Tourism, income, and jobs : improving the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism
Klijs, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789054723509 - 188
tourism - economic impact - income - employment - regional economics - models - tourism impact - visitor impact - toerisme - economische impact - inkomen - werkgelegenheid - regionale economie - modellen - impact van toerisme - impact van bezoekers
Tourism can have a broad range of impacts, including impact on the economy, on the natural and built environment, on the local population, and on visitors themselves. This PhD thesis discussed the measurement of regional economic impacts of tourism, including impacts on output, value added, and employment caused by visitor expenditure. The focus was on the choice between models that can be used to calculate these regional economic impacts and the data requirements, usage, and further development of one specific model; the Input-Output (I-O) model.
The starting point of an I-O model is final demand, which is the value of goods and services bought by final users for the direct fulfilment of their needs and wants. In tourism this refers to the value of the goods and services bought by visitors. Final demand brings about a chain of production. First, goods and services that are part of final demand need to be produced. This requires production factors (i.e., capital and labour) as well as intermediate inputs. These intermediate inputs also need to be produced, again requiring production factors and a subsequent ‘level’ of intermediate inputs. Combining final demand and all ‘levels’ of intermediate inputs, an I-O model enables calculation of the total output required to satisfy final demand. An I-O model can be an appropriate choice for an economic impact analysis (EIA) in the following context:
Relevant data exist on (the change of) final demand, i.e. visitors expenditure per industry;
There is an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale;
Impacts are analysed of (a change in) final demand;
The assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ is acceptable (which implies there are no relative prices changes, input substitution and redistribution of production factors among industries);
The assumption ‘no productivity changes’ is acceptable (final demand changes do not lead to productivity changes, e.g. employees working longer, harder or more efficiently);
There is interest in indirect impacts on output, value added, income and/or employment per industry, while there is little interest in induced impacts, spatial considerations, temporal consideration, social impacts, environmental impacts, and economic externalities. Indirect impacts are impact generated by the production of intermediary inputs.
Not all EIAs in tourism will be carried out within such a context. In some EIAs one or more of these conditions are not met. The overall goal of this research was to improve the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism by
Establishing criteria based on which an appropriate economic impact model can be selected for an EIA in tourism and;
Providing solutions for those situations where
an Input Output table on the appropriate spatial scale is not available;
and/or analysis is required of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes;
and/or the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ cannot be accepted (which implies there can be relative prices changes, input substitution and/or redistribution of production factors among industries);
and/or the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ cannot be accepted
without introducing prohibitive complexity and data demands to an I-O model.
This overall objective was subdivided into the following specific objectives:
Provide an overview and evaluation of the criteria for the selection of economic impact models.
Provide an explanation for the sign of the difference between regional I-O coefficients calculated between two alternative location quotient (LQ) methods, for all combinations of demanding and supplying industries.
To analyze medical tourism’s state-level economic impacts in Malaysia.
Address the limitations of I-O models and ‘upgrade’ the I-O model, without introducing the complexity and data collection costs associated with a full Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model.
To include labour productivity changes, caused by a change in final demand in the tourism industries, into a non-linear I-O (NLIO) model.
Each of these specific objectives was discussed in a separate chapter. Chapter 2 discussed criteria to choose between economic impact models, when carrying out an EIA in tourism. Based on the literature review 52 potential criteria were identified. After consulting experts in tourism and/or EIAs 24 of these 52 criteria were identified as essential. These essential criteria were used to compare the five economic impact models that are most used in EIAs in tourism; Export Base, Keynesian, Ad hoc, I-O, and CGE models. The results show that CGE models are the preferred choice for many of the criteria. Their detail and flexibility potentially lead to more realistic outcomes. However, CGE models do not ‘score’ high on criteria related to transparency, efficiency, and comparability. Multiplier models (Keynesian, Export Base and Ad Hoc) score high on these criteria, but the realism of their results is limited. I-O models are an “in-between” option for many criteria, which explains their extensive usage in EIAs in tourism. Nonetheless, I-O models have some important disadvantages, most notably their strong assumptions (‘no scarcity of production factors’ and ‘no productivity changes’), which limit the realism of their results. Although the choice of a model should always depend on the specific context of each EIA, the general conclusion is that an ‘ideal model’ for many applications could be found somewhere in between I-O and CGE. The challenge, however, is to extend the I-O model, while keeping the complexity and data demands to a minimum. This conclusion provided the motivation for the application and further development of an NLIO model, in chapters 5 and 6.
Both I-O and NLIO models require the existence of an I-O table on the appropriate spatial scale. For a regional I-O analysis an I-O table needs to be available for the specific region. When such a table is not available, it can be created using LQ methods. The four most used LQ methods are Simple Location Quotient, Cross Industry Location Quotient, Round’s Location Quotient, and Flegg’s Location Quotient (FLQ). The size of the regional I-O coefficients (RIOCs), which are derived from a regional I-O table, directly influences the results of an EIA. An over- or underestimation of RIOCs can lead to over- or underestimation of economic impacts. It is therefore very important to understand the differences between LQ methods and the consequences for the RIOCs. Chapter 3 showed that the ranking in size of the RIOCs, generated by the four LQ methods, depends on the J-value of demanding industries (output of industry j on regional level divided by output of industry j on national level). The conditions were calculated under which FLQ, the LQ method which was developed to avoid overestimation, leads to the lowest RIOCs47. Although this chapter does not provide a complete answer to question which LQ method to use in an EIA it does show that a choice for the FLQ method could be motivated by the wish to arrive at a careful estimate of regional economic impacts and to avoid or limit overestimation.
In chapter 4 the FLQ method was used to create RIOCs for nine Malaysian states. These RIOCs were used to calculate state-level economic impacts of medical tourism based on regional I-O models. It was shown that impacts related to non-medical expenditure of medical tourists (USD 273.7 million) are larger than impacts related to medical expenditure (USD 104.9 million) and that indirect impacts (USD 95.4 million) make up a substantial part of total impacts (USD 372.3 million). Data limitations implied that strong assumptions were required to estimate final demand by medical tourists, specifically regarding their non-medical expenditure and allocation of this expenditure to industries of the I-O model.
In chapter 5 the I-O model was “upgraded” to a NLIO model, by replacing the Leontief production function, underlying the I-O model with a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function. Thereby the main drawback of the I-O model, the need to accept the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ was thus eliminated. The analysis performed showed that, for large changes of final demand, an NLIO model is more useful than an I-O model because relative prices changes are likely, leading to substitution and redistribution of production factors between industries. The NLIO takes this into account. Impacts can be higher or lower than in the I-O model, depending on assumptions about capacity constraints, production factor mobility and substitution elasticities. Relative price changes, substitution, and redistribution are less likely for a small change of final demand. In that case most realistic results are achieved by accepting assuming ‘no scarcity of production factors’, as in case of the I-O model. To analyze impacts of other types of ‘shock’ than final demand changes, such as a change of subsidies, an I-O model is not an option. A more flexible model is required, such as a NLIO model. A NLIO model requires additional assumptions and/or data. First, researchers need to choose the appropriate assumption regarding the functioning of factor markets and production factor mobility between industries. Second, the NLIO model forces the researcher to specify the substitution elasticities, instead of implicitly assuming an elasticity of zero (as in the I-O model). Compared to a CGE model, the NLIO model offers the advantage that it is not dependent on the existence of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) on the appropriate spatial scale, while the production structure is identical. Furthermore, using a CGE model introduces additional complexity as it requires the specification of the relationships between income and final demand, including issues such as income transfers and income taxation.
In chapter 6 labour productivity changes, that result from final demand changes were included into the NLIO model, thereby integrating productivity changes. A differentiation was made between real and quasi productivity changes and productivity changes for core and peripheral labour. Real productivity changes (changes that enable the production of more output per unit of labour) were integrated by introducing Factor Augmenting Technical Change (FATC) based on an endogenous specification. Quasi productivity changes (substitution of labour by other inputs which automatically leads to higher labour productivity) were already integrated into the NLIO based on the CES production function. The differentiation between core and peripheral labour was integrated by a smaller potential change of FATC for peripheral labour, implying less room for productivity changes. The NLIO model with and without FATC was applied to calculate impacts of a 10% increase of expenditure in tourism in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands. Accounting for FATC leads to less usage of labour in the tourism industries as productivity increases allow output to be produced using fewer inputs. This implies lower marginal costs, which leads to lower output prices. These relative input and output price changes stimulate substitution and quasi productivity changes. To what degree the NLIO with FATC leads to more realistic results than the NLIO without FATC depends vitally on the specification of FATC, the differentiation between core and peripheral labour, and the labour supply function. All these elements require additional assumptions and/or data.
For some EIAs the NLIO is an improvement compared to the I-O model because it does not require the assumption ‘no scarcity of production factors’ to be accepted. In the NLIO with FATC neither the assumption of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ nor the assumption of ‘no productivity changes’ is required. In chapter 7 are discussed considerations related to the acceptance or rejection of these two assumptions. Rejection of ‘no scarcity of production factors’ can be appropriate in EIAs in large regions, of large changes of final demand, in regions with limited or no unused labour and capital, in long term analyses, in regions with low factor mobility from and to other regions, and for impact analyses (instead of significance analyses). Acceptance or rejection of the assumption ‘no productivity changes’ depends on the degree to which labour productivity changes can be expected as a result of a final demand change, a consideration which requires expert judgment.
This research makes several contributions to the measurement of the regional economic impacts of tourism:
24 essential criteria that can be used to select a model for application in an economic impact analysis. Although the decision which criteria to consider, and how to weigh these criteria, should always be made on a case specific basis the essential criteria provide a good starting point
This thesis provides additional insights into the differences between the regional I-O coefficients and total output multipliers generated by the four LQ methods. Furthermore, it was shown that a choice for FLQ could be motivated by the wish to avoid or limit overestimation of regional economic impacts.
The NLIO model with endogenous factor augmenting technical change enables a calculation of economic impacts of tourism in contexts where the I-O model is not the most appropriate choice. The NLIO model namely allows for measurement of different ‘shocks’ than final demand changes and can be applied in context where the assumptions ‘no scarcity of production factors’ and/or ‘no productivity change’ are untenable. When applying an NLIO model, the added realism compared to the I-O model needs to be weighed against the need to make additional assumptions, collect additional data, and deal with the more complex nature of this model. In this perspective the NLIO model does compare favourably to the CGE Model, often presented as a more realistic alternative to the I-O model, because it does not depend on data on the relationships between income and final demand (i.e. the need for a SAM).
Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Wijnands, J.H.M. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-097) - ISBN 9789086157259 - 51
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - economische impact - landbouwsector - voedselindustrie - veevoederindustrie - europese unie - frankrijk - duitsland - polen - hongarije
The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR.
A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term
Effecten van een verbod op het gebruik van genetisch gemodificeerde soja als veevoedergrondstof. Quick scan van de gevolgen voor Nederland
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Hoste, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Report 2015-109) - ISBN 9789086157143 - 26
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - fodder - economic impact - netherlands - transgene planten - gewassen - genetische modificatie - sojabonen - veevoeder - economische impact - nederland
If the Netherlands, alongside Germany, France, Poland, and Hungary, decides to ban genetically modified (GM) soy in animal feed, the use of soy products in animal feed in these five countries will have to decrease by 40 to 50% to ensure that the EU demand for non-GM soy does not exceed the supply on the world market. The extra costs to Dutch livestock farmers over a period of 3 to 5 years as a result of the more expensive non-GM soy and alternative protein sources are estimated at between €60 and €100 million a year, with approximately 80% being borne by poultry farmers. Livestock numbers and productivity will then be maintained. A partial shift in trade flows from animal feed ingredients can be expected from import in the west of the EU - for example, through the port of Rotterdam - to intra-EU flows from production areas within the EU to consumers and via the waterway axis from regions east of the EU, such as Ukraine. Less soy will enter the EU via the Netherlands. This deficit can be offset by the increased demand for alternative protein sources, which will be partly imported from overseas. The effects on Dutch ports, the transport sector, and employment will depend on the nature of the trade flow shifts.
Socio-economic impact of landing obligation for the Dutch demersal fisheries
Turenhout, Mike - \ 2015
demersal fisheries - socioeconomics - economic impact - social impact - netherlands - landings
Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage : impacts of soil heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation
Sommer, W.T. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; J. Valstar. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572942 - 204
watervoerende lagen - thermische energie - opslag - energieterugwinning - economische impact - milieueffect - bodemsanering - grondwaterverontreiniging - aquifers - thermal energy - storage - energy recovery - economic impact - environmental impact - soil remediation - groundwater pollution
Modelling and monitoring of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage
Impacts of heterogeneity, thermal interference and bioremediation
Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is applied world-wide to provide heating and cooling to buildings. Application of ATES, instead of traditional heating and cooling installations, reduces primary energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. Intensified use of the subsurface for thermal applications requires more accurate methods to measure and predict the development of thermal plumes in the subsurface related to thermal interference between systems and address issues concerning subsurface urban planning and wide spread presence of contaminants in urban groundwater systems.
In this thesis, subsurface heat transport in ATES and the associated influence on storage performance for thermal energy was assessed. Detailed monitoring of subsurface temperature development around the wells of an existing system was achieved by a unique application of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using glass fibre optical cables. The measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity. Heat transport modelling shows that heterogeneity causes preferential flow paths that can affect thermal interference between systems, mainly depending on well-to-well distance and hydrogeological conditions.
At present, design rules are applied in such way that all negative interference is avoided. However, this limits the number of ATES systems that can be realized in a specific area, especially as these systems generally use only 60% of their permitted capacity. To optimize the use of available aquifer volume, the amount of thermal interference that is acceptable from an economical and environmental perspective was studied for different zonation patterns and well-to-well distances. Selecting the hydrogeological conditions of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as a case study, this method shows that it is cost-effective to allow a limited amount of thermal interference, such that 30–40% more energy can be provided than compared to the case in which all negative thermal interference is avoided.
Because many urbanized areas deal with contaminated soil and groundwater, ambitions to increase the number of ATES systems are confronted with the presence of groundwater contaminants. This is of concern, because groundwater movement induced by the ATES system can result in increased mobility and spreading of these contaminants. However, the combination between ATES and soil and groundwater remediation could be a promising integrated technique, both for improving groundwater quality and development of ATES. Opportunities to use ATES as a continuous biostimulation tool for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) have been explored with a reactive transport model.
The Impacts of Reducing Food Loss in Ghana : A scenario study using the global economic simulation model MAGNET
Rutten, M.M. ; Verma, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-035) - 42
verliezen - voedselverspilling - voedselproductie - voedselprijzen - ghana - economische impact - voedselzekerheid - losses - food wastage - food production - food prices - ghana - economic impact - food security
When Ghana reduces food loss by 50% by the year 2025, at all stages of supply chains for the paddy, fruits vegetables and nuts, maize, fish and oilseeds, the impacts for producers vary across sectors; consumers gain from food price reduction, but if they are wage labourers, they might lose income. A more efficient food production system in Ghana will also result in an additional 0.8% increase in its Gross Domestic Product in 2025; a welfare increase equivalent of USD 19 per capita and a slightly higher (29 Kcal per capita) calorie intake. The study was done for the Ministry of Economic Affairs as part of its BO research programme on food waste. The aim of the research was to investigate the medium- to long-term macroeconomic impacts of tackling food losses, with Ghana serving as an informative case.
Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa
N'cho, A.S. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits; J. Rodenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571266 - 160
rijst - agrarische productiesystemen - gewasproductie - onkruiden - parasitaire onkruiden - striga hermonthica - striga asiatica - controle - onkruidbestrijding - regenafhankelijke landbouw - economische impact - sociale factoren - besluitvorming - boeren - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - benin - ivoorkust - tanzania - rice - agricultural production systems - crop production - weeds - parasitic weeds - striga hermonthica - striga asiatica - control - weed control - rainfed agriculture - economic impact - social factors - decision making - farmers - africa south of sahara - benin - cote d'ivoire - tanzania
Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis, directional distance function, sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Tanzania.
Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in
rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa
Simon A. N’cho
Rice is an important strategic crop for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its production is constrained by many biotic and abiotic stress. In rainfed rice systems, weeds and particularly parasitic weeds are among the most damaging constraints. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors affecting infestation of rice farms by parasitic weeds and to assess the economic and social impact of parasitic weeds on primary producers of rainfed rice systems in order to provide guidance for decision-making for rice farmers and policymakers aiming at developing strategies for coping with parasitic weeds. To achieve this objective, we first explored biophysical characters of the rice growing environment, farmers’ management practices, and socio-economic characteristics that affect the infestation of rice fields by parasitic weeds (PWs) and farmers’ ability to cope with the problem. A double hurdle model was used to analyses simultaneously the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of infestation of the PW. The findings suggest that farmers can cope with the PW as long as they are aware of the problem provided they have a good access and management capacity of production resources. Next, we examined weed management practices (WMPs) currently available to farmers and how PW infestation affect their choices for specific combinations of WMPs using a multivariate probit model. Findings indicate that farmers are more likely to adopt improved weed management practices or combined more WMPs when their fields are infested by PWs. Species-specific and country-specific approaches and technologies are require to address the PW problem. Then, we assessed the impact of parasitic weeds infestation on farmers’ productivity and examined how this problem and managerial factors prevent farmers from achieving optimal technical efficiency levels using a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). PWs induce productivity losses ranging from 21% to 50%. Farmers seem to cope with PW through learning from experiencing PW problem. Finally, we estimated weeding labour inefficiencies using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with directional input distance function and a single truncated bootstrap regression to identify sources of inefficiencies. Results suggest that, farmers can save substantial (58% – 69%) weeding labour without reducing rice production. No evidence was found that the currently used manual weeding modalities were able to manage parasitic weeds efficiently. The main finding of this thesis is that in sub-Saharan Africa, PWs infestation has a negative impact on rainfed rice systems’ productivity and the use of production resources. However, these impacts can be reduced if farmers have a good access to production resources and manage them efficiently.
Kringloopwijzer : Economische resultaten kringloopWijzer
Livestock Research, - \ 2014
economic evaluation - economic impact - dairy farming - farm results - agricultural economics - agricultural policy - cycling - sustainable animal husbandry
Cross-border collaboration in contagious livestock disease management
Hop, G.E. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Helmut Saatkamp; Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739452 - 285
ziektebestrijding - vee - dierziekten - samenwerking - economische impact - economische aspecten - nederland - duitsland - disease control - livestock - animal diseases - cooperation - economic impact - economic aspects - netherlands - germany
Klimaatverandering als kans voor ondernemers in Zeeuws Vlaanderen
Tempelman, M. ; Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Bos, E.J. ; Klundert, M. van de; Provoost, K. ; Verkruysse, B. ; Eenennaam, M. van - \ 2013
Vlissingen : Hogeschool Zeeland (KvK rapport 106/2013) - ISBN 9789490070762 - 90
landbouw - akkerbouw - recreatie - klimaatverandering - weersgegevens - economische impact - zeeuws-vlaanderen - agriculture - arable farming - recreation - climatic change - weather data - economic impact - zeeuws-vlaanderen
In het onderzoek zijn specifieke condities van bedrijven van de regio uitgewerkt waardoor er een actueel overzicht is ontstaan van kansen en bedreigingen voor twee sectoren (landbouw en recreatie) als gevolg van klimaatverandering. Daarnaast heeft het onderzoek een vrij helder beeld opgeleverd van de manier waarop ondernemers de problematiek van ‘weersextremen’ ervaren en wat de mate van urgentie is voor het nemen van maatregelen. Op die manier wordt een globaal inzicht geschetst in de aard van de klimaatopgave voor bedrijven in de regio. Voor het bepalen van de mate waarin de gevolgen van belang zijn voor de ondernemers, is een eerste verkenning gemaakt naar bedrijfseconomische effecten van weersextremen voor de sectoren
Beheersing van het Schmallenbergvirus
Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2013
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 138 (2013)11. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 28 - 32.
schmallenbergvirus - virusziekten - ziekten overgebracht door vectoren - diergezondheid - misvormingen - nadelige gevolgen - economische impact - schmallenberg virus - viral diseases - vector-borne diseases - animal health - malformations - adverse effects - economic impact - hantavirus
Schmallenbergvirus (SVB) werd in 2011 voor het eerst in Europa gezien en veroorzaakte een epidemie van aangeboren afwijkingen, vooral misvormde ledematen en hersenafwijkingen, bij kalveren en lammeren. Het ging om een niet eerder gevonden virus, dat om die reden aanvankelijk moeilijk onderkend kon worden. Sinds het begin van de uitbraak is veel onderzoek gedaan aan SVB en inmiddels zijn routine laboratoriumtests alom beschikbaar. Zowel gehouden als in het wild levende herkauwers zijn gevoelig voor het SVB, dat wordt overgedragen door knutten (Culicoides species). Deze vector heeft gezorgd voor een snelle verspreiding over heel Europa en nu verspreidt het virus zich ook buiten Europa. Op dit moment wordt de economische schade ten gevolge van SVB vooral bepaald door handelsbeperkingen. Levend vee en sperma voor export moeten getest worden om het SVB-vrij te kunnen verklaren. In de regio waar de uitbraak is begonnen, wordt de ziekte niet meer gezien, maar met de toename van het aantal seronegatieve dieren wordt het risico van herintroductie van het virus op bedrijven wellicht groter.
CAP and EU Trade Policy Reform : Assessing impact on developing countries
Meijerink, G.W. ; Achterbosch, T.J. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156320 - 109
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - landbouwbeleid - internationale handel - europese unie - ontwikkelingslanden - import - export - markten - subsidies - economische impact - prijzen - vruchtgroenten - suiker - cap - agricultural policy - international trade - european union - developing countries - imports - exports - markets - subsidies - economic impact - prices - fruit vegetables - sugar
Economic evaluation of FMD management options: implications for science and policy
Bergevoet, Ron - \ 2012
livestock farming - foot and mouth disease - infectious diseases - disease control - vaccination - economic impact - market economics - exports - losses - european union
Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union
Soliman, T.A.A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Wopke van der Werf; Monique Mourits. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733474 - 158
plantenplagen - plantenziekten - plantenparasitaire nematoden - invasieve soorten - economische impact - beoordeling - europese unie - plant pests - plant diseases - plant parasitic nematodes - invasive species - economic impact - assessment - european union
According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a pest risk analysis are currently based on a framework with qualitative questions and not on an explicit quantification of costs. Available quantitative methodologies to assess plant health risks, and in particular economic impacts, are currently hardly applied in the assessment of plant health risks for the EU, restricting the economic justification of plant health policies.
EconWelfare geeft advies verhogen dierenwelzijn : dier & welzijn
Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2011
V-focus 8 (2011)5A. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 14 - 15.
dierenwelzijn - landbouwbeleid - veehouderij - landen van de europese unie - economische impact - animal welfare - agricultural policy - livestock farming - european union countries - economic impact
Binnen het Europese project EconWelfare zochten wetenschappers uit acht landen samen naar beleidsinstrumenten voor het verhogen van het dierenwelzijn. Daarbij werd de sociaal-economische impact in ogenschouw genomen. De projectgroep rondde deze zomer zijn onderzoek af en komt tot de conclusie dat er verschillende beleidsmogelijkheden zijn voor Europa, maar dat de beste aanpak per land verschilt.
Korter diertransport helpt varkens weinig
Baltussen, W.H.M. - \ 2011
Kennis Online 8 (2011)sept. - p. 8 - 8.
veevervoer - transport - economische impact - veehouderij - transport of animals - transport - economic impact - livestock farming
Beperking van het maximaal aantal uren dat levende dieren op transport mogen, zal weinig veranderen aan de dierstromen binnen Europa en weinig gevolgen hebben voor de veehouderij. Dat blijkt uit een eerste verkenning van het LEI.
Forest management certification in the tropics: an evaluation of its ecological, economical and social impacts
Peña-Claros, M. ; Blommerde, S. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre - ISBN 9789080434547 - 31
bosbedrijfsvoering - certificering - economische impact - sociale gevolgen - bosbouw - tropen - boswaardebepaling - forest management - certification - economic impact - social impact - forestry - tropics - forest valuation
Vaccination against Foot-and-Mouth Disease : differentiating strategies and their epidemiological and economic consequences
Backer, J.A. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Hagenaars, T.H.J. ; Bondt, N. ; Nodelijk, G. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Roermund, H.J.W. van - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (LEI report 2009-042) - ISBN 9789086153497 - 158
mond- en klauwzeer - diergeneeskunde - veterinaire producten - vaccinatie - rundveeteelt - geneesmiddeleffecten - economische impact - foot and mouth disease - veterinary science - veterinary products - vaccination - cattle farming - drug effects - economic impact
The effectiveness of different control strategies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) were investigated using epidemiological and economic models. A quick and large-scale vaccination within a radius of at least 2km is as effective as preemptive 1-km ring culling to mitigate FMD epidemics. Control measures should primarily target cattle farms. After the epidemic, most seropositive animals are expected on sheep farms and vaccinated cattle farms. An effective end-screening strategy should focus on these farms. Market acceptance by trade partners of products of vaccinated animals can limit the economic consequences of outbreaks of FMD.De effectiviteit van bestrijdingstrategieën tegen Mond-en-Klauwzeer (MKZ) is onderzochtmet behulp van epidemiologische en economische modellen. Het blijkt dat snelle en op grote schaal toegepaste vaccinatie in een straal van 2 km rond geïnfecteerde bedrijven net zo effectief is als ruimen in een straal van 1 km rond geïnfecteerde bedrijven bij het bestrijden van MKZ-uitbraken. Controlemaatregelen moeten vooral worden gericht op rundveebedrijven. Na de epidemie zijn de meeste seropositieve dieren te verwachten. De eindscreening zal zich op schapenbedrijven en gevaccineerde rundveebedrijven moeten richten. Acceptatie door internationale handelspartners van producten van gevaccineerde dieren kan de economische gevolgen van een uitbraak van MKZ beperken.
Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands: Inventory and options for extended use
Oosterhuis, F. ; Bartelings, H. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Beukering, P.J.M. van - \ 2009
Amsterdam : IVM Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken (Report / Institute for environmental studies R-09/01) - 133
milieubeleid - afvalbeheer - economische impact - economisch beleid - heffingen - fiscaal beleid - internationale vergelijkingen - maatregelen - economische aspecten - environmental policy - waste management - economic impact - economic policy - levies - fiscal policy - international comparisons - measures - economic aspects
In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the ‘policy toolbox’. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector
Landbouwsubsidies voor natuur en landschap: economische effecten op melkveehouderij
Helming, J.F.M. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2008
Agri-monitor 2008 (2008)juni. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 2
gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - subsidies - herverdeling - economische impact - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - inkomen van landbouwers - cap - subsidies - redistribution - economic impact - dairy farming - dairy farms - farmers' income
In de Health Check van het GLB wordt gesproken over een verdere korting van de inkomenstoeslagen ten gunste van plattelandsontwikkeling en milieu, natuur en landschap. Het sectorinkomen van de melkveehouderij zou door deze herverdeling tot 2020 met zo’n 6% kunnen dalen.