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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Stadium Coltan : artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
    Wakenge, Claude Iguma - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Vlassenroot; J.G.R. Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434560 - 210
    mining - conflict - economic sociology - cooperatives - reconstruction - poverty - rural sociology - workers - feedstocks - minerals - congo democratic republic - central africa - mijnbouw - conflict - economische sociologie - coöperaties - reconstructie - armoede - rurale sociologie - werkers - industriële grondstoffen - mineralen - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction (World Bank, 2008), and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country (PACT, 2010). However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts (Autesserre, 2010; Stearns, 2011) because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business.

    Although this ‘greed hypothesis’ has been criticised for its inconsistent performance in explaining resource-related conflicts (Le Billon, 2010; Ross, 2006), various national and international reform initiatives have gained momentum (Verbruggen et al., 2011). These initiatives aim to make the Congolese artisanal mining sector more transparent and to prevent ‘conflict minerals’ from entering the international market. In 2014, 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T (tantalum, tin and tungsten) and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC (Cuvelier et al. 2014: 5). The implicit assumptions are that mining reforms will fully ‘clean’ artisanal mining of violence and corruption and that this will contribute to sustaining people’s livelihoods (Garrett and Mitchell, 2009: 12).

    This study investigated initiatives intended to ‘formalise’ artisanal mining in DRC—in other words, they aimed to bring mining under state control. The study especially focuses on the effects of one among these initiatives—the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi)—on two groups of actors: miners (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants). This thesis thus presents a fine-grained case study of the iTSCi. Designed by the International Tin Research Institute in 2009, iTSCi provides a means of determining the origin of 3T and documenting the trading chain for these minerals by ‘tagging and bagging’ the loads of 3T near miners’ shafts (at postes d’achat/selling points or buying stations), at counting offices (comptoirs) and in mineral depots, before the minerals are exported through the international market.

    This is a qualitative study undertaken at three coltan mining sites of northern Katanga: Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai-Baridi. Coltan has been extracted at these sites since 2007. From March 2013 to September 2014, data were collected using participant observation of people’s practices (extraction/sale of coltan and various types of interactions between trading houses, cooperatives, mineworkers (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants), as well as detailed in-depth interviews with creuseurs, négociants and their households. Data were also collected from the staff of mining cooperatives, trading houses, state authorities and civil servants—predominantly of the Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement du Small-Scale Mining (SAESSCAM) and the Division des Mines. The last group of informants were a group of clandestine coltan négociants (known as hiboux—literally, ‘owls’), who were followed in the study.

    The purpose of this research is to study the micro-dynamics of changes after the reforms following the implementation of iTSCi. The study thus provides insights into how iTSCi is concretely implemented and how it has altered the organisation of mining and the trade of coltan. The study also aims to examine how this organisation affected creuseurs and négociants. The main research question of this study is as follows:

    How have initiatives to reform artisanal mining (iTSCi in particular) affected institutional change, how does this relate to changes in patterns of coltan production and trade, how were creuseurs and négociants affected by these changes, and how did these groups respond in the coltan mining areas of Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai Baridi (northern Katanga) from 2009 to 2014?

    Analytically, the study adopted three main theoretical perspectives. First, an actor-oriented approach was taken, building on the premise that individual actors have the agency, knowledge and experience to reflect upon their situation and to respond to changes in their surrounding context (Giddens, 1984). Although the examined mining reforms consist predominantly of ‘ready-made’ techniques such as iTSCi’s ‘tagging and bagging’, analysing reforms with an actor orientation helps to highlight people’s reactions and responses. This includes how reform policies are applied in institutions (e.g. mining cooperatives), how they interact, how they are assigned meaning and how they are negotiated by social actors (Christoplos and Hilhorst, 2009).

    Second, the study builds on the sociology of economic life, which holds that economic action is a form of social action that is socially ‘embedded’, meaning that it is linked with or dependent on actions and institutions (such as social networks) that are noneconomic in content, goals and processes (Granovetter, 2005). This perspective facilitates the analysis of the livelihoods of négociants, including mechanisms of smuggling minerals into and beyond the mining areas where iTSCi is in force.

    Third, this thesis introduced the original concept of ‘enclaves of regulations’. These enclaves refer to the mining areas where iTSCi or other reforms are in force. This thesis has shown that, although these ‘enclaves’ appear to be ‘closed’ and insulated from the environment in terms of the locally applied rules for the mining and trading of minerals (e.g. ‘tagging and bagging’), in reality, such closure is not complete. This thesis has demonstrated that it would therefore be more appropriate to consider these ‘enclaves’ as semi-autonomous fields with porous boundaries.

    Apart from the introduction and the concluding chapters, this thesis is composed of five chapters. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of the mineral sector in the Katanga province. It analyses the history of mining, the initiation of artisanal mining and how the ongoing reforms have been informed by this history. In this chapter, it is shown that there is a long history of the organisation of mining in the Katangese province. The reforms therefore did not enter into a stage of anarchy, or an institutional void, but they added a layer to already existing forms of organisation.

    Chapter 3 focuses on mining cooperatives as newly introduced institutions aimed at governing the artisanal mining sites. Through a single case study, the chapter analyses how these cooperatives —especially the Coopérative des Artisanaux Miniers du Congo, CDMC—were introduced into the mining areas and how they interacted and blended with pre-existing miners’ organisations. This chapter demonstrates that cooperatives have been an emergent—rather than durable—solution in terms of representing the interests of artisanal miners.

    In Chapter 4, I provide a different perspective on ‘conflict minerals’. I thus introduce the notion of ‘reform conflicts’ to emphasise that, although ongoing reforms aim to sever the supposed linkages between the artisanal mining business and violent conflicts, these reforms have become a driving force behind the emergence of new conflicts over property rights and access to minerals.

    Chapter 5 is about livelihoods. It analyses how the reforms have influenced the livelihoods and socioeconomic position of négociants. This chapter also explores what kind of opportunities the reforms have offered to this group of mineral brokers often considered powerful in the mineral supply chain and explains what kind of constraints the négociants have confronted and why they have opted to diversify their livelihood portfolios. The chapter has shown that the reforms have affected this group of mineral brokers in different ways. Some négociants were well off, whereas others have been excluded from the mineral commodity chain. These findings contradict the widespread opinion that négociants are always abusive brokers in the mineral production and commodity chain.

    Chapter 6 analyses the responses of creuseurs and négociants to iTSCi. Although the mining sites where iTSCi is in force appear to be ‘enclaves of regulations’, I explore the strategies of creuseurs and négociants to bypass iTSCi and the reforms, especially around the coltan trade. This chapter demonstrates that coltan smuggling is a deeply rooted practice. Despite the reforms, smuggling continues in different forms.

    All of the elements highlighted above suggest that mining reforms have undergone a major shift, from addressing the initial problems associated with ‘conflict minerals’ to creating or reinforcing various types of problems, such as the influence of ‘big men’ in the mining business, coltan smuggling and the emergence of new conflicts over accessing minerals. This means that reform initiatives such as iTSCi should be based on knowledge about the actual situation. Thus, understanding and addressing these new types of problems calls for a comprehensive approach at both local and broader levels.

    Samenvatting van het jaarverslag van de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR
    Anonymous, - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel
    landbouw - economische sociologie - informatieverspreiding - universiteiten - wetenschap - nederland - gelderland - veluwe - agriculture - economic sociology - diffusion of information - universities - science - netherlands - gelderland - veluwe
    Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) ondersteunt met de Wetenschapswinkel maatschappelijke organisaties als verenigingen, actiegroepen en belangenorganisaties. Deze kunnen bij ons terecht met onderzoeksvragen die een maatschappelijk doel dienen. Samen met studenten, onderzoekers en maatschappelijke groepen maken wij inspirerende onderzoeksprojecten mogelijk.
    Integrated scenarios of socio-economic and climate change : a framework for the 'Climate changes Spatial Planning' programma
    Riedijk, A. ; Bouwman, A. ; Wilgenburg, R. van; Koomen, E. ; Borsboom-van Beurden, J. ; Hoeven, N. van der; Veraart, J.A. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam [etc.] : Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam [etc.] - 49
    klimaatverandering - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - gebruik van ruimte - economische sociologie - klimaatadaptatie - modellen - nederland - mitigatie - scenario planning - climatic change - physical planning - land use - space utilization - economic sociology - climate adaptation - models - netherlands - mitigation - scenario planning
    Dit rapport is een werkdocument binnen het kennisprogramma ‘Ruimte voor Klimaat’. In dit programma heeft het project LANDS (LAND uSe and climate change) tot doel de door klimaatverandering gedreven veranderingen en aanpassingen in landgebruik te identificeren en daarmee bij te dragen aan nationale beleidsvisies en regionale oplossingsrichtingen
    Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania
    Tenge, A.J.M. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085041658 - 163
    bodembescherming - waterbescherming - planning - houding van boeren - economische sociologie - terrassen - grasbanen - tanzania - maatregelen - soil conservation - water conservation - planning - farmers' attitudes - economic sociology - terraces - grass strips - tanzania - measures
    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes. However, there is limited information on their physical effectiveness and financial efficiency to convince farmers to invest in SWC. Furthermore, farmers¿ preferences and the socio-economic factors that influence the adoption of SWC measures have not been adequately considered. As a result, the adoption of many recommended SWC measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to be a problem. This research explored the socio-economic reasons for low adoption of SWC measures in the West Usambara highlands in Tanzania. The research generated both biophysical and socio-economic information that was used to improve the current SWC planning approach. Major SWC measures used in the West Usambara highlands were then appraised using the improved participatory approaches that integrated the physical effectiveness and financial efficiency of the SWC measures and other socio-economic factors of the land users.
    Participatory appraisal for farm-level soil and water conservation planning in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania
    Tenge, A.J.M. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wageningen University and Research Centre (Tropical resource management papers no. 63) - ISBN 9789067549042 - 163
    bodembescherming - waterbescherming - planning - houding van boeren - economische sociologie - grasbanen - tanzania - terrassen - maatregelen - soil conservation - water conservation - planning - farmers' attitudes - economic sociology - grass strips - tanzania - terraces - measures
    Soil and water conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on the steep slopes of Usambara Mountains. The need for SWC has resulted in the development and promotion of several SWC measures by both governmental and non-governmental programmes. However, there is limited information on their physical effectiveness and financial efficiency to convince farmers to invest in SWC. Furthermore, farmers¿ preferences and the socio-economic factors that influence the adoption of SWC measures have not been adequately considered. As a result, the adoption of many recommended SWC measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to be a problem. This research explored the socio-economic reasons for low adoption of SWC measures in the West Usambara highlands in Tanzania. The research generated both biophysical and socio-economic information that was used to improve the current SWC planning approach. Major SWC measures used in the West Usambara highlands were then appraised using the improved participatory approaches that integrated the physical effectiveness and financial efficiency of the SWC measures and other socio-economic factors of the land users. http://library.wur.nl/wda/abstracts/ab3733.html
    Seeds of Transition. Essays on novelty production, niches and regimes in agriculture
    Wiskerke, J.S.C. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2004
    Assen, The Netherlands : Van Gorcum (European perspectives on rural development ) - ISBN 9789023239888 - 362
    landbouwproductie - agrarische structuur - bedrijfssystemen - nederland - italië - zuid-afrika - kenya - spanje - modernisering - landbouwontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - innovaties - landbouw - economische sociologie - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - voedselproductie - agrarische productiesystemen - agricultural production - food production - agricultural structure - farming systems - innovations - agriculture - economic sociology - agricultural situation - economic situation - modernization - agricultural development - rural development - netherlands - italy - spain - south africa - kenya - agricultural production systems
    Agriculture is confronted with changing societal expectations and demands regarding its role in food production and in the countryside. Complying with these expectations and demands will require a comprehensive, far-reaching and therefore far from easy and long-lasting transition of agriculture. This books seeks to explore the seeds of this transition by describing and analysing the production of promosing novelties in relation to to the dominant regime. On a theoretical level this books aims at the integration of hitherto largely disconneted disciplines and bodies of literature.
    De landbouw in het landinrichtingsgebied Losser-Zuid
    Rijk, P.J. - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 599) - ISBN 9789052424156 - 50
    plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouw - economische sociologie - nederland - overijssel - twente - rural planning - rural development - land use - management - farm management - agriculture - economic sociology - netherlands - overijssel - twente
    De landbouw in Enter; Sociaal-economische verkenning van het ruilverkavelingsgebied
    Rijk, P.J. - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 584) - ISBN 9789052423890 - 68
    landbouw - economische sociologie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - ruilverkaveling - plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale economie - nederland - economische planning - overijssel - twente - agriculture - economic sociology - physical planning - land use - land consolidation - rural planning - rural development - socioeconomics - netherlands - economic planning - overijssel - twente
    De landbouw in het landinrichtingsgebied Losser-Noord
    Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO) 600) - ISBN 9789052424149 - 54
    plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouw - economische sociologie - nederland - overijssel - twente - rural planning - rural development - land use - management - farm management - agriculture - economic sociology - netherlands - overijssel - twente
    De landbouw in het herinrichtingsgebied Scheerwolde (Noordwest-Overijssel)
    Helming, J.F.M. - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 603) - ISBN 9789052424217 - 50
    landbouw - economische sociologie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - regionaal beleid - regionale planning - economisch beleid - economie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - ruilverkaveling - nederland - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel - agriculture - economic sociology - farm management - agricultural situation - economic situation - regional policy - regional planning - economic policy - economics - physical planning - land use - land consolidation - netherlands - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel
    De landbouw in het herinrichtingsgebied Blokzijl-Vollenhove (Noordwest-Overijssel)
    Geurts, J.A.M.M. ; Rijk, P.J. - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Structuuronderzoek 604) - ISBN 9789052424224 - 50
    landbouw - economische sociologie - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - regionaal beleid - regionale planning - economisch beleid - economie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - ruilverkaveling - nederland - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel - agriculture - economic sociology - farm management - agricultural situation - economic situation - regional policy - regional planning - economic policy - economics - physical planning - land use - land consolidation - netherlands - overijssel - noordwest-overijssel
    Perspectieven IJsselmeervisserij; Sociaal-economische verkenning
    Taal, C. ; Wilde, J.W. de - \ 1997
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Afdeling Visserij 597) - ISBN 9789052424125 - 53
    landbouw - economische sociologie - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - zoet water - vis vangen - visserij - nederland - ijsselmeer - agriculture - economic sociology - agricultural situation - economic situation - fresh water - fishing - fisheries - netherlands - lake ijssel
    Tacos, tiendas and mezcal : an actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western mexico
    Verschoor, G.M. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long. - S.l. : Verschoor - ISBN 9789054857150 - 265
    ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - landbouw - economische sociologie - particuliere ondernemingen - ondernemingen - particulier eigendom - sociologie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - mexico - middelgrote bedrijven - entrepreneurship - small businesses - agriculture - economic sociology - private firms - enterprises - private ownership - sociology - rural communities - mexico - medium sized businesses

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the key issues concerning small businesses remain relatively underexposed or are highly debatable. One such issue is that of their feasibility. What firms are feasible? What are the conditions for their success? Is it technology choice, flexibility, innovativeness or relative size which determine the vitality of small firms? Or is it their organizational practices, or the institutional environment within which they operate that is crucial? These questions are important, because great hopes are placed on the role of small firms as a 'cure-all' for economic crisis. The present study aims to contribute towards a better understanding of small firms by answering some of these central issues in development. Although the study focuses on a number of small businesses in Western Mexico, the scope of the argument has much broader implications, and may help shed light on the dynamics and feasibility of small firms in development contexts in general.

    To understand the dynamics and feasibility of small firms, in Chapter 1 it is argued that existing perspectives on the phenomenon of small firms, and the assumptions on which they are based, should be challenged. On the basis of a questioning of different theoretical perspectives, in Chapter 2 some promising analytical frameworks that provide useful insights into the study of small firms - flexible specialization and the actor-oriented approach - are discussed. Drawing upon their shortcomings, the Chapter elaborates on actornetwork theory, a body of theoretical work developed in the context of the sociology of science which treats social relations as network effects. According to Law (1992:379) this theory is distinctive because "... it insists that networks are materially heterogeneous and argues that society and organization would not exist if they were simply social." Hence, from this point of view the task of sociology is to characterize the ways in which different materials are juxtaposed to create realities theretofore unimaginable. In the context of this study, the analytical framework of actor-network theory sets the stage to address the two main research questions:

    a. how can one account for the heterogeneous processes that shape the projects of small-scale entrepreneurs in a rural area of Western Mexico?
    b. under what conditions are durable (i.e. feasible) entrepreneurial projects constructed?

    Chapter 3 deals with the methodological implications of the theoretical framework, and how these in turn affected the research process. In order to address these issues, a reflexive account of the research genealogy is given: why the theme of small-scale enterprise was chosen, what paths had to be trod to obtain funding for the research, what problems were faced during the fieldwork period and, finally, how the theoretical position developed in Chapter 2 came to be adopted.

    Chapters 4 through 9 address the main research concerns through a number of case studies on small-scale entrepreneurial projects. In a nutshell, the argument runs that the dynamics and feasibility of small firms are a function of three interrelated factors. First, the ability of entrepreneurs to set up and sustain a global network capable of providing a range of different resources in exchange for some kind of future return; second, the ability of entrepreneurs to use resources from a global network to build a local network with the aim of satisfying the expectations of actors lodged in the global network; third, the degree in which an entrepreneur succeeds in controlling all transactions between the global and the local networks of the firm. This does not imply that there necessarily exists a relationship between the values and significations shared by actors belonging to these different networks.

    Chapter 4 takes up these dimensions through an in-depth case study of Carlos, an entrepreneur involved in two projects simultaneously: taco selling and public transport. As the case shows, the taco project was relatively successful as Carlos was able to build a global and a local network, and control the transactions between the two. However, a lack of integration between actors from both networks at all times endangered the feasibility of the enterprise. In contrast, in the minibus project Carlos did not succeed in maintaining a global network, and when actors from this network came up with new regulations the local netwoik could not anymore fulfil expected returns and the project collapsed.

    Chapter 5 displays an entrepreneur engaged in the setting up of two projects: a small shop and a bar. As the case shows, the entrepreneur successfully managed to build a global and a local network within which the shop project could be operated. However, the project turned out to be a fragile one because the entrepreneur did not succeed in regulating the transactions between both networks. In the case of the bar, the entrepreneur could not successfully link the actors from both the local and global network - let alone control their transactions.

    Chapter 6 pictures a couple - David and Chela - who take over a store from relatives. The case differs from the prior ones in that the project provided its global network with a timely reward, but only for a short period. The reason for this is that difficulties arose in the contextualization of the project, which in turn denied the room for manoeuvre necessary to construct a durable local network. The main reason for this was that, despite the forthright conditions put forward by David and Chela when taking over the store, they did not succeed in enroling the necessary actors to fulfil the roles laid out for them. Hence, the project did not take the direction David and Chela wished, eventually putting the feasibility of the store in question.

    Chapter 7 describes the case of Leon, a producer of mezcal. Leon's project differs from those of the previous Chapters in that Leon's project successfuIly constructed its global and local networks, and controlled transactions between these. Thus Leon controlled consumers of his mezcal by at the same time controlling the local network implicated in the production of the liquor. One and the other is made apparent by focusing on how the competition is held at bay, how collaborators (both human and nonhuman) are enlisted, and how workers are put in place - that is, how the different interests of the actors who make up the production, distribution and consumption of mezcal are made to converge.

    In Chapter 8 the thesis takes a slightly different turn by concentrating on a theme only partially developed in Chapters 4 through 7 namely the relationship between projects and crucial actors from their global networks: the final consumers of projects' products and services. Through a case study on Pablo, an independent distributor of mezcal, Chapter 8 throws new light on traditional notions about the identities of producers and consumers, and shows that these identities are continuously constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed in the process of producing and consuming - a process that vastly exceeds the realm of production and consumption proper. Thus in this Chapter it is argued that producers and consumers are nothing but the end product of heterogeneous relations which are often mediated through objects.

    In Chapter 9 attention shifts away from specific projects, and focuses on the larger network of firms engaged in the production of mezcal. In general, the Chapter deals with the expansion and transformation of this network, and the way in which it takes shape through a continuous realignment of so-called social, technical, economic and political elements. Particularly, the Chapter focuses on the way in which the network of mezcal firms transforms and expands in time through a) a constant addition of new human and non-human beings to the network, b) the enrolment of people and things who/that initially conspired against mezcal producers' goals, c) a qualitative change in the properties of actors involved in the network, d) the delegation of human properties to non-humans, and e) the effective packaging or black-boxing of heterogeneous actors. Furthermore, the network is shown to be characterized by a strong degree of convergence of interests of all actors involved, making it possible for mezcal producers to develop feasible firms.

    The general conclusion of this thesis is that the feasibility of smallscale entrepreneurial projects is a function of the morphology of the local and global networks which these projects help build and maintain. This and some other findings that follow from the case studies are made explicit in Chapter 10. Also, this final Chapter retakes the issue of why it is important to look at the feasibility of small firms, and why the approach chosen in this study can be seen as a positive contribution for both academic and policy debates concerning the role of small firms in rural areas of developing regions. Theoretically, the significance of this study is that it shows that, through theoretical ly-informed empirical cases, one can avert disciplinary myopia, making it possible to grasp the essentially contingent, unfixed nature of entrepreneurial projects. Furthermore, the study suggests that traditional sociological and anthropological notions such as 'structure' are in much need of overhauling for, as the cases demonstrate, small firms are not embedded in a fixed structure, but rather they are progressive ideas which materialize through practices, that is, through the work contextualizing and localizing objects that create social relations. As to policy concerns, this study suggests that it is precarious to formulate policies to support small-scale business through social, political, economic or technical incentives alone but that, instead policies should address the multidimensional character of entrepreneurial activity. Related to this, a general policy recommendation of this study is that schemes promoting small firms need to go beyond treating small-scale entrepreneurial projects as isolated, self-contained islands. Instead, they should be geared to the materially heterogeneous networks of actors engaged in the production, dissemination, and consumption of specific goods and services.

    Boerenproblematiek als impuls voor plattelandsvernieuwing
    Koster, A. - \ 1996
    Ekoland 16 (1996)5. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 12 - 13.
    landbouw - klimaatverandering - economische sectoren - economische sociologie - economie - voedsel - interacties - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - kwaliteit - herstel - hulpbronnengebruik - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - winkelen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouw als bedrijfstak - economische planning - natuur - agriculture - climatic change - consumers - economic sectors - economic sociology - economics - foods - interactions - purchasing habits - quality - rehabilitation - resource utilization - rural communities - rural development - rural planning - socioeconomics - agriculture as branch of economy - economic planning - nature
    The basic principle of rural development should be the stimulation of an economically viable agriculture, producing agricultural quality products. This could stop the degradation of nature, landscape and environment. The Dutch consumer should feel responsible and pay for good food.
    Simulation des risques de l'intensification dans la zone Soudano-Sahélienne au Mali
    Dijksterhuis, G.H. - \ 1996
    Wageningen [etc.] : AB-DLO [etc.] - 22
    landbouw - economische sociologie - bedrijfssystemen - kunstmeststoffen - mest - modellen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - voedingsstoffen - bescherming - herstel - onderzoek - hulpbronnengebruik - sahel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - intensivering - agriculture - economic sociology - farming systems - fertilizers - manures - models - natural resources - nutrients - protection - rehabilitation - research - resource utilization - sahel - sustainability - intensification
    Intensification agricole au Sahel: Mythe ou Réalité?
    Témé, B. ; Breman, H. ; Sissoko, K. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : AB-DLO [etc.] - 56
    landbouw - economische sociologie - bedrijfssystemen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bescherming - herstel - hulpbronnengebruik - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - sahel - sociale economie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - intensivering - economische planning - agriculture - economic sociology - farming systems - natural resources - protection - rehabilitation - resource utilization - rural development - rural planning - sahel - socioeconomics - sustainability - intensification - economic planning
    Farming in a fragile future : economics of land use with applications in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica
    Schipper, R.A. - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. Kuyvenhoven; H.A. Luning. - S.l. : Schipper - ISBN 9789054855651 - 282
    landgebruik - landbouw - economische sociologie - ruimtelijke ordening - zonering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - bescherming - herstel - bedrijfssystemen - lineair programmeren - operationeel onderzoek - costa rica - land use - agriculture - economic sociology - physical planning - zoning - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - protection - rehabilitation - farming systems - linear programming - operations research - costa rica

    The present study contributes to the search for a methodology for land use analysis, aiming at a land use that provides sufficient (and rising) incomes to the agricultural population and at the same time maintains the productive capacity of land. The contribution focuses in particular on the role of economic analysis.

    The study starts with a review of land evaluation and land use planning from an economic angle, providing suggestions for improvement. After a brief examination of prospects for agricultural production and population growth, and problems of land degradation, the concept of sustainable development is discussed. The study opts for a definition of Pearce & Turner (1990). In conjunction with rules for resource use, this definition can be made operational for land use analysis. Reviewing theories of resource economics, it is concluded that these theories are relevant and provide 'food for thought', but lack direct or easy applicability to practical cases of land use analysis. Concepts of cost-benefit analysis and of farm management, production economics and household economics are more directly applicable to land use questions. Other important concepts originate from regional economics, or point to institutional problems, in particular questions around land tenure and contradictions between land users. 'Unsolved' problems within the discipline of economics, should caution against undue belief in the approximation of reality of the results.

    The role of economics within land use analysis is outlined. The background to this outline is formed by a skeleton model of the agricultural sector, concepts of regional agricultural planning, in particular a comprehensive resource based approach, and the socalled LEFSA sequence for land use planning. The basic idea is to distinguish levels of analysis and to consider the analyses made by several disciplines (including agronomy, soil science and economics) at each of these levels. Furthermore, at each of these levels models can be designed, which are connected in a modular fashion and which foster multi- or interdisciplinary collaboration. It is advocated that the term land use planning be replaced by land use analysis.

    Linear programming models as a tool for land use analysis are discussed. A linear programming model for a case study, the Neguev settlement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica, is presented. The matrix of the model includes five sub-matrices each encompassing a different farm type. The farm types are distinguished on the basis of land-labour ratios, considering three soil types. Land use activities are included in the form of Land Use Systems & Technologies. These represent land use systems with fixed input-output coefficients. Two indicators for sustainability are taken into account: soil nutrient depletion and biocide use. These are built into the model via constraints, marking upper limits to the use of renewable resources and to the waste flow into the environment. The linear programming model forms part of the USTED ( UsoSostenible de Tierras En el Desarrollo) methodology for land use analysis.

    Several land use scenarios are analysed to assess whether incomes of farms can increase through an improved, more sustainable, land use. A base scenario is calculated to serve as a reference for assessing the impact of policy measures or changing socioeconomic conditions. A striking feature of the base scenario is the large area with palm heart in comparison to the actual area. Doubling the biocide price hardly affects its use, while a quantitative restriction on the use of biocides to half the amount used in the base scenario reduces average incomes by less than 1%. When soil nutrient depletion is restricted to 'critical losses' per year over a ten year period, average incomes are reduced by less than 3%. Other scenarios concern the impact of decreasing palm heart prices, the influence of increasing wages and the role of the discount rate. Given a certain structure of land use types and land units, land use is determined by the costs and availabilities of other factors than land; in the Neguev case labour.

    De landbouw in Midden-Groningen; Een schets van de landbouw in het strategisch groenproject
    Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 1995
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 540) - ISBN 9789052422961 - 49
    landbouw - economische sociologie - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - natuurbescherming - beleid - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - nederland - groningen - agriculture - economic sociology - land use - management - nature conservation - policy - rural development - rural planning - netherlands - groningen
    Regionale initiatieven : de weg uit de landbouwcrisis : congresdag 10 jaar Wetenschapswinkel LUW, verslag
    Bos, H. ; Hobbelink, A. ; Rommelse, A. - \ 1995
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 106) - ISBN 9789067544085 - 68
    landbouw - economische sociologie - nederland - agriculture - economic sociology - netherlands
    Samenspel van landbouw, natuur, overheid en samenleving. Naar een verweving van een natuurlijke landbouw met een agrarische natuur.
    Struik, P.C. - \ 1995
    Noorderbreedte 19 (1995)3a. - ISSN 0166-4948 - p. 68 - 72.
    landbouw bedrijven - natuurbescherming - landbouw - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarisch recht - bescherming - samenleving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - herstel - economische sociologie - landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - nederland - natuur - toekomst - agrarisch natuurbeheer - farming - nature conservation - agriculture - government policy - agricultural policy - agricultural law - protection - society - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - rehabilitation - economic sociology - farms - farming systems - netherlands - nature - future - agri-environment schemes
    This article gives an analysis of the developments in the relation between agriculture, nature, politics and society. The consequences are worked out in a future image for a new agriculture, in which the value of nature as goal of production is equal to production itself
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