Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Undernutrition management and the role of protein-enriched meals for older adults
    Ziylan, Canan - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Stefanie Kremer; Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579323 - 148
    elderly - elderly nutrition - undernutrition - enrichment - protein - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - meals - nursing homes - ouderen - ouderenvoeding - ondervoeding - verrijking - eiwit - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - maaltijden - verpleeghuizen

    Undernutrition is a major health problem in the growing elderly population. It is estimated that one in ten Dutch community-dwelling older adults is suffering from undernutrition, and one in three Dutch older adults who receive home care. Undernutrition may lead to many negative consequences, ranging from fatigue and falls to impaired immune function and death. This makes undernutrition an obvious target for preventive measures.

    Undernutrition can be defined as “a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein, and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/body form (body shape, size and composition) and function, and clinical outcome”. In addition, it is often described as protein energy malnutrition. Adequate protein intake may to some extent prevent and reverse this process. However, throughout ageing, it becomes increasingly difficult to reach adequate protein intake due to higher protein needs and lower protein intakes. Finding solutions to assist older adults in reaching their optimal protein intake is necessary.

    In our overall research project, we considered 1.2g protein per kg weight per day (g/kg/d) as adequate protein intake. In Dutch community-dwelling older adults, protein intake is around 1.0 g/kg/d, implying room for improvement. However, it is possible that many of these older adults deal with physiological changes, medical conditions, and physical and mental limitations that impair their appetite and food provision. For these older adults with higher protein needs, merely recommending that they eat more would not be realistic. It would be more realistic to explore strategies that increase protein intake without having to increase food intake. This calls for the exploration of instruments that match the needs and preferences of older adults: protein-enriched regular products.

    One particular group that can be identified as a target group for such products, are older adults who receive home care. Undernutrition prevalence is high in this group, which may be explained by their health problems that led to this dependence on home care. Likewise, many of these older adults also depend on meals-on-wheels. These meals-on-wheels recipients, regardless of whether they receive home care or not, often risk undernutrition too. In both these (overlapping) care-dependent groups, difficulties in adhering to energy and protein recommendations can be discerned. For this reason, enriching the readymade meals that these older adults receive may contribute to the prevention of protein undernutrition by increasing protein intake while keeping food intake the same. Here, protein enrichment instruments can be used to prevent undernutrition, but only when implemented in a timely manner. Adequate undernutrition management systems are therefore necessary to facilitate timely intervention, ensuring that the developed protein-enriched meals are actually offered and effective. For this reason, the overall aim of our research project was to gain insight into the current state of undernutrition management in community-dwelling older adults in the Netherlands and explore the role of protein-enriched regular products as a supportive instrument in protein undernutrition management.

    In Study 1 (chapter 2) we explored the experiences of 22 Dutch nutrition and care professionals and researchers with undernutrition awareness, monitoring, and treatment among community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study among, for example, dietitians, general practitioners, nurse practitioners, and home care nurses provided insight into the current bottlenecks within the existing undernutrition management guidelines. In these telephone interviews, these experts also discussed the current dietary behaviour problems of older adults and their impact on undernutrition risk. The experts’ experiences implied that undernutrition awareness is limited, among both older adults and care professionals. In addition, the interviewees were unclear about which professionals are responsible for monitoring and which monitoring procedures are preferred. The dietitians feel that they become involved too late, leading to decreased treatment effectiveness. In general, the interviewees desired more collaboration and a coherent and feasible allocation of responsibilities regarding undernutrition monitoring and treatment. This implied that the available guidelines on undernutrition management require more attention and facilitation.

    In the following mixed-methods study (chapter 3), with interviews, we qualitatively explored the dietary behaviour and undernutrition risk of 12 Dutch elderly meals-on-wheels clients, one of the largest at-risk groups. We followed up on this information by quantifying the topics that emerged from the qualitative exploration of experienced bottlenecks in performing adequate dietary behaviour. For this, we used a survey among 333 meals-on-wheels clients. The interviews with elderly meals-on-wheels clients made clear that they have fixed and habitual eating patterns, while at the same time their appetite had decreased throughout the years. This was confirmed by the survey finding that regular portion size meals were perceived as too large by the oldest group aged over 75y. In addition, as the professionals suggested earlier, the interviewed elderly clients indeed showed limited awareness of undernutrition risk. Simultaneously, the survey showed that almost one in four elderly meals-on-wheels clients was undernourished. These findings led to the conclusion that staying close to the identified dietary habits may facilitate small yet effective modifications within these habits to prevent inadequate nutritional intake. Still, the limited awareness of undernutrition risk was expected to play a limiting role in whether clients believe they need dietary modifications. Consequently, informing them about this need could facilitate their motivation to implement modifications.

    After learning about the general dietary behaviour of these older adults, we used this information for Study 3 (chapter 4). We developed two kinds of protein-enriched readymade meals that are in line with the needs and preferences of older adults: one of regular size (450g) and one of reduced size (400g). We tested these meals in a lab setting in 120 community-dwelling older adults in a single-blind randomised crossover trial. One day a week at lunchtime, for four weeks, participants had to consume and evaluate a readymade meal. Overall, regardless of portion size, the protein-enriched meals led to higher protein intakes in vital older adults in a lab setting during lunch. In this crossover study, the participants liked the protein-enriched meals and the regular meals equally. However, we did not find the expected lower ratings of satiety after the reduced-size meals, while one reduced-size enriched meal and another regular-size enriched meal led to higher ratings of subsequent satiety. This higher satiety in the enriched meals could lead to compensational behaviour on the remainder of the day.

    After establishing that the protein-enriched meals were effective and acceptable in the lab setting, we moved to the homes of older adults to test the meals in a longer-term study in Study 4 (chapter 5). In this double-blind randomised controlled trial of two weeks, we also included protein-enriched bread to assess whether both this bread and the meals could increase daily protein intake to 1.2g/kg/d in 42 community-dwelling older adults to reach optimal protein intake. We found that the enriched products again led to higher protein intakes and a high liking. The mean protein intake per day was 14.6g higher in the intervention group, which amounted to a protein intake of 1.25g/kg/d, compared with 0.99g/kg/d in the control group. In addition, the meals scored 7.7 out of 10, while the bread scored 7.8 out of 10, which both were comparable with their regular counterparts. Lastly, we found no negative effect of compensational behaviour throughout the day. These promising findings indicated that we achieved a good match between older adults’ needs and preferences regarding protein intake.

    In the general discussion of this thesis (chapter 6), we combined our learnings from the four studies to reflect on protein undernutrition management in community-dwelling older adults and the possible role of protein-enriched regular products. We have discussed a conceptual framework consisting of three wheels of protein undernutrition management. In the first wheel regarding awareness, we proposed that limited awareness of adequate nutrition and body composition forms the largest bottleneck in undernutrition management. When this awareness is generated among both older adults and professionals, it will benefit the second wheel of monitoring. Here, we argued that a policy and the actual facilitation of that policy are required for this monitoring to succeed. When the monitoring is performed adequately, in the third wheel, the appropriate treatment can be carried out. We discussed that personalisation and evaluation of this treatment are important conditions. All in all, the public health implications that we have discussed on the basis of our findings can be summarised by the three key messages that could help us ace in adequate protein undernutrition management: address awareness in both older adults and professionals, facilitate continuous collaboration between professionals, and offer protein-enriched products expediently.

    Kansen voor meer groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen
    Meeusen-van Onna, Marieke ; Bouwman, Emily ; Immink, Victor ; Sijtsema, Siet - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2016-089) - ISBN 9789462577688 - 53
    voedselconsumptie - fruit - groenten - gezondheidszorginstellingen - eetpatronen - streekgebonden producten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - fruit - vegetables - health maintenance organizations - eating patterns - regional specialty products - organic foods - nutrition and health
    Dit rapport verkent de mogelijkheden om de inname van groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen te
    verhogen. Met aanvullend de vraag of (i) de biologische variant en/of (ii) de regionale herkomst
    meerwaarde biedt. Er zijn mogelijkheden om de consumptie van groenten en fruit te vergroten, vooral
    wanneer er meerdere eetmomenten ontwikkeld worden. Producten uit de streek bieden meerwaarde
    vanwege de (verse) smaak en leiden ertoe dat de zorginstellingen goed ingebed raken in de regionale
    economie.
    Considering a healthy future : effects of time orientation on eating and exercising behavior
    Beek, Jannette van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Michel Handgraaf. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579286 - 167
    exercise - health behaviour - time - food preferences - future - eating patterns - lichaamsbeweging - gezondheidsgedrag - tijd - voedselvoorkeuren - toekomst - eetpatronen

    Trade-offs between current and future consequences are characteristic for the domain of health behavior. Therefore, both eating and exercising behavior could be determined by time orientation, which refers to an individual’s general orientation toward the present or the future. The main aim of this dissertation is to provide insight into the relations between time orientation and both eating and exercising behavior. The results of this dissertation confirm that time orientation is a shared determinant of eating and exercising behavior. Nevertheless, time orientation for food and for exercise are different constructs that, in turn, have differential relations with eating and exercising behavior. Specifically, eating behavior is mainly predicted by consideration of immediate consequences, whereas exercising behavior is mainly predicted by consideration of future consequences. In addition, these relations can be partly explained by construal level. Theoretically, the results of this dissertation contribute in various ways to a better understanding of the construct of time orientation and its relations with eating and exercising behavior. Methodologically, the results of this dissertation have several implications for the measurement of time orientation as well as the measurement of eating and exercising behavior. Practically, the results of this dissertation can be used in the development of campaigns to stimulate healthy eating and exercising behavior. Overall, the insights that have been gained in this dissertation contribute to a better understanding of individuals’ intertemporal decision making in the health domain and can ultimately be used in order to promote and stimulate healthy eating and exercising behavior.

    Opfrisbeurt voor de Schijf van Vijf
    Ramaker, R. ; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)7. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 12 - 15.
    voeding en gezondheid - dieetrichtlijnen - gezondheidsvoedsel - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - nutrition and health - dietary guidelines - health foods - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - food consumption - recommended dietary allowances
    De Schijf van Vijf is een begrip in Nederland. Maar dit iconische beeld lijkt tegenwoordig oubollig naast de snelle foodblogs, gelikte kookboeken en charismatische eetgoeroes. Hoe maken we schijf klaar voor de toekomst?
    Gezocht: dé gezonde eter
    Ramaker, R. ; Swan, E.C. ; Bouwman, L.I. - \ 2015
    Resource: nieuwssite voor studenten en medewerkers van Wageningen UR 9 (2015)14. - ISSN 1389-7756 - p. 10 - 10.
    voeding en gezondheid - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - nutrition and health - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - food consumption
    Wageningse wetenschappers heb- ben een eerste profielschets ge- maakt van dé gezonde eter.
    Healthy aging through a healthy diet : never too old to eat healthy?!
    Jankovic, N. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellen Kampman; Edith Feskens; Lisette de Groot, co-promotor(en): Anouk Geelen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572508 - 159
    voeding en gezondheid - gezondheidsvoedsel - ouderen - dieetrichtlijnen - eetpatronen - analytische methoden - ziektepreventie - ouderenvoeding - nutrition and health - health foods - elderly - dietary guidelines - eating patterns - analytical methods - disease prevention - elderly nutrition

    Abstract

    Background: The world’s population is aging and with it the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and cancer, increases. A long lasting life is envisaged without the burden of disease. Therefore, current research focuses on risk factors, such as a healthy diet, which may decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases even at advanced age. Earlier studies, examining the role of a healthy diet in the elderly, applied different analysis strategies. In consequence, comparability across studies is limited and prevent an overall conclusion on the role of a healthy diet in elderly.

    Methods and subjects: Eleven prospective cohort studies among elderly people (N=396,391) from Europe and the United States, collaborating in the CHANCES consortium, were analysed. Most cohorts eligible for our analysis, assessed diet once at baseline. Therefore, we first assessed the stability of dietary patterns, derived with reduced rank regression (RRR), in the Zutphen Elderly Study. In the remainder of this thesis, healthy diets were defined based on the 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) “nutrient intake goals” and the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) food group recommendations. The recommendations were operationalized, using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and the WCRF/AICR diet score. The association between a healthy diet and risk of all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, was studied using the WHO recommendations, which aim at the prevention of chronic diseases in general. The cancer specific WCRF/AICR recommendations were applied to study the association between a healthy diet and cancer risk. Diet disease associations were assessed in each cohort separately, using Cox-proportional hazards regression. Cohort specific hazard ratios (HR) were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: The results of the Zutphen Elderly Study showed that dietary patterns, derived by RRR, remained stable over a period of five years. In the CHANCES project a total of 84,978 person years were accumulated, during a median follow-up time ranging between 7 and 15 years across cohorts. An increase of 10 HDI points (range total score 0 to 70 points) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.90 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87-0.93). The HR estimate was equivalent to a two year increase in life expectancy. We found a significant inverse association between an increase of 10 HDI points and CVD mortality for Southern European countries and the US (HR: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.83-0.87), whereas no significant association was found for Northern and Central and Eastern Europe. An increase of 1 point for the WCRF/AICR diet score (range 0-4) was associated with a significantly 6% decreased risk in developing any type of cancer. Greatest risk reduction was found between a 1 point increase in WCRF/AICR diet score and colorectal cancer (HR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.80-0.89).

    Conclusion: Dietary indices based on globally defined dietary recommendations by WHO and WCRF/AICR were found to be associated with all-cause and CVD mortality and cancer risk in old age. Public health interventions targeted on the elderly should not focus on one definition of a “healthy diet” but rather a smart combination of available evidence, to optimally account for CVD as well as cancer specific outcomes.

    'Wie zegt eigenlijk dat de voedselproductie moet verdubbelen?'
    Tittonell, Pablo - \ 2014
    food production - food security - food consumption - eating patterns - food supply - agricultural production - agricultural production systems

    Grootschalige intensieve landbouw gaat de wereld niet voeden, stelt Pablo Tittonell, sinds vorig jaar hoogleraar Farming Systems Ecology aan de Wageningen Universiteit. Het model dat na de oorlog is ontwikkeld in Nederland en West- Europa is niet houdbaar en zeker niet geschikt om naar andere landen te exporteren. Joost van Kasteren interviewt hem.

    Terug in het zadel
    Bouwman, L.I. - \ 2014
    Vork 1 (2014)4. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 32 - 36.
    food chains - nutrition and health - overweight - obesity - chronic diseases - consumer behaviour - feeding behaviour - eating - eating patterns - voedselketens - voeding en gezondheid - overgewicht - obesitas - chronische ziekten - consumentengedrag - voedingsgedrag - eten - eetpatronen
    Dreigende epidemieën van overigens niet besmettelijke aandoeningen als obesitas en diabetes type 2 leiden tot - soms tegenstrijdige - aanbevelingen voor gezond eten. Meer groenten, minder vet maar wel meer vette vis, minder rood vlees, meer koolhydraten of juist minder en een Magnum, passen in een gezond dieet. Dat laatste was overigens een advies van de vorige directeur van Unilever dus dat moeten we met een korreltje zout nemen. Hoewel, zout? Mag dat? Volgens Laura Bouwman zijn we terechtgekomen in een situatie van ‘you are what you are told to eat’, waarbij mensen weten dat ze ongezond eten, er ook iets aan willen doen, maar vandaag nog even niet. Ze pleit voor een andere benadering, gericht op verbinding en het bevorderen van het ‘goede leven’.
    Nudging in het Restaurant van de Toekomst - Een duwtje in de goede richting
    Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Vingerhoeds, M.H. - \ 2014
    Voedingsindustrie : vakblad 21 (2014)3. - ISSN 2213-5758 - p. 24 - 27.
    consumer behaviour - nutrition and health - eating patterns - choice behaviour - behavioural changes - food consumption - awareness
    Rapportcijfer voor je eetgewoontes
    Lee, L. van - \ 2014
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
    voeding en gezondheid - eetpatronen - voedselconsumptie - gezondheidsbevordering - nutrition and health - eating patterns - food consumption - health promotion
    Wageningse voedingsonderzoekers hebben een snelle vragenlijst ontwikkeld die met één rapportcijfer aangeeft hoe gezond iemand eet.
    Hoe voeden we de oudere mens?
    Staveren, W.A. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
    VoedingsMagazine 27 (2014)1. - ISSN 0922-8012 - p. 21 - 23.
    ouderenvoeding - voeding en gezondheid - voedselconsumptie - eetpatronen - voedingsstoffen - ouderen - elderly nutrition - nutrition and health - food consumption - eating patterns - nutrients - elderly
    Wat zijn de effecten van voedingspatronen en nutriënten op de gezondheid, het functioneren, en de kwaliteit van leven van ouderen? Het onderzoeksteam van prof. Wija van Staveren en prof. Lisette de Groot in Wageningen heeft de afgelopen kwart eeuw observationele en interventiestudies uitgevoerd om die vragen te beantwoorden. Een symposium in Wageningen inventariseerde wat met dit en ander onderzoek is bereikt op het gebied van voeding voor ouderen.
    Evaluatie van smaaklessen : heeft smaaklessen effect op determinanten van gezond en bewust eetgedrag?
    Fries, M.C.E. ; Dongen, E.J.I. van; Haveman-Nies, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Leerstoelgroep Humane Voeding - 74
    smaaklessen - voeding en gezondheid - eetpatronen - onderwijsprogramma's - basisonderwijs - voedingsgedrag - voedselconsumptie - tasting lessons - nutrition and health - eating patterns - education programmes - elementary education - feeding behaviour - food consumption
    Smaaklessen is een lesprogramma voor het basisonderwijs dat kinderen op een positieve en speelse manier in aanraking laat komen met smaak, gezonde voeding en voedselkwaliteit. In 2012 is een evaluatieonderzoek gestart met als doel de effectiviteit van blootstelling aan Smaaklessen gedurende één schooljaar te meten op gedragsdeterminanten van kinderen ten aanzien van drie doelgedragingen: (1) het proeven van onbekende producten (smaak), (2) het kiezen van gezonde producten (gezonde voeding) en (3) het bewust kiezen tussen producten (voedselkwaliteit). Het tweede doel was de invloed van implementatiefactoren op de grootte van het effect te onderzoeken.
    ‘Fabrikant moet portie verkleinen’: snackgedrag kinderen: mandarijn is het populairst
    Trijp, Hans van - \ 2012
    children - food preferences - nutrition and health - snacks - eating patterns
    Optimaal sluiten van mineralenkringlopen : een mediterraan dieet met meer plantaardig eiwit
    Cormont, A. ; Janssen, S.J.C. - \ 2012
    plantaardig eiwit - eetpatronen - voedselconsumptie - scenario-analyse - berekening - dierlijke productie - consumptiepatronen - plant protein - eating patterns - food consumption - scenario analysis - calculation - animal production - consumption patterns
    In opdracht van Milieudefensie is door Alterra uitgezocht in hoeverre het mogelijk is om in een regio in Europa een optimale balans te vinden voor de teelt van veevoer- en voedingsgewassen, het aantal productiedieren en voedings- en voederdiëten. In deze factsheet wordt de uitwerking van de balansen voor een rekenscenario beschreven waarbij de eiwitten in het humane consumptiepatroon voor 54% afkomstig zijn uit dierlijke producten – net zoveel als in het huidige consumptiepatroon van de inwoners van de Europese mediterrane landen.
    Een gezonder aanbod in kantine via een eigen boomgaard
    Bruijn, F.J. de; Ravesloot, M.B.M. - \ 2012
    Sport Knowhow XL
    voeding en gezondheid - boomgaarden - fruitproducten - levensstijl - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - fruitteelt - nutrition and health - orchards - fruit products - lifestyle - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - fruit growing
    Het eetgedrag en de levensstijl van burgers positief beïnvloeden hoeft geen hogere wiskunde te zijn. Wageningen Universiteit ontwikkelt in opdracht van het InnovatieNetwerk samen met Maatschappelijk Verantwoord Verenigen (MVV) een maatschappelijk concept om dit te bewerkstelligen, middels kleine boomgaarden. Niets meer, niets minder. En dat concept, Fruit4Sport, is een gegarandeerd succes: "Als mensen uiteindelijk niet gezonder gaan eten, dan zorgt het project in ieder geval tot het upgraden van de groene leefomgeving rond sportterreinen," aldus Marc Ravesloot, onderzoeker bij PPO Fruit, onderdeel van Wageningen Universiteit & Research.
    Wat gaan we eten? Groente! Kwantitatief onderzoek onder jongeren tussen de 12 en 18 jaar.
    Reinders, M.J. ; Berg, I. van den; Onwezen, M.C. ; Hiller, S.R.C.H. ; Gilissen, L.J.W.J. ; Meer, I.M. van der; Sluis, A.A. van der; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport 2011-040) - ISBN 9789086155507 - 76
    groenten - voedselconsumptie - voedselopname - voedselvoorkeuren - eetpatronen - adolescenten - nederland - vegetables - food consumption - food intake - food preferences - eating patterns - adolescents - netherlands
    In 2009 a survey was conducted among a representative sample of around 500 young people between the ages of 12 and 18 in the Netherlands. The first section examined the eating patterns of the young people and their attitude towards nutrition. The second section examined their vegetable consumption and how they experience vegetables, as well as the factors which influence this. The final section consisted of a choosing experiment, in which the participants were asked to choose from among two or three vegetable products and evaluate them on the basis of a number of product characteristics.
    De flexitariër krijgt meer keus - interview met Atze Jan van der Goot
    Smit, A. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2011
    WageningenWorld 2 (2011). - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 37.
    vleesvervangers - voedselconsumptie - eiwitbronnen - eetpatronen - houding van consumenten - consumentengedrag - meat alternates - food consumption - protein sources - eating patterns - consumer attitudes - consumer behaviour
    Miljoenen mensen in Nederland vinden het al heel gewoon om minstens een keer per week het vlees over te slaan. Een verdere afname van de vleesconsumptie gaat alleen lukken met betere vleesververvangers en een ombuiging van de carnivore eetcultuur.
    Trustworthy satiety claims are good for science and society. Comment on 'Satiety. No way to slim'
    Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
    Appetite 57 (2011)3. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 778 - 783.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - libitum food-intake - body-weight - energy-intake - artificial sweeteners - eating patterns - dietary fiber - appetite - humans - fat
    In their short communication against satiety claims, Booth and Nouwen (2010) neglect dozens of well designed studies that show consistent relations between satiety, energy intake and body weight. Satiety, intake and weight are separate concepts, that need different claims and evidence to support them. Satiety can be measured reliably. A repeated higher satiety response to a specific food compared to an appropriate control food may be valuable to consumers who want to avoid hunger. This is good for society. The development of the psycho-biological knowledge to achieve this is good for science. The lawmaker should provide the frame of reference for trustworthy satiety claims. It is then up to the consumer to decide the value of these claims.
    A prospective cohort study of dietary patterns of non-western migrants in the Netherlands in relation to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: HELIUS-Dietary Patterns
    Dekker, L.H. ; Snijder, M.B. ; Beukers, M.H. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Brants, H.A.M. ; Boer, E.J. de; Dam, R.M. van; Stronks, K. ; Nicolaou, M. - \ 2011
    BMC Public Health 11 (2011). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 9 p.
    food-frequency questionnaires - adipose-tissue - mediterranean diet - ethnic-minorities - eating patterns - health-status - acculturation - prevalence - quality - nutrition
    Background - In Western countries the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is often higher in non-Western migrants as compared to the host population. Diet is an important modifiable determinant of CVD. Increasingly, dietary patterns rather than single nutrients are the focus of research in an attempt to account for the complexity of nutrient interactions in foods. Research on dietary patterns in non-Western migrants is limited and may be hampered by a lack of validated instruments that can be used to assess the habitual diet of non-western migrants in large scale epidemiological studies. The ultimate aims of this study are to (1) understand whether differences in dietary patterns explain differences in CVD risk between ethnic groups, by developing and validating ethnic-specific Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs), and (2) to investigate the determinants of these dietary patterns. This paper outlines the design and methods used in the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study and describes a systematic approach to overcome difficulties in the assessment and analysis of dietary intake data in ethnically diverse populations. Methods/Design - The HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study is embedded in the HELIUS study, a Dutch multi-ethnic cohort study. After developing ethnic-specific FFQs, we will gather data on the habitual intake of 5000 participants (18-70 years old) of ethnic Dutch, Surinamese of African and of South Asian origin, Turkish or Moroccan origin. Dietary patterns will be derived using factor analysis, but we will also evaluate diet quality using hypothesis-driven approaches. The relation between dietary patterns and CVD risk factors will be analysed using multiple linear regression analysis. Potential underlying determinants of dietary patterns like migration history, acculturation, socio-economic factors and lifestyle, will be considered. Discussion - This study will allow us to investigate the contribution of the dietary patterns on CVD risk factors in a multi-ethnic population. Inclusion of five ethnic groups residing in one setting makes this study highly innovative as confounding by local environment characteristics is limited. Heterogeneity in the study population will provide variance in dietary patterns which is a great advantage when studying the link between diet and disease.
    Minderen met vlees
    Dagevos, H. - \ 2011
    meat products - food consumption - meat alternates - vegetarianism - eating patterns
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