Data from: The hydraulic efficiency–safety trade-off differs between lianas and trees
Sande, M.T. van der; Poorter, L. ; Schnitzer, S.A. ; Engelbrecht, B.M.J. ; Markesteijn, L. - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research
drought tolerance - functional traits - hydraulic conductivity - hydraulic architecture - plant-water relations - lianas - Panama - P50 - specia abundance - tropical forest
Hydraulic traits are important for woody plant functioning and distribution. Associations among hydraulic traits, other leaf and stem traits, and species’ performance are relatively well understood for trees, but remain poorly studied for lianas. We evaluated the coordination among hydraulic efficiency (i.e. maximum hydraulic conductivity), hydraulic safety (i.e. cavitation resistance), a suite of 8 morphological and physiological traits, and species’ abundances for saplings of 24 liana species and 27 tree species in wet tropical forests in Panama.
Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity
Carvalho, D.R.A. ; Torre, S. ; Kraniotis, D. ; Almeida, D.P.F. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Carvalho, S.M.P. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Plant Science 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-462X - 11 p.
tradescantia-virginiana - mass-spectrometry - response characteristics - drought tolerance - rose cultivars - cuticular wax - leaf anatomy - guard-cells - water-loss - cut roses
High relative air humidity (RH = 85%) during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV) 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61%) or high (92%) RH combined with a continuous low (0.08 m s-1) or high (0.92 m s-1) MOV. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].
QTLs for barley yield adaptation to Mediterranean environments in the ‘Nure’ × ‘Tremois’ biparental population
Tondelli, A. ; Francia, E. ; Visioni, A. ; Comadran, J. ; Mastrangelo, A.M. ; Akar, T. ; Al-Yassina, A. ; Ceccarelli, S. ; Grando, S. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Thomas, W.T.B. ; Stanca, A.M. ; Romagosa, I. ; Pecchioni, N. - \ 2014
Euphytica 197 (2014)1. - ISSN 0014-2336 - p. 73 - 86.
quantitative trait loci - hordeum-vulgare - drought tolerance - agronomic traits - flowering time - abiotic stress - grain-yield - major genes - linkage map - wheat
Multi-environment trials represent a highly valuable tool for the identification of the genetic bases of crop yield potential and stress adaptation. A Diversity Array Technology®-based barley map has been developed in the ‘Nure’
Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes
El-Soda, M. ; Boer, M.P. ; Bagheri, H. ; Hanhart, C.J. ; Koornneef, M. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)2. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 697 - 708.
by-environment interactions - root-system architecture - phenotypic plasticity - genetic architecture - drought tolerance - qtl analysis - plant - loci - arabidopsis - evolution
Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL–environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype–environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes
Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site
Eilmann, B. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Arx, G. von; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
Tree Physiology 34 (2014)8. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 882 - 893.
fagus-sylvatica l. - climate-change - european beech - scots pine - phenotypic plasticity - forest trees - drought tolerance - quercus-petraea - pubescent oak - norway spruce
Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial growth. Altogether, we conclude that the similarity in ring-width variation among provenances points to environmental control of this trait, whereas the differences encountered in wood-anatomical traits between the well-performing Bulgarian provenance and the other three provenances, as well as the consistent differences in flushing pattern over 3 years under various environmental conditions, support the hypothesis of genetic control of these features.
Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis
He, H. ; Souza Vidigal, D. De; Snoek, L.B. ; Schnabel, S.K. ; Nijveen, H. ; Hilhorst, H. ; Bentsink, L. - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)22. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 6603 - 6615.
sativa miller brassicaceae - abscisic-acid biosynthesis - maturation environment - drought tolerance - natural variation - key enzyme - dormancy - germination - thaliana - temperature
Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.
Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance
Liang, C. ; Prins, T.W. ; Wiel, C.C.M. van de; Kok, E.J. - \ 2014
Trends in Food Science and Technology 40 (2014)1. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 115 - 122.
risk-assessment - salt tolerance - transcription factors - salinity tolerance - transgenic plants - drought tolerance - gene flow - vegetable crops - gm crops - ipt gene
Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to the market, a food and environmental safety assessment is generally required. Although worldwide harmonised comparative approach is currently provided, risk assessors still face challenges to assess genetically modified crops with abiotic stress-tolerance. Here, we discuss current developments of abiotic stress tolerance as well as issues concerning food and environmental safety assessment of these crops, including current approaches, challenges and future directions.
Abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity regulates desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds
Maia de Oliveira, J. ; Dekkers, S.J.W. ; Dolle, M. ; Ligterink, W. ; Hilhorst, H.W.M. - \ 2014
New Phytologist 203 (2014)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 81 - 93.
bzip transcription factors - medicago-truncatula seeds - 2c protein phosphatases - signal-transduction - drought tolerance - thaliana - stress - gene - maturation - expression
During germination, orthodox seeds lose their desiccation tolerance (DT) and become sensitive to extreme drying. Yet, DT can be rescued, in a well-defined developmental window, by the application of a mild osmotic stress before dehydration. A role for abscisic acid (ABA) has been implicated in this stress response and in DT re-establishment. However, the path from the sensing of an osmotic cue and its signaling to DT re-establishment is still largely unknown. Analyses of DT, ABA sensitivity, ABA content and gene expression were performed in desiccation- sensitive (DS) and desiccation-tolerant Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Furthermore, loss and re-establishment of DT in germinated Arabidopsis seeds was studied in ABA-deficient and ABA-insensitive mutants. We demonstrate that the developmental window in which DT can be re-established correlates strongly with the window in which ABA sensitivity is still present. Using ABA biosynthesis and signaling mutants, we show that this hormone plays a key role in DT re-establishment. Surprisingly, re-establishment of DT depends on the modulation of ABA sensitivity rather than enhanced ABA content. In addition, the evaluation of several ABA-insensitive mutants, which can still produce normal desiccation-tolerant seeds, but are impaired in the re-establishment of DT, shows that the acquisition of DT during seed development is genetically different from its re-establishment during germination.
Genotype x environment interaction QTL mapping in plants: lessons from Arabidopsis
El-Soda, M. ; Malosetti, M. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Koornneef, M. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2014
Trends in Plant Science 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 390 - 398.
quantitative trait loci - genome-wide association - adaptive phenotypic plasticity - flowering time - natural variation - mixed-model - missing heritability - drought tolerance - complex traits - life-history
Plant growth and development are influenced by the genetic composition of the plant (G), the environment (E), and the interaction between them (G × E). To produce suitable genotypes for multiple environments, G × E should be accounted for and assessed in plant-breeding programs. Here, we review the genetic basis of G × E and its consequence for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in biparental and genome-wide association (GWA) mapping populations. We also consider the implications of G × E for understanding plant fitness trade-offs and evolutionary ecology
Evaluation of climate adaptation options for Sudano-Sahelian cropping systems
Traore, B. ; Wijk, M.T. van; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Corbeels, M. ; Rufino, M.C. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2014
Field Crops Research 156 (2014). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 63 - 75.
millet pennisetum-americanum - lowland tropical maize - west-african monsoon - pearl-millet - grain-yield - drought tolerance - plant-population - water-stress - variability - sorghum
In the Sudano-Sahelian region, smallholder agricultural production is dominated by rain-fed production of millet, sorghum and maize for food consumption and of cotton for the market. A major constraint for crop production is the amount of rainfall and its intra and inter-annual variability. We evaluated the effects of planting date on the yield of different varieties of four major crops (maize, millet, sorghum and cotton) over three contrasting growing seasons in 2009–2011 (with 842 mm, 1248 mm and 685 mm of rainfall respectively) with the aim of identifying climate adaptation options in the Sudano-Sahelian region. Three planting dates (early, medium, and late) and three varieties of long, medium, and short duration of each crop were compared. For fertilized cereal crops, maize out yielded millet and sorghum by respectively 57% and 45% across the three seasons. Analysis of 40 years of weather data indicates that this finding holds for the longer time periods than the length of this trial. Late planting resulted in significant yield decreases for maize, sorghum and cotton, but not for millet. However, a short duration variety of millet was better adapted for late planting. When the rainy season starts late, sorghum planting can be delayed from the beginning of June to early July without substantial reductions in grain yield. Cotton yield at early planting was 28% larger than yield at medium planting and late planting gave the lowest yield with all three varieties. For all four crops the largest stover yields were obtained with early planting and the longer planting was delayed, the less stover was produced. There was an interaction between planting date and variety for millet and sorghum, while for maize and cotton the best planting date was more affected by the weather conditions. The findings of this study can support simple adaptation decisions: priority should be given to planting cotton early; maize is the best option if fertilizer is available; planting of maize and sorghum can be delayed by up to a month without strong yield penalties; and millet should be planted last.
Plastic Growth response of European beech provenances to dry site conditions
Stojnic, S. ; Sass, U.G.W. ; Orlovic, S. ; Matovic, B. ; Eilmann, B. - \ 2013
Iawa Journal 34 (2013)4. - ISSN 0928-1541 - p. 475 - 484.
fagus-sylvatica l. - phenotypic plasticity - drought tolerance - climate-change - life-history - tree-growth - xylem - cavitation - variability - embolism
Due to projected global warming, there is a great concern about the ability of European beech to adapt to future climate conditions. Provenance trials provide an excellent basis to assess the potential of various provenances to adjust to given climate conditions. In this study we compared the performance of four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances growing in a provenance trial at the Fruška Gora Mountain, Serbia. Three of the investigated provenances (Höllerbach and Hasbruch from Germany and Vrani Kamen from Croatia) originate from moist sites, with annual precipitation sums being twice as high as at the provenance trial in Serbia. The performance of these provenances are compared to the growth of the local provenance Fruška Gora which is well adapted to dry site conditions. We analysed tree-ring width, mean vessel area, vessel density and water-conductive area for the period from 2006 to 2012. In spite of differences in climate conditions at their place of origin all beech provenances showed a similar pattern in radial increment. Also the wood- anatomical variables showed similar inter-annual patterns for all provenances and no significant differences between the provenances. This indicates that beech provenances from moist environments can adjust to the relatively dry temperate climate in Serbia.
Complex genetics controls natural variation among seed quality phenotypes in a recombinant inbred population of an interspecific cross between Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium
Kazmi, R.H. ; Khan, N. ; Willems, L.A.J. ; Heusden, A.W. van; Ligterink, J.W. ; Hilhorst, H.W.M. - \ 2012
Plant, Cell & Environment 35 (2012)5. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 929 - 951.
quantitative trait loci - abiotic stress tolerance - abscisic-acid - arabidopsis-thaliana - qtl analysis - drought tolerance - salt tolerance - line population - low-temperature - water-stress
Seed quality in tomato is associated with many complex physiological and genetic traits. While plant processes are frequently controlled by the action of small- to large-effect genes that follow classic Mendelian inheritance, our study suggests that seed quality is primarily quantitative and genetically complex. Using a recombinant inbred line population of Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing seed quality phenotypes under non-stress, as well as salt, osmotic, cold, high-temperature and oxidative stress conditions. In total, 42 seed quality traits were analysed and 120 QTLs were identified for germination traits under different conditions. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed between germination traits under optimal conditions, as well as under different stress conditions. In conclusion, one or more QTLs were identified for each trait with some of these QTLs co-locating. Co-location of QTLs for different traits can be an indication that a locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. However, several QTLs also dissected seed quality in its separate components, suggesting different physiological mechanisms and signalling pathways for different seed quality attributes.
Determinants of barley grain yield in a wide range of Mediterranean environments
Francia, E. ; Tondelli, A. ; Rizza, F. ; Badeck, F.W. ; Li Destri Nicosia, O. ; Akar, T. ; Grando, S. ; Al-Yassin, A. ; Benkelkacim, A. ; Thomas, W.T.B. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Romagosa, I. ; Stanca, A.M. ; Pechionni, N. - \ 2011
Field Crops Research 120 (2011)1. - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 169 - 178.
carbon-isotope discrimination - drought tolerance - stress tolerance - number - genes - wheat - improvement - adaptation - temperature - photoperiod
Barley grain yield in rainfed Mediterranean regions can be largely influenced by terminal drought events. In this study the ecophysiological performance of the ‘Nure’ (winter) × ‘Tremois’ (spring) barley mapping population (118 Doubled Haploids, DHs) was evaluated in a multi-environment trial of eighteen site–year combinations across the Mediterranean Basin during two consecutive harvest years (2004 and 2005). Mean grain yield of sites ranged from 0.07 to 5.43 t ha-1, clearly dependent upon both the total water input (rainfall plus irrigation) and the water stress index (WSI) accumulated during the growing season. All DHs were characterized for possessing molecular marker alleles tagging four genes that regulate barley cycle, i.e. Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2, Ppd-H2 and Eam6. Grain yield differences were initially interpreted in terms of mean differences between genotypes (G), environments (E), and for each combination of genotype and environment (GE) through a “full interaction” ANOVA model. Variance components estimates clearly showed the greater importance of GE over G, although both were much lower than E. Alternative linear and bilinear models of increasing complexity were used to describe GE. A linear model fitting allelic variation at the four genes explained genotype main effect and genotype × environment interaction much better than growth habit itself. Adaptation was primarily driven by the allelic constitution at three out of the four segregating major genes, i.e. Vrn-H1, Ppd-H2 and Eam6. In fact, the three genes together explained 47.2% of G and 26.3% of GE sum of squares. Grain yield performance was more determined by the number of grains per unit area than by the grain weight (phenotypic correlation across all genotypic values: r = 0.948 and 0.559, respectively). The inter-relationships among a series of characters defining grain yield and its components were also explored as a function of the length of the different barley developmental phases, i.e. vegetative, reproductive, and grain filling stages. In most environments, the best performing (adapted) genotypes were those with faster development until early occurrence of anthesis. This confirmed the crucial role of the period defining the number of grains per unit area in grain yield determination under Mediterranean environments
Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties
Katerji, N. ; Hoorn, J.W. van; Hamdy, A. ; Mastrorilli, M. ; Fares, C. ; Ceccarelli, S. ; Grando, S. ; Oweis, T. - \ 2006
Agricultural Water Management 85 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 184 - 192.
soil-salinity - water-stress - drought tolerance - hordeum-vulgare - durum-wheat - yield - growth - chickpea - traits - plants
Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter experiment with the variety ISABON3, a very salt tolerant land race originally from Afghanistan. The variety ISABON3 showed a larger grain and straw yield under non-saline and saline conditions. The higher salt tolerance expressed itself during the growth period in: a higher stomatal conductance during the irrigation interval; a higher maximum osmotic potential; a more vigorous growth, less affected by salinity; no salinity effect on plant height and number of productive stems; less salinity effect on water use efficiency. The less tolerant variety Melusine showed a better grain quality, expressed by its protein content that even slightly increased at increasing salinity against a decrease of the protein content of ISABON3. The varietal salt tolerance clearly affects the water use efficiency and the salt tolerance classification. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.