calendar - icon/calendar-based questionnaire - assess occupational history/ - test-retest reliability - data-collection - drinking - quality
Retrospective reports in survey interviews and questionnaires are subject to many types of recall error, which affect completeness, consistency, and dating accuracy. Concerns about this problem have led to the development of so-called calendar instruments, or timeline techniques. These aided recall procedures have been designed to help respondents gain better access to long-term memory by providing a graphical time frame in which life history information can be represented. In order to obtain more insights into the potential benefits of calendar methodology, this paper presents a review of the application of calendar instruments, their design characteristics and effects on data quality. Calendar techniques are currently used in a variety of fields, including life course research, epidemiology and family planning studies. Despite the growing interest in these new methods, their application often lacks sufficient theoretical foundation and little attention has been paid to their effectiveness. Several recent studies however, have demonstrated that in comparison to more traditional survey methods, calendar techniques can improve some aspects of data quality. While calendar instruments have been shown to be potentially beneficial to retrospective data quality, there is an apparent need for methodological research that generates more systematic knowledge about their application in social surveys.
The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation
Abrahamse, P.A. ; Vlaeminck, B. ; Tamminga, S. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2008
Journal of Dairy Science 91 (2008)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4778 - 4792.
feeding-behavior - perennial ryegrass - transition period - corn-silage - patterns - drinking - cattle - diets - performance - absorption
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x 5 Latin square experiment with 15 dairy cows was repeated during early and late lactation. The 5 treatments were a TMR with ( all on dry matter basis) 55% roughage ( a 50: 50 mixture of corn silage and grass silage) and 45% concentrate ( a 50: 50 mixture of concentrate rich in structural carbohydrates and concentrate rich in nonstructural carbohydrates; treatment CON), a TMR with the concentrate mixture and 55% grass silage (RGS) or 55% corn silage (RCS), and a TMR with the roughage mixture and 45% of the concentrate rich in structural carbohydrates (CSC) or the concentrate rich in nonstructural carbohydrates (CNS). Meal criteria, determined using the Gaussian-Gaussian-Weibull method per animal per treatment, showed an interaction between lactation stage and treatment. Feed intake behavior variables were therefore calculated with meal criteria per treatment-lactation stage combination. Differences in feed intake behavior were more pronounced between treatments differing in roughage composition than between treatments differing in concentrate composition, probably related to larger differences in chemical composition and particle size between corn silage and grass silage than between the 2 concentrates. The number of meals was similar between treatments, but eating time was greater in RGS ( 227 min/d) and lesser in RCS ( 177 min/d) than the other treatments. Intake rate increased when the amount of grass silage decreased, whereas meal duration decreased simultaneously. These effects were in line with a decreased DMI of the RGS diet vs. the other treatments, probably related to the high neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. However, this effect was not found in CSC, although NDF content of the TMR, fractional clearance rate of NDF, and fractional degradation rate of NDF was similar between CSC and RGS. Rumen fluid pH was lesser, and molar proportions of acetic acid and of propionic acid were lesser and greater, respectively, in RCS compared with all other diets. Milk production did not differ between treatments. There was no effect of type of concentrate on milk composition, but diet RCS resulted in a lesser milk fat content and greater milk protein content than diet RGS. Lactation stage did affect short-term feed intake behavior and DMI, although different grass silages were fed during early and late lactation. The results indicate that short-term feed intake behavior is related to DMI and therefore may be a helpful tool in optimizing DMI and milk production in high-production dairy cows.
Vleesvarkens willen werken voor water : dier en welzijn
Vermeer, H.M. ; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2008
V-focus 5 (2008)Bijlage april (2). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 22 - 23.
varkenshouderij - varkens - vleesproductie - varkensvoeding - brijvoedering - droogvoer - drinken - wateropname (mens en dier) - vergelijkend onderzoek - pig farming - pigs - meat production - pig feeding - wet feeding - dry feeds - drinking - water intake - comparative research
Vleesvarkens op brijvoer zijn niet méér gemotiveerd om water uit een extra drinkbak op te nemen dan vleesvarkens op droogvoer. Beide groepen varkens blijven ook bij een hele lage doorstroomsnelheid water opnemen
Youth crowds and substance use: The impact of perceived group norm and multiple group identification
Verkooijen, K.T. ; Vries, N.K. de; Nielsen, G.A. - \ 2007
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 21 (2007)1. - ISSN 0893-164X - p. 55 - 61.
peer influence - planned behavior - risk behaviors - adolescence - smoking - affiliation - drinking - alcohol - perception - campaigns
The impact of group identity on adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use was examined through a postal survey. The study included adolescents who identified with 1 subgroup (n = 1425) as well as adolescents who identified with 2 (n = 895) or 3 (n = 339) subgroups. The results showed that identification with the pop, skate/hip-hop, techno, and hippie subgroups was associated with higher risks of substance use, whereas identification with the sporty, quiet, computer nerd, and religious subgroups was associated with lower risks. Perceived group norm mediated the group identity-substance use relationship. Furthermore, identification with multiple groups with corresponding norm increased norm-consistent substance use, whereas identification with multiple groups with opposing norms reduced normative behavior. Implications for health promotion are discussed.
Opvang en vervoederen van hemelwater op Aver Heino
Verstappen-Boerekamp, J.A.M. ; Wolters, G.M.V.H. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2000
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (Rapport / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden 182) - 16
drinken - drinkwater - rundvee - interceptie - regen - neerslag - waterbescherming - waterkwaliteit - alternatieve landbouw - proefbedrijven - rekeningen van landbouwbedrijf - drinking - drinking water - cattle - interception - rain - precipitation - water conservation - water quality - alternative farming - pilot farms - farm accounts
Op Aver Heino wordt sinds het najaar van 1995 van 2000 m2 dakoppervlak hemelwater opgevangen om te gebruiken voor het drenken van vee. In deze 3z jaar is met hemelwateropvang voor 50 % in de waterbehoefte voor het vee voorzien.
Wateropname door witvleeskalveren kan hoog oplopen
Ruis-Heutinck, L. ; Reenen, K. van - \ 2000
Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 13 (2000)6. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 28 - 30.
vleeskalveren - drinken - wateropname (mens en dier) - rundvleeskwaliteit - dierenwelzijn - prestatieniveau - veal calves - drinking - water intake - beef quality - animal welfare - performance
Wat is het effect van het verstrekken van drinkwater (naast ruwvoer en kalvermelk) aan witvleeskalveren op welzijn, vleeskwaliteit en technische resultaten? In dit artikel staan de resultaten ten aanzien van groei en voeropname, gezondheid, slachtkwaliteit en vleeskleur.
Opvang hemelwater loont nog niet
Verstappen-Boerekamp, J. ; Wolters, G. ; Schooten, H. van - \ 2000
Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 13 (2000)2. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 15 - 17.
melkveehouderij - melkvee - drinkwater - waterkwaliteit - regen - neerslag - interceptie - proefbedrijven - drinken - kosten - dairy farming - dairy cattle - drinking water - water quality - rain - precipitation - interception - pilot farms - drinking - costs
Op proefbedrijf Aver Heino is ruim 3z jaar ervaring opgedaan met het opvangen en vervoederen van hemelwater als alternatief voor leidingwater. Van het opgevangen hemelwater is zowel de hoeveelheid als de kwaliteit bepaald. Het water blijkt niet altijdte voldoen aan de kwaliteitseisen van drinkwater voor melkvee. Daarnaast zijn de kosten per kuub nog te hoog.
Goed voeren bespaart geld en mineralen
Duinkerken, G. van - \ 1999
Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden. Praktijkonderzoek 12 (1999)4. - ISSN 1386-8470 - p. 10 - 11.
melkvee - voedingsrantsoenen - voer - samenstelling - eiwitten - ureum - ruwvoer (roughage) - drinken - drinkwater - melkopbrengst - melkkwaliteit - eiwitgehalte - dairy cattle - feed rations - feeds - composition - proteins - urea - roughage - drinking - drinking water - milk yield - milk quality - protein content
Verstandig gebruik van eigen ruwvoer en gerichte aankoop van aanvullend voer maken een efficiënte voeding mogelijk.