Anaerobic manganese- or iron-mediated pharmaceutical degradation in water
Liu, Wenbo - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.M. Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): A.A.M. Langenhoff; N.B. Sutton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432214 - 235
drugs - biodegradation - anaerobic conditions - manganese oxides - iron oxides - removal - water pollution - geneesmiddelen - biodegradatie - anaërobe omstandigheden - mangaanoxiden - ijzeroxiden - verwijdering - waterverontreiniging
Pharmaceutical compounds, originating mainly from industrial production and public consumption, are detected at extremely low levels (ng·L-1 –µg·L-1) in groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. So far, the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals and their intermediates have been widely reported, and include toxicity to humans and ecosystem, and enhancement of antimicrobial resistance. These effects call for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from water. This can be done by both abiotic and biotic degradation in the presence of oxygen (aerobic conditions) or in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic conditions). The technologies under anaerobic conditions are generally more sustainable and attractive because they require less energy and produce less pollutants, such as greenhouse gas, compared to technologies under aerobic conditions. Anaerobic degradation with metal oxides such as manganese (Mn) or iron (Fe) oxides has clear advantages in both drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment. Therefore, anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals in water with Mn or Fe is promising to study and develop into applicable techniques. This thesis investigates the feasibility of anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals in Mn- and Fe-mediated systems via both abiotic removal processes and by biodegradation. In Chapter 1, the scientific and technological motivation of the thesis is proposed.
Applications and scientific developments of Mn- or Fe-based technologies to remove pharmaceuticals from water are reviewed and discussed in Chapter 2. Based on the removal mechanisms found in nature and technical systems, these Mn- or Fe-based technologies can be classified into 3 groups – physico-chemical removal, chemical removal, and biologically-related removal. A review of previous research indicates that pharmaceutical removal with Mn- or Fe-based technologies from water is efficient, and the removal efficiency varies whit the different technologies applied. Positive and negative aspects of these processes, such as (non-)specificity, treatment conditions, formation of and effects of intermediates and by-products, and effects of Mn or Fe compounds were evaluated. Based on that, new and promising Mn- or Fe-based technologies are proposed as future potential effective and sustainable pharmaceutical removal technologies. Among these proposed technologies, the dissimilatory Mn or Fe reduction is identified as a most attractive, sustainable, and low-cost technology because this novel technology requires neutral conditions and the bacteria involved are able to completely mineralize the pharmaceuticals.
The anaerobic biodegradation of pharmaceuticals coupled to dissimilatory Mn(IV) or Fe(III) reduction is tested with different types of Mn(IV) and Fe(III) (Chapter 3). With a mixture of adapted sediment to metoprolol and chemically synthesized Mn(IV), anaerobic biodegradation with amorphous, chemically synthesized Mn(IV) can effectively remove caffeine (26%) and naproxen (52%) after 42 days of incubation. Further experiments with Mn(IV) obtained from drinking water treatment plants show that this type of Mn(IV) can be used to remove metoprolol and propranolol, with respectively 96% and 31% after 72 days of incubation. The inoculum can also use Fe(III) as alternative electron acceptor to degrade metoprolol. Results show that metoprolol degradation with insoluble chemically synthesized Fe(III) and soluble Fe(III)-citrate reaches 57% and 52%, respectively. No significant removal is observed in all the abiotic controls, showing that the biodegradation is the main removal mechanism in pharmaceutical removal with Mn(IV) or Fe(III).
Abiotic removal of selected pharmaceuticals with MnO2 is compared under aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions (Chapter 4). Results show that anaerobic conditions promote diclofenac removal, while it inhibits removal of metoprolol and propranolol. In demineralized water (demiwater), diclofenac removal under anaerobic conditions is 78%, and higher than the 59% found under aerobic conditions. In 50 mM phosphate buffer, and under aerobic conditions, the diclofenac removal achieves complete removal. Under anaerobic conditions the observed removal is similar as in demiwater. Preliminary investigation shows that diclofenac removal with MnO2 under anaerobic condition is better at acidic pH (pH 4 – 5) and the removal is higher when applying amorphous MnO2 compared to applying crystalline MnO2. The key factors determining the extent of pharmaceutical removal with MnO2 under anaerobic conditions are the following: the chemical structure and molecular properties of the pharmaceuticals, and the properties and activity of reactive sites on the MnO2 surface.
Applying MnO2 under anaerobic conditions to remove diclofenac from water is further investigated (Chapter 5). Results show that increasing the temperature from 10 to 30°C leads to an increase in the diclofenac removal, whereas further increase of temperature to 40°C results in a decrease in the removal. The latter effect is possibly due to Ostwald ripening and/or aging processes. Increasing the amount of MnO2 increases the diclofenac degradation, as this provides more reactive sites for diclofenac conversions. Further shifting the molar ratio of MnO2 and diclofenac from 2200:1 to 8900:1, however, does not further increase diclofenac removal, probably due to limited oxidation capacity of MnO2. The presence of metal ions strongly inhibits the diclofenac removal following the order of Mn2+> Ca2+ ≈ Mg2+ >Fe3+. The metal ions appear to adsorb onto the MnO2 surface and compete with diclofenac for reactive sites. Phosphate has a diverse effect on diclofenac degradation: low concentrations inhibit and high concentrations promote the removal. The humic acids significantly promotes diclofenac removal, probably caused by affecting MnO2 reactive surface sites.
To reuse the Mn or Fe during pharmaceutical removal under anaerobic conditions, biological production of Mn(IV) or Fe(III) is investigated under oxygen-limiting conditions, or with nitrate as electron acceptor (Chapter 6). Mn(IV) is successfully produced with Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria under O2-limiting conditions, and the produced Mn(IV) is amorphous. Pharmaceutical removal with the Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria is not observed. In abiotic pharmaceutical removal, using Mn(IV) from a drinking water production plant, is effective to remove metoprolol and propranolol. The successful production of Fe(III) is also observed under NO3--reducing conditions via biological processes. The biologically produced Fe(III) is also amorphous. There is no significant removal of pharmaceuticals coupled to the biological Fe(III) production. When comparing the biologically produced Fe(III) and other types of Fe(III), only Fe(III) from a drinking water production plant and one Fe(III)-based sorbent can remove propranolol.
Finally, the outcomes of this thesis are discussed and provide insights into the application of anaerobic degradation of pharmaceuticals with mediation of Mn and Fe oxides (Chapter 7). The removal mechanisms include adsorption, chemical oxidation, and biodegradation and are identified to contribute to the different removal processes. The anaerobic Mn(IV)- and Fe(III)-mediated pharmaceutical degradation processes are evaluated on the basis of removal performance, environmental and operational conditions, sustainability of the processes, as well as the Mn and Fe types involved. Results described in this thesis provide a proof of principal for anaerobic Mn(IV)- or Fe(III)-mediated degradation in removing pharmaceuticals from water. To translate the process into a pharmaceutical removal technology for water treatment, three steps are proposed including (1) exploring the limits of anaerobic Mn- or Fe-mediated pharmaceutical degradation processes; (2) simulating the process in practice with a controlled systems, and (3) translating the processes to a pilot-scale system before a full-scale application. In addition, research topics are identified that can help to meet these challenges in the future. In summary, anaerobic Mn(IV)- or Fe(III)-mediated systems can remove pharmaceuticals from water through both abiotic removal and biotic degradation. These are promising processes which can be developed into a robust, sustainable, affordable, and environmentally friendly technology to remove pharmaceuticals from water.
Making medicine out of waste: the solution for creating a biobased economy?
Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : WURcast
drugs - biobased economy - waste utilization
How are we coping with the scarcity of resources? Are there alternatives?
Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in constructed wetlands: mechanisms and application
He, Yujie - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.H.M. Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): A.A.M. Langenhoff; N.B. Sutton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436328 - 290
artificial wetlands - drugs - waste water treatment - biodegradation - helofytenfilters - geneesmiddelen - afvalwaterbehandeling - biodegradatie
A constructed wetland (CW) is an integrated and enhanced version of natural ecosystem for fate and transport of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC). This thesis demonstrates removal mechanisms of PhACs in CWs and their application as post-treatment processes to eliminate PhACs from wastewater effluent. Four main subjects were investigated in this thesis: 1) mechanisms of PhAC removal in individual processes in CWs, including photodegradation, sorption, biodegradation, and phytoremediation and their interactions; 2) effect of important environmental factors (i.e. dissolved organic matter, redox conditions) on the removal processes; 3) enhancement of photodegradation and biodegradation capacity in CWs; 4) fate and distribution of PhACs in CWs by using chemical and toxicological analytical tools.
Metabolic engineering of biosynthesis and sequestration of artemisinin
Wang, B. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Sander van der Krol. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576728 - 210
artemisinin - nicotiana benthamiana - arabidopsis - biosynthesis - malaria - drugs - genetic engineering - metabolism - artemisinine - nicotiana benthamiana - arabidopsis - biosynthese - malaria - geneesmiddelen - genetische modificatie - metabolisme
The sesquiterpenoid artemisinin (AN) is the most important medicine for the treatment of malaria in humans. The industrial production of AN still mainly depends on extraction from the plant Artemisia annua. However, the concentration of AN in A. annua is low. Although different engineering strategies have been used in both A. annua and heterologous plant and yeast production platforms, the worldwide capacity and production costs for AN are not in balance with its demand (Chapter 1). Although the genes encoding for the entire AN biosynthesis pathway (AN-PW) of the AN precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) have been identified, the application of these genes in pathway engineering seem to be limited by lack of control over product transport and sequestration. At the onset of this thesis project there was no information on transport in the AN-PW. However, it was known that DHAA is converted into AN outside the glandular trichome cells of A. annua. Therefore, in this thesis I tried to gain more knowledge on transport within the AN-PW and the use of different metabolic engineering strategies to improve the production of AN.
At the onset of my PhD project, the AN-PW genes from two different A. annua chemotypes were compared to understand the basis of different relative activities in the two branches of the AN-PW (Chapter 2). For these assays we used transient expression in N. benthamiana. In the AN-PW, artemisinic aldehyde (AAA) is at a branch point as it can be converted to artemisinic acid (AA) by amorphadiene oxidase (AMO), or to dehydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAA) by artemisinic aldehyde Δ11 (13) reductase (DBR2). AA is the precursor for arteannuin B (AB) while DHAAA may be converted by a CYP71AV1 or an ALDH1 to dehydroartemisinic acid (DHAA), the precursor for AN. In this chapter we demonstrate that the CYP71AV1 from a high AN production (HAP) chemotype has reduced activity in the AB branch of the pathway compared to the CYP71AV1 from a low AN production (LAP) chemotype. In addition, we show that the relative expression levels of DBR2 and ALDH1 also affect the AN/AB chemotype. The low catalytic efficiency of AMO from the HAP chemotype may be caused by a deletion of seven amino acids at the N-terminus of the protein compared to CYP71AV1 from LAP. Ectopic expression of the AN-PW genes in N. benthamiana showed that the bulk of the PW products are modified by glycosylation and glutathione conjugations. These side reactions therefore compete with the biosynthesis flux towards the AN precursor DHAA. At this point in my thesis the ectopic expression of AN-PW genes in N. benthamiana had not yielded any AN. At a later stage it became clear that this was due to harvest of leaves at 5-7 days post agro-infiltration (dpi), while AN in N. benthamiana leaves expressing AN-PW genes only becomes detectable after 7 dpi.
Glycosylation of the bulk of the AN-PW products in N. benthamiana stresses the need for an efficient transport of (DH)AA to the outside of cells in order to escape from the glycosylation reactions. In Chapter 3, transport and sequestration of AN precursors was investigated by studying the effect of membrane transporters (PDRs) and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Hereto, two membrane transporters with activity towards AN-PW products were made available by the group of Prof. Marc Boutry and we isolated three LTP genes from Artemisia annua which showed expression in the glandular trichomes. In this chapter we show that AaLTP3 displays specific activity, together with AaPDR2 towards transport of (DH)AA to the apoplast in N. benthamiana. Moreover, infiltration experiments with (DH)AA in N. benthamiana leaves revealed that these compounds are rapidly taken up by the cells and that inside the cells there is a strong reverse flux in the AN-PW by conversion of (DH)AA towards (DH)AAA and (DH)AAOH. Subsequently we demonstrated that AaLTP3 has a stronger activity in keeping products in the apoplast than the AaPDR2 membrane transporter. Therefore, I suggest that by removal of (DH)AA from the cytosol through transport over the plasma membrane by AaPDR2 and subsequent sequestration in the apoplast by AaLTP3, AaLTP3 creates sink activity which prevents reflux of (DH)AA from the apoplast back into the cells. AaLTP3 therefore contributes to a directional flux through the AN-PW towards the end product (DH)AA. Finally, in this work we could also for the first time detect AN and AB in N. benthamiana leaves by extraction of necrotic leaves at 13 dpi.
Because in A. annua glandular trichome cells both the AN sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway and the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway are active, we explored whether there is a functional interaction between these two major secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. In Chapter 4 we describe how we manipulate the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in N. benthamiana leaves using the Antirhinum majus transcription factor Rosea1 (ROS) and test coexpression of ROS with AN-PW genes. The co-expression of ROS stimulates AN-PW product accumulation. Subsequent analysis indicates that this is most likely from transcriptional activation of the enzyme Mevalonate Kinase (MVK) in the mevalonate pathway, which provides precursors for the sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that production of flavonoids competes with AN-PW product accumulation, as co-expression of AN-PW genes with ROS, but simultaneous inhibition of chalcone synthase (CHS) by a CHSRNAi construct, results in higher AN-PW product levels. However, accumulation of the end products AN and AB was not affected significantly. Finally, the combined expression of AN-PW+ROS+AaPDR2+AaLTP3+ CHSRNAi results in highest sequestration of (DH)AA in the apoplast and highest accumulation of the end products AN and AB in N. benthamiana.
During my thesis work, in a related project it was found that expression of another sesquiterpene biosynthesis gene (caryophyllene synthase; CST) in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in higher caryophyllene emission for a transformant expressing a genomic DNA of CST, compared with a similar transformant expressing a CST cDNA described in literature. This suggested that ectopic expression of intron containing genes is more efficient than ectopic expression of cDNAs. To test whether in the context of metabolic engineering the use of genomic (intron-containing) genes is more efficient than the use of the corresponding cDNA we generated a set of stable transformed Arabidopsis lines with either genomic CST (gCST), cDNA CST (cCST), genomic amorphadiene synthesis (gADS) and cDNA ADS (cADS). In chapter 5 we show that indeed the lines with overexpression of the genomic clones yield higher levels of the anticipated products (caryophyllene or amorphadiene) than the lines with overexpression of the corresponding cDNAs. Transcript analysis showed that for gCST the increase in caryophyllene production was higher than can be explained solely by the increase in CST transcription. In the context of transient expression in N. benthamiana leaves the intron-mediated-enhancement effect was less pronounced.
In the final discussion chapter 6 I review limitations and potential solutions to metabolic engineering of the AN-PW in plants, and I discuss the impact of our findings on AN production capacity using transient expression versus natural production in A. annua. Moreover, I discuss how the finding of this thesis go beyond just insights into the AN-PW as especially the identification of the role of LTPs in sesquestration of (sesqui)terpenes into the apoplast may have an impact on the metabolic engineering efforts of many other (sesqui)terpene pathways. Because some plant hormones are also terpenoid products the newly identified role of LTPs may also have impact on a deeper understanding of hormone signalling in plants. I have already started exploring this path by generating a set of Arabidopsis plants with overexpression of different Arabidopsis LTP genes to test whether any hormone related traits are altered (Chapter 6). Preliminary results do indeed confirm a role of LTPs in endogenous plant hormone balance, something worthwhile to be further explored in future research.
Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system
Butkovskyi, A. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Research 85 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 384 - 392.
Anaerobic degradation - Black water - Grey water - Micropollutant removal - Pharmaceuticals - UASB reactor
Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits.
Organisms on the drawing board
Martins dos Santos, Vitor - \ 2015
biobased economy - yeasts - bacteria - synthetic chemistry - dna - drugs - biobased chemistry
Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions
Gils, J.A.G. ; Coppens, L.J.C. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Raterman, B.W. ; Wezel, A.P. van - \ 2015
Water Research 81 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 356 - 365.
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - inventarisaties - nederland - waste water treatment - water treatment - drugs - surface water - inventories - netherlands - personal care products - endocrine disrupting compounds - organic persistent pollutants - health-risk assessment - municipal waste-water - aquatic environment - drinking-water - climate-change - transformation products - continental-scale
For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at, or in the service area of, STPs. This study was performed on a nation-wide scale for the Netherlands. Point source emissions included were 345 Dutch STPs and nine rivers from neighboring countries. The Dutch surface waters were represented by 2511 surface water units. Modeling was performed for two extreme discharge conditions. Monitoring data of 7 locations along the rivers Rhine and Meuse fall mostly within the range of modeled concentrations. Half of the abstracted volumes of raw water for drinking water production, and a quarter of the Natura 2000 areas (European Union nature protection areas) hosted by the surface waters, are influenced by STPs at low discharge. The vast majority of the total impact of all Dutch STPs during both discharge conditions can be attributed to only 19% of the STPs with regard to the drinking water function, and to 39% of the STPs with regard to the Natura 2000 function. Attributing water treatment technologies to STPs as one of the possible measures to improve water quality and protect susceptible functions can be done in a spatially smart and cost-effective way, using consumption-based detailed hydrological and water quality modeling.
Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation
Butkovskyi, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts; Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): L. Hernández Leal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574168 - 189
verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - afvalwater - stedelijk afvalwater - volksgezondheidsbevordering - waterzuivering - verwijdering - geneesmiddelen - farmaceutische producten - antibioticumresiduen - residuen - pollutants - pollution - water pollution - waste water - municipal wastewater - sanitation - water treatment - removal - drugs - pharmaceutical products - antibiotic residues - residues
Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and the rest of the domestic wastewater (grey water). Different characteristics of wastewater streams facilitate recovery of energy, nutrients and fresh water. To ensure agricultural or ecological reuse of liquid and solid products of source separated sanitation, the quality of these materials has to meet (future) standards, i.e. for micropollutant concentrations. Therefore the objectives of this thesis included assessment of micropollutant content of source separated sanitation products intended for resource recovery and examination of post-treatment technologies for micropollutant mitigation within source separated sanitation
Hoeveel is onze poep eigenlijk waard?
Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - rioolwater - mestvergisting - geneesmiddelen - fosfaat - terugwinning - algenteelt - helofytenfilters - feces - nieuwe sanitatie - biobased economy - lesmaterialen - waste water treatment - water treatment - sewage - manure fermentation - drugs - phosphate - recovery - algae culture - artificial wetlands - faeces - new sanitation - biobased economy - teaching materials
Prof. dr. Louise Vet van Wageningen UR heeft een donkerbruin vermoeden dat we waardevolle stoffen door het toilet spoelen. Sterker nog: ze weet het zeker. Voedingsstoffen, zelfs medicijnen: In dit college vertelt ze hoe we met algen en nieuwe technologie kostbaar spul uit ons bruine spul kunnen halen. Louise Vet is hoogleraar Evolutionaire Ecologie aan de Universiteit Wageningen en directeur van het Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie. Professor Vet is een vrouw met een missie: een zo duurzaam mogelijke wereld realiseren. Zo gaf ze zelf het goede voorbeeld door het kantoorcomplex en lab waar zij haar onderzoek doet geheel via de cradle-to-cradle filosofie in te richten.
Kas : bron van hoogwaardige inhoudsstoffen
Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, - \ 2014
Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw
glastuinbouw - geneesmiddelen - plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - biobased economy - lesmaterialen - greenhouse horticulture - drugs - plant composition - plant extracts - biobased economy - teaching materials
Animatie zonder gesproken tekst
Screening van hot spots van nieuwe verontreinigingen : een pilot studie in bodem, grondwater en oppervlaktewater
Lahr, J. ; Laak, T.L. ter; Derksen, A. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2538) - 87
bodemverontreiniging - waterverontreiniging - verontreinigende stoffen - toxicologie - geneesmiddelen - ecologische risicoschatting - biotesten - inventarisaties - soil pollution - water pollution - pollutants - toxicology - drugs - ecological risk assessment - bioassays - inventories
Onder nieuwe verontreinigingen verstaan we stoffen die nog niet of niet volledig zijn gereguleerd en waarvan de milieurisico’s vaak onbekend zijn. Daarbij gaat het om stoffen als natuurlijke hormonen en hormoonverstorende stoffen (weekmakers, detergenten, brandvertragers, e.d.), humane geneesmiddelen, diergeneesmiddelen, nanodeeltjes en microplastics. In de ‘waterwereld’ is altijd meer aandacht besteed aan de nieuwe verontreinigingen dan binnen andere beleidsvelden. In de bodem zijn de aanwezigheid en de mogelijke risico’s grotendeels onbekend. In 2013 heeft een consortium van diverse onderzoeksinstanties en stakeholders een pilotonderzoek uitgevoerd naar de aanwezigheid en mogelijke risico’s van hormonen en geneesmiddelen in het systeem bodem - grondwater - oppervlaktewater.
Impact van rwzi’s op geneesmiddelconcentraties in kwetsbaar oppervlaktewater
Coppens, L. ; Gils, J. van; Laak, T.L. ter - \ 2014
H2O online (2014)15 november.
waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - oppervlaktewater - afvoerwater - waterkwaliteit - modellen - water treatment - drugs - surface water - effluents - water quality - models
Voor geneesmiddelen zijn de rwzi’s de belangrijkste route naar het oppervlaktewater. We hebben een model ontwikkeld waarmee we de invloed van rwzi’s op de kwaliteit van het oppervlaktewater in Nederland kunnen voorspellen. Dat maakt inzichtelijk waar maatregelen het meest effectief zijn. We hebben het model doorgerekend voor twee verschillende geneesmiddelen en twee extreme afvoercondities.
Distributed light sources for photocatalytic water treatment
Kuipers, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Harry Bruning; D.R. Yntema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571099 - 198
waterzuivering - geneesmiddelen - degradatie - lichtdoorlating - katalyse - led lampen - energie - water treatment - drugs - degradation - light transmission - catalysis - led lamps - energy
In dit proefschrift wordt een nieuwe fotokatalytische reactor met gedistribueerde lichtbronnen gepresenteerd. De nieuwe fotokatalytische reactor maakt gebruik van draadloze energie overdracht om ultraviolet-licht-emitterende diodes (UV-LEDs) van energie te voorzien. De draadloze UV-LEDs worden gedistribueerd door de reactor en verdelen hun licht over het oppervlakte van de fotokatalyst.
Rapid analysis of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry
Duvivier, W.F. ; Beek, T.A. van; Pennings, E.J.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2014
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 28 (2014)7. - ISSN 0951-4198 - p. 682 - 690.
synthetic cannabinoids - cocaine - drugs - identification - capabilities - metabolites - validation - samples - abuse
RATIONALE - Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. METHODS - Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using ¿-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. RESULTS - The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R2¿=¿0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. CONCLUSIONS - A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse.
Bestrijdingsmiddelen en nieuwe stoffen en in beeld gebracht voor Maasstroomgebied
Verhagen, F. ; Kruijne, R. ; Klein, J. - \ 2014
H2O online 2014 (2014)26 feb.
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - waterverontreiniging - pesticiden - geneesmiddelen - inventarisaties - kaderrichtlijn water - kwaliteitsnormen - limburg - noord-brabant - zuidhollandse eilanden - catchment hydrology - water pollution - pesticides - drugs - inventories - water framework directive - quality standards - limburg - noord-brabant - zuidhollandse eilanden
De schadelijkheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen en nieuwe stoffen – zoals geneesmiddelen – in het water staat steeds meer in de belangstelling. Hoe groot is het probleem? Worden normen overschreden? En wat is de herkomst van de verontreiniging? Voor het Maasstroomgebied zijn deze vragen in diverse studies in beeld gebracht. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht.
Cyclosporine A treated in vitro models induce cholestasis response through comparison of phenotype-directed gene expression analysis of in vivo Cyclosporine A-induced cholestasis
Kienhuis, A.S. ; Vitins, A.P. ; Pennings, J.L.A. ; Pronk, T.E. ; Speksnijder, E.N. ; Roodbergen, M. ; Delft, J.H.M. van; Luijten, M. ; Ven, L.T.M. van der - \ 2013
Toxicology Letters 221 (2013)3. - ISSN 0378-4274 - p. 225 - 236.
proliferator-activated receptor - phospholipid transfer protein - nuclear receptors - bile-acids - liver - hepatotoxicity - transporters - mechanisms - mice - drugs
In vitro models for hepatotoxicity testing are a necessity for advancement of toxicological research. Assessing the in vitro response requires in vivo validated gene sets reflective of the hepatotoxic phenotype. Cholestasis, the impairment of bile flow, is induced in C57BL/6J mice treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) to identify phenotype reflective gene sets. CsA treatment through oral gavage for 25 days induced cholestasis, as confirmed by histopathology and serum chemistry. Over 1, 4, and 11 days of CsA exposure gradual increases in serum markers were correlated to gene expression. This phenotype-directed analysis identified gene sets specific to the onset and progression of cholestasis, such as PPAR related processes and drug metabolism, by circumventing other effects of CsA, such as immunosuppression, found in dose*time group analysis. In vivo gene sets are enriched in publicly available data sets of CsA-treated HepaRG and primary mouse hepatocytes. However, genes identified within these gene sets did not overlap between in vivo and in vitro. In vitro regulated genes represent the initial response to cholestasis, whereas in vivo genes represent the later adaptive response. We conclude that the applicability of in vitro models for hepatotoxicity testing fully depends on a solid in vivo phenotype anchored analysis. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Microbial Removal of the Pharmaceutical Compounds Ibuprofen and Diclofenac from Wastewater
Langenhoff, A.A.M. ; Inderfurth, N.S. ; Veuskens, T. ; Schraa, G. ; Blokland, M. ; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2013
BioMed Research International 2013 (2013). - ISSN 2314-6133 - 9
biodegradatie - geneesmiddelen - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - bioremediëring - afvalwaterbehandelingsinstallaties - verwijdering - oppervlaktewater - geneesmiddelenresiduen - biodegradation - drugs - waste water - waste water treatment - bioremediation - waste water treatment plants - removal - surface water - drug residues - personal care products - activated carbon - batch experiments - aquatic environment - metabolites - systems - sludge - acid - transformation
Studies on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals show that the widely used pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and diclofenac are present in relevant concentrations in the environment. A pilot plant treating hospital wastewater with relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals was evaluated for its performance to reduce the concentration of the pharmaceuticals. Ibuprofen was completely removed, whereas diclofenac yielded a residual concentration, showing the necessity of posttreatment to remove diclofenac, for example, activated carbon. Successively, detailed laboratory experiments with activated sludge from the same wastewater treatment plant showed bioremediation potential in the treatment plant. The biological degradation pathway was studied and showed a mineralisation of ibuprofen and degradation of diclofenac. The present microbes were further studied in laboratory experiments, and DGGE analyses showed the enrichment and isolation of highly purified cultures that degraded either ibuprofen or diclofenac. This research illuminates the importance of the involved bacteria for the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals in a wastewater treatment plant. A complete removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater will stimulate water reuse, addressing the worldwide increasing demand for clean and safe fresh water.
Confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in injection sites using imaging desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry
Rijke, E. de; Hooijerink, H. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (2013)6. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1012 - 1019.
tissues - cocktails - brain - drugs
In this study, desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) was applied for the confirmation and 3D profiling of anabolic steroid esters in an injection site of bovine muscle. The spatial resolution of the DESI-MSn was demonstrated by scanning hormone esters and marker ink lines drawn at various distances on a microscopic slide at set distances, using an x-scanner with manual y and z adjustment. Tissue slices of bovine muscle injected with a hormone cocktail were analysed. All anabolic steroid esters could be directly detected in the sample and confirmed based on identification points awarded for selected MS/MS transitions according to the performance criteria in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Moreover, the injection site could be mapped by 2D and 3D imaging MS, showing a horizontal and vertical distribution through the muscle tissue. This DESI approach offers potential for analysis of injection sites of steroid esters from illegally treated animals; moreover, direct analysis by ambient imaging DESI-MS still allows conventional extraction and analysis of the whole tissue for further confirmatory or contraanalysis afterwards.
Mogelijke effecten van geneesmiddelen in effluent op aquatische organismen
Roessink, I. ; Fait, G. ; Belgers, J.D.M. ; Boerwinkel, M.C. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2338) - 46
geneesmiddelen - waterorganismen - afvoerwater - milieueffect - waterverontreiniging - experimentele ecosystemen - drugs - aquatic organisms - effluents - environmental impact - water pollution - experimental ecosystems
Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het waterschap Regge en Dinkel. In dit onderzoek wordt met de beschikbare internationale literatuur en een experimentele studie onderzocht of er mogelijke effecten op populaties van aquatische organismen te verwachten zijn van geneesmiddelen in effluent van waterzuiveringsinstallaties. De gevonden resultaten in de testsystemen laten zien dat met uitzondering van Sulfamethoxazole en Bisphenol A de geneesmiddelen in het testmedium onder de gebruikte testcondities niet persistent zijn. Er kon geen negatieve impact van het geteste effluent op populaties van watervlooien, waterpissebedden, wormen, slakken en waterplanten aangetoond worden. Het effluent had echter wel een stimulerend effect op de populatiedichtheden van deze waterorganismen. Dit werd waarschijnlijk veroorzaakt door de hoge voedselbeschikbaarheid (nutriënten; organisch materiaal) in het effluent.
ERA-AQUA version 2.0, technical description and manual : a decision support system for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied in pond AQUAculture
Rico Artero, A. ; Geng, Y. ; Focks, A. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2320) - 63
waterverontreiniging - geneesmiddelen - veterinaire producten - milieubescherming - risicoschatting - water pollution - drugs - veterinary products - environmental protection - risk assessment
Veterinary medicinal products are applied in aquaculture production for treating and preventing diseases in the cultured species. Veterinary medicines may enter the environment by effluent discharges, posing a potential risk for surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, human health and the trade of the aquaculture produce can be negatively affected by the presence of residues of veterinary medicines in the cultured organisms. The ERA-AQUA Decision Support System was developed to estimate risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers and trade. The risk assessment is expressed by risk quotients, which are calculated by dividing the predicted exposure concentration by the predicted no effect concentration calculated for each endpoint. This report provides a mathematical description of the processes incorporated in the ERA-AQUA Decision Support System and a user’s manual.