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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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The roles of exploration and exploitation in the export market integration of Beninese producers at the base of the pyramid
Adékambi, S.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Paul Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572461 - 205
marketing - landbouwproducten - export - instellingen - armoede - sheaboter - ontwikkelingseconomie - economische groei - afrika - benin - west-afrika - marketing - agricultural products - exports - institutions - poverty - shea butter - development economics - economic growth - africa - benin - west africa

Keywords: Base of the pyramid, Bottom of the pyramid, Supply chains, Export market integration, Market learning, Developing and Emerging countries, Exploitation and Exploration, Institutional arrangements, Transaction cost economics, Livelihood performance, BoP producers


Organizing supply chains that are based in producer groups that live in conditions of widespread poverty and weak institutional support (sometimes referred to as the Base of the Pyramid [BoP] producers) is challenging. These challenges have predominantly been studied in the development literature, while the marketing perspective has received less attention. Drawing on both transaction cost and market learning theories, the thesis integrates producers’ opportunity exploitation and exploration processes with the institutional framework adopted in the development literature to understand producers’ integration with export markets. Overall, the findings show that exploitation mediates between drivers investigated by development economists (quality of infrastructure, microcredit, and community culture) and integration with export markets. The results show that BoP producers’ export market integration also depends on the institutional arrangements that exporting companies offer. The results indicate that contrary to more-developed settings like those in Western Europe and Northern America, there is no need to develop both opportunity exploration and exploitation in environments characterized by scarce opportunities with relatively high purchasing powers. The findings imply that developing competencies that enable to produce the demanded quality are crucial in seizing export market integration opportunities.

Deltascenario’s voor 2050 en 2100 : nadere uitwerking 2012-2013
Bruggemann, W. ; Dammers, E. ; Born, G.J. van den; Rijkens, B. ; Bemmel, B. van; Bouwman, A. ; Nabielek, K. ; Beersma, J. ; Hurk, B. van den; Polman, N.B.P. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Folmer, C. ; Huizinga, F. ; Hommes, S. ; Linde, A. te; Didde, R. ; Roukema, M. - \ 2013
Delft : Deltares - 65
klimaatverandering - economische groei - economische ontwikkeling - scenario-analyse - overstromingen - risicoanalyse - climatic change - economic growth - economic development - scenario analysis - floods - risk analysis
Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL), Centraal Planbureau (CPB), KNMI en Wageningen UR, LEI publiceren onder leiding van Deltares de ‘Deltascenario’s voor 2050 en 2100 – nadere uitwerking 2012-2013’. Deze scenario’s bouwen voort op de in 2011 gepubliceerde Deltascenario’s. Ze zijn gebaseerd op meer óf minder economische groei in combinatie met matige óf grote klimaatverandering. De vier scenario’s hebben de namen: RUST (resultaat van matige klimaatverandering en lage groei van economie en bevolking); DRUK (matige klimaatverandering, sterke groei); WARM (snelle klimaatverandering, lage groei); STOOM (snelle klimaatverandering, sterke groei). Aan de hand van elk van de uitgewerkte scenario’s toont het consortium voor welke uitdagingen Nederland in de toekomst kan komen te staan als het gaat om zoetwatervoorziening, de ruimtelijke inrichting van stad en land en bescherming tegen overstromingen.
Africa and the green revolution : a global historical perspective
Frankema, E.H.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461736185 - 28
agrarische geschiedenis - groene revolutie - geschiedenis - landbouw - milieu - landbouwproductie - voedselvoorziening - economische groei - globalisering - afrika - agricultural history - green revolution - history - agriculture - environment - agricultural production - food supply - economic growth - globalization - africa
After several centuries of rising global inequality during the so-called era of the Great Divergence, our generation is witnessing a new epoch in world history, one of rapid economic convergence1. Emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and Turkey are reconfiguring the gravity centers of the global economy with astonishing speed. Even in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region torn apart by decades of civil war and economic crises, hopeful signs of growing prosperity have emerged in recent years (Radelet 2010, Young 2012). It remains to be seen, however, to which extent Africa’s current growth revival builds on a profound transformation of the social, political and economic fabric. Is the region not just experiencing the inevitable recovery from an equally inevitable post-colonial collapse? And what sets this wave of growth apart from recurring African cycles of natural resource booms and busts, driven by volatile world market prices for tropical cash crops and mineral resources?
The social dimension of green growth in the Republic of Macedonia
Kamphuis, B.M. ; Verburg, R.W. ; Kuhlman, J.W. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Berg, J. van den; Dimitrov, L. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Natural resources ) - ISBN 9789086156269 - 110
economische groei - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame landbouw - klimaat - milieubeleid - sociale gevolgen - republiek macedonië - economic growth - sustainability - sustainable agriculture - climate - environmental policy - social impact - republic of macedonia
Land-use change, food security and climate change in Vietnam; A global-to-local modelling approach
Dijk, M. van; Hilderink, M. ; Rooij, H. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Ashton, R. ; Kartikasari, K. ; Lan, V.C. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156108 - 122
landgebruik - economische groei - economische ontwikkeling - voedselproductie - beleid inzake voedsel - klimaatverandering - voedselzekerheid - landbouw - rijst - vietnam - land use - economic growth - economic development - food production - food policy - climatic change - food security - agriculture - rice
Focus op economie en arbeidsefficiëntie : verschillen tussen meer en minder succesvolle groeiers in de melkveehouderij : deelrapport 2 van het project "Groeien in rendement" = Focus on economy and labor efficiency : differences between more and less successful expanding dairy farms : report part 2 of the project "Expansion with financial return"
Zijlstra, J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Hettinga, H. ; Vermeij, I. ; Verhees, F.J.H.M. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 624) - 51
melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - economische groei - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - concurrerend vermogen - rendement - dairy farming - dairy farms - farm development - economic growth - farm income - competitive ability - returns
Within the Dutch dairy farm sector, farms are growing almost continuously in size. Each year new farms start developing and carrying out a growth plan. A growth plan requires investments. The return of these investments is different for each plan. This study dealt with the causes of these differences. The study was done with data on two groups of eight farms. The first group combined growth with a large increase in economic performance, while the results in the second group showed a strong decrease. Key question of the study was: what are the causes of the differences in economic performance in growth between these two groups?
Gevolgen van groei voor financiële resultaten op melkveebedrijven in Nederland en EU : deelrapport 1 van het project "Groeien in rendement" = Implications of expansion on financial results of dairy farms in the Netherlands and the EU : report Part 1 of the project "Expansion with financial return"
Zijlstra, J. ; Everdingen, W.H. van; Jager, J.H. ; Kooistra, S. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 606) - 55
melkveebedrijven - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - economische groei - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - concurrerend vermogen - dairy farms - farm development - economic growth - farm income - competitive ability
Dairy farm expansions in the Netherlands and the EU and their impact on economic results are the focus of this report. After expansion successful expanders realize better results for nearly all types of revenues and costs. The high investments by expansion of Dutch dairy farms during the period 2000-2007 do not seem detrimental to their competitiveness compared to neighboring EU countries. However, they increase the risk of liquidity problems during periods of low milk prices.
Leren van conflicten groen en groei : Gaasterland, de Gelderse Vallei en Noordwest Overijssel
Boonstra, F.G. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2012
Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 29 (2012)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 5 - 13.
regionale planning - natuurbescherming - economische groei - landbouw - houding van boeren - natuur - conflict - evaluatie - friesland - gelderse vallei - noordwest-overijssel - regional planning - nature conservation - economic growth - agriculture - farmers' attitudes - nature - conflict - evaluation - friesland - gelderse vallei - noordwest-overijssel
Een groene leefomgeving en economische groei worden steeds minder als tegenpolen gezien. Groen en groei kunnen elkaar versterken. Ondanks de aantrekkelijkheid van dit nieuwe discours, toont het recente verleden veel conflicten tussen traditionele en economische en groene belangen in dit landelijk gebied. Dit artikel past het theoretische onderscheid tussen constructieve en destructieve conflicten toe op drie casussen. Op basis daarvan wordt onderzocht welke rol conflicten kunnen spelen bij het leggen van nieuwe verbindingen tussen landbouw en natuur.
Onrust over onze natuurlijke staat [special kansrijke natuur]
Brink, B. ten; Braat, L.C. - \ 2011
Milieu : opinieblad van de Vereniging van Milieuprofessionals 2011 (2011)7. - ISSN 1873-5436 - p. 9 - 11.
biodiversiteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economische groei - natuur - toekomst - biodiversity - sustainability - economic growth - nature - future
Het zal uitermate lastig zijn het mondiale biodiversiteitsverlies in de komende decennia af te remmen, laat staan te stoppen. Dat is niet vreemd als men bedenkt dat de wereldeconomie naar verwachting tot 2050 nog eens verdrievoudigt. Een grote uitdaging ligt bij de economische sectoren om veel zuiniger om te gaan met ruimte, grondstoffen, energie en water. Op hun beurt kunnen consumenten bijdragen door bijvoorbeeld minder vlees te eten, en minder eten weg te gooien. Maar is dat alles voldoende?
Institutions and Regulation for Economic Growth ? : public interests versus public incentives
Wubben, E.F.M. - \ 2011
United Kingdom : Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. - ISBN 9781849808903 - 232
regelingen - instellingen - stimulansen - niet in de prijs doorberekende kosten - economische groei - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - voedselveiligheid - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - banken - financiële instellingen - economische ontwikkeling - politieke economie - regulations - institutions - incentives - externalities - economic growth - intellectual property rights - food safety - food legislation - banks - financial institutions - economic development - political economy
Realizing institutions and regulations that foster economic growth is an essential asset for contemporary economies. This book investigates practices and options for steering individual and firm behaviour that prevents unacceptable externalities and boosts public interests. These multi-dimensional interactions are investigated in three areas; innovativeness, especially in terms of IP rights; food safety requirements and the impact on EU-competitiveness; and economic stability, particularly within the banking industry. The book provides complementary views and offers clear and relevant conclusions.
Duurzaamheid, een natuurwetenschappelijke insteek
Lyklema, J. - \ 2010
Spil 2010 (2010)3 (269-270). - ISSN 0165-6252 - p. 27 - 29.
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economische groei - milieu - energiegebruik - natuurwetenschappen - sustainability - economic growth - environment - energy consumption - natural sciences
Duurzaamheid wordt onvoldoende gewaarborgd wanneer te veel op goede bedoelingen en technologische oplossingen wordt vertrouwd. Het is ondertussen zaak geworden om een knop om te zetten en vooral dingen te laten in plaats van dingen te doen. Deze noodzaak kan natuurwetenschappelijk worden onderbouwd, maar staat haaks op de drang naar toenemende materiële vooruitgang van de mensheid
De melkrobot is volwassen : aantal robots in tien jaar vervijfvoudigd
Huiden, F. - \ 2009
Boerderij 94 (2009)24. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 20 - 22.
melkmachines - robots - economische groei - capaciteit - economische ontwikkeling - milking machines - robots - economic growth - capacity - economic development
De melkrobot is bezig met een onstuitbare opmars onder meelkveehouders. Gezinsbedrijven maar ook ZZP'ers en grote bedrijven zien de voordelen. Er wordt volop verder ontwikkeld aan de robotsystemen om de capaciteit van robotmelken op te vijzelen
Saisho no kindai keizai: Oranda keizai no seiko shippai to jizokury oku sengohyaku senhappyakujugo
Woude, A.M. van der; Vries, J. de; Onishi, Y. - \ 2009
Nagoya, Japan : Nagoyadaigakushuppankai - ISBN 9784815806163 - 689
economische groei - economische ontwikkeling - geschiedenis - nederland - economic growth - economic development - history - netherlands
Regional welfare disparities and regional economic growth in Vietnam
Nguyen Huy Hoang, - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853190 - 230
rurale welzijnszorg - regionale ontwikkeling - economische groei - gezondheidszorg - volksgezondheid - onderwijs - inkomen - inkomensverdeling - regio's - platteland - vietnam - economische verandering - rural welfare - regional development - economic growth - health care - public health - education - income - income distribution - regions - rural areas - vietnam - economic change
This study had multiple objectives. First, it aimed at examining regional inequality
in several welfare variables, such as health and education during the 1998-2004 period, and
per capita income over time from 1990 to 2006. The first objective of the study was to gain
a better understanding about the magnitude and evolution of regional inequality in health,
education and per capita income. In addition, the study paid attention to the levels and
trends of between- and within-region differences in these welfare variables separately. The
second objective of the study was to explore the relationship between regional income
inequality and regional growth during the 1990-2006 period in order to provide knowledge
about empirical evidence of the relation between regional income inequality and regional
economic growth in Vietnam. The third and final objective of the study was to examine the
regional growth patterns in the country for the growth episode stretching from 1990 to
2006. Also in the third objective of the study, the role of space and spatial autocorrelations
were considered in order to provide a better understanding about the spatial interaction
between regions in Vietnam and its impact on regional economic growth. To attain these
objectives, the study employed various methodological methods in order to measure and
analyze regional inequality in welfare variables, to explore the empirical relationship
between inequality and growth, and to test for growth patterns in the Vietnam economy.
The study was subdivided into eight chapters. Besides the introduction provided in chapter
one, an overview, conclusions, discussion and recommendations given in chapter eight, the
other six chapters, from chapter two to chapter seven, covered all issues relating to
characteristics of reform and welfare in Vietnam, the literature, methodological approach
and empirical analysis.
Economic reforms and changes in welfare in Vietnam were elaborated and
discussed in chapter two. The main focus of this chapter was to discuss the macroeconomic
situation, as well as the implementation of the economic reforms called doi moi,
and its impact on people’s welfare. As discussed in the chapter, before the doi moi, the
welfare system in Vietnam functioned quite well. Most Vietnamese people had equal access
to most welfare services provided by the government, irrespective of religion, ethnicity or
social status. Similar to other communist countries, welfare distribution in Vietnam before
the doi moi was relatively equal, although the quality of the welfare system with respect to
services offered was still questionable in terms of catching up to the international standard.
At the time, most Vietnamese people enjoyed free access to the healthcare system. Pupils
and students got free education at all levels. As a result, the free systems culminated in
good health records attained throughout the country, high enrolment rates and a high rate of
literacy among the Vietnamese people compared with other developing countries with the
same or slightly higher level of development.
The situation and condition of welfare, such as education and health after the doi
moi, were also discussed and compared with the condition of welfare before doi moi to
evaluate the impact of high and relatively high rates of economic growth of 6-9% per
annum on a changing welfare system, by explanatorily analyzing the welfare system, using
Gini coefficients. This showed that regional inequality in the country had generally
The methodological issue regarding measuring and analyzing regional welfare
inequality was dealt with in chapter three. Apart from discussing the theoretical approach and empirical measurement models, the chapter also provided a short review of the
literature on multidimensional regional inequality. From the various approaches to welfare
inequality measurement and analysis, the present study chose the multidimensional
approach, using Theil’s second index as the inequality measure. The rationale for using
Theil’s second index (measure) and the valuable properties of the Theil’s second index
were also discussed in this chapter. Theil’s second measure satisfies the property of
additive decomposability and is very informative about the status of the distribution of
well-being. Additive decomposability property meant that overall inequality could be
decomposed into within- and between-region inequality, which would be very meaningful
for understanding magnitudes and trends of regional inequality. Theil’s second measure
also satisfied several desirable properties as measuring regional income/welfare inequality,
such as mean independence, population-size independence, and the Pigou-Dalton principle
of transfers. In order to compute Theil’s second measure of inequality, there is a need for
estimating a composite index, based on the aggregate function by Maasoumi, in which the
indicators’ coefficients and their associated weights are to be estimated. To do so, the
chapter also developed the measurement models based on the principal component models
(PCA) and partial common principal component models (PCPC), developed and used by
Flury. These two types of models were discussed in detail in order to help the readers to
comprehend the subsequent empirical parts of the thesis.
The measurement and analysis of regional inequality for two welfare variables,
namely health and education, were given in chapter four and chapter five, respectively.
In chapter four, we proceeded with the measurement and analysis for health
facilities and health status, and also examined spillover effects, for example, that health
facilities in one region would affect people’s health status in the first-order adjacent
province(s). We carried out several tests for spatial dependence among these two subcomponents
of health. The results in chapter four revealed that total regional inequality had
different patterns for healthcare facilities and health status during the 1998-2004 period.
Generally, regional inequality in both the healthcare facilities and health status moderately
decreased in Vietnam over the 1998-2004 period. However, there was a sign of increase
during this stretch of time, as the results found in chapter four showed a slight increase in
inequality in both components of health over the 1998-2002 period, and then it decreased in
the next period.
Empirical findings in chapter four also proved the importance of spillover effects
prevailing in the case of the health component. Healthcare services seemed to be more
equally distributed in the case of contiguity than in the case of non-contiguity, as Theil’s
second measure in the former was lower than that in the latter. This finding indicated that if
we ignored the existence of spillover effects, the regional inequality would be exaggerated.
The tests for spatial dependence among health components were also conducted in
chapter four for several specifications regarding the relationship between health status and
health facilities. The results of the tests confirmed the existence of spatial effects between
the two dimensions of health. The test also proved that the spatial error model was an
appropriate specification for analysis of the relationship between the composite index with
respect to health status and the composite index with respect to health facilities, while the
spatial lagged model was a more appropriate specification to analyze the relationship
between the composite index with respect to health status and the indicators of health
Following chapter four, the measurement and analysis of multidimensional regional
inequality for the education component were carried out in chapter five. However, different
from chapter four, contiguity effects were not considered in this chapter, because we argued
that due to mandatory education applied in Vietnam, pupils were not allowed to attend
school in other regions (provinces) than they were registered to live (even though in
practice pupils would seek education in other regions other than the one they lived, but this
phenomenon was not common, so we did not have statistics for analysis). Thus, as a result,
we did not take spatial dependence into consideration.
For regional inequality in education facilities, the research showed that total
inequality, its between-region term and within-region components all go into opposite
directions between the two periods. However, the change in the within-region inequality
was in contrast with the changes in total regional inequality. The between-region
component as the total regional inequality and the between-region component in education
facilities first decreased during the period 1998-2002 and then increased during the period
2002-2004, while the within-region inequality increased during the 1998-2002 period, then
decreased during the 2002-2004 period. As research findings revealed, the distribution of
education facilities among the regions in Vietnam was a bit more unequal over time.
Meanwhile, the change over time of the within-region component of inequality was very
For regional inequality in enrolments, our findings showed that the pattern of total
regional inequality and its decomposed terms were the same as all of them increased in the
first period (1998-2002), and declined in the next period (2002-2004). The structural shares
of between-region and within-region inequality in the total inequality told us that in all
three years under study the between-region term made up a larger part in the total
inequality. These implied that the differences in enrolments between regions were more
significant to the total inequality than the differences in enrolments within regions.
The comparative composite index with respect to education facilities and the
composite index with respect to enrolments presented in chapter five revealed that there
was a sharp contrast between the two dimensions of education, as the most-favored regions
with respect to enrolments were those in the lowland areas with least and medium-favored
education facilities. The least-favored regions with respect to the education enrolments
were those in the upland areas, which were very high-favored with respect to education
facilities in terms of the composite index.
Chapter six presented the measurement and analysis of the regional income
inequality, and explored the evolution of income disparities, its decomposed terms as well
as its relationship with economic growth among regions in Vietnam in the period from
1990 to 2006. The findings confirmed that generally the regional income inequality in the
country moderately increased over time. The decomposition of the total inequality revealed
that within-region inequality decreased, while between-region increased over time.
However, the size of within-region income inequality differed among regions in the
country, as within-region Theil’s second inequality measure showed different trends.
The empirical exploration of the relationship between regional inequality and
regional growth found revealed different patterns of the relationship. The estimates from
the panel data regression have found a positive relationship between the rate of economic
growth and the initial level of per capita income in all the cases studied. Meanwhile, using
the pooled OLS technique, we found negative relationships between growth and inequality for all the cases studied: without both controls and regional dummies, with the controls and
no regional dummies, and with both controls and regional dummies.
The test for the validity of the method (either the fixed effects or random effects is
more appropriate and preferred) revealed that the fixed effects method was appropriate and
preferred for the cases: without both the controls and dummies and with controls but no
dummies in the growth model, while the random effects technique was more appropriate
and more preferred for the case with both the controls, regional and time dummies.
Interestingly, estimates by both the fixed effects and random effects methods revealed that
there was both a positive and negative relationship between regional growth rate and initial
level of per capita income.
The empirical results of the relationship between regional inequality and regional
growth show that the estimated relationship between inequality and growth changes when
using different estimation techniques. However, the estimation using panel data regression,
the fixed effects and most cases of random effects methods seem to support the theoretical
argument and empirical findings that there is a positive correlation between growth and
inequality for developing economies like Vietnam’s, while pooled OLS regression yields
the results of a negative relationship between the two variables: inequality and growth.
Examination of the growth patterns or tests (absolute β-convergence test and ADF
panel IPS t-bar test based on unit root test) for convergence in regional income was
conducted in chapter seven. All the tests for convergence were rejected, which meant that
regional income in Vietnam did not converge towards one another. Based on an informal
exploratory data analysis we may conclude that divergence of regional income took place
in Vietnam, given the size of beta and its high statistical significance.
Parallel with the test for the per capita GDP convergence, the chapter did also
attempt to test for the spatial dependence among provinces, in order to explain the growth
pattern of one province in relation with that of others. However, the Moran’s I and both the
LM statistics did not support our prior assumption of the spatial dependence among
provinces in the growth progress.
Lastly, chapter eight provided an overview, the conclusions, discussion and
recommendations based on the entire research conducted in this study. The chapter drew
several key conclusions. First, regarding the regional inequality in health and education, the
key point was that the results from the multidimensional approach to measurement and
analysis were satisfactory, because generally, welfare inequality in Vietnam, according to
the World Bank reports, increased over time, as inequality in income per capita increased.
However, the multidimensional approach found that inequality in education and health
decreased over the period studied. Additionally, the chapter concluded that spillover effects
were important in the case of measuring and analyzing regional inequality for health, and
they should be taken into consideration. For education, analyzing the comparative
composite indices with respect to education facilities and education enrolments revealed
that in some regions these two indices did not coincide, which meant that regions, which
were favored in terms of the composite index with respect to education facilities, were not
the ones that were favored in terms of the composite index with respect to enrolments and
vice versa. This conclusion would be very useful for policymakers in considering the
effective way to invest in improving general education in the country.
Chapter eight also described several limitations of the study, regarding the
approaches used in the study, the number of indicators used, the sources and duration of the data. However, the limitations were not critical, but if we overcame these setbacks, the
results of the study would be more impressive, empirically speaking. In addition, several
recommendations for policy were given in chapter eight, regarding policy on health and
education, and policy on regional development and sustainable development.
Interpretatie basis kwaliteitsvoorschriften voor zes groentesoorten van Surinaamse herkomst
Putter, H. de; Wijk, C.A.P. van - \ 2008
[S.l.] : S.n. - 37
groenten - tuinbouwgewassen - suriname - nederland - ontwikkelingsprojecten - samenwerking - exportbevordering - economische groei - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - vegetables - horticultural crops - netherlands - development projects - cooperation - export promotion - economic growth - food safety - food quality
Zes belangrijke Surinaamse (export) groenten zijn voor marktbaar product handelsnormen opgesteld om een basis te geven voor betrouwbare kwaliteitsaanduiding voor de handel in deze groenten. In dit document is per gewas aan de hand van voorbeelden en foto's een interpretatie en toelichting van de voorschriften weergegeven, om de toepassing in de praktijk te vergemakkelijken
The ecomics of ecosystems and biodiversity: scoping the scale
Balmford, A. ; Rodrigues, A.S.L. ; Walpole, M. ; Brink, P. ten; Kettunen, M. ; Braat, L.C. ; Groot, R. - \ 2008
Cambridge [etc.] : University of Cambridge - 297
biodiversiteit - economische groei - ecosystemen - biodiversity - economic growth - ecosystems
The G8 decided in March 2007 to initiate a “Review on the economics of biodiversity loss”, in the so called Potsdam Initiative: 'In a global study we will initiate the process of analysing the global economic benefit of biological diversity, the costs of the loss of biodiversity and the failure to take protective measures versus the costs of effective conservation. The study is being supported by the European Commission (together with the European Environmental Agency and in cooperation with the German Government. “The objective of the current study is to provide a coherent overview of existing scientific knowledge upon which to base the economics of the Review, and to propose a coherent global programme of scientific work, both for Phase 2 (consolidation) and to enable more robust future iterations of the Review beyond 2010.”
Why are current world food prices so high? : a memo
Banse, M.A.H. ; Nowicki, P.L. ; Meijl, H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : International policy ) - 27
agrarische economie - wereldmarkten - landbouwprijzen - voedselprijzen - voedselproductie - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landbouwbeleid - marktprijzen - consumentenprijzen - goederenmarkten - basisproducten - aanbod - vraag - economische groei - populatiegroei - gewasproductie - marktstructuur - economische aspecten - biobased economy - agricultural economics - world markets - agricultural prices - food prices - food production - natural resources - agricultural policy - market prices - consumer prices - commodity markets - commodities - supply - demand - economic growth - population growth - crop production - market structure - economic aspects - biobased economy
World agricultural prices are very volatile which is due to traditional characteristics of agricultural markets such as inelastic (short run) supply and demand curves. A combination of record low global inventory levels, weather induced supply side shocks, surging outside investor influence, record oil prices and structural changes in demand for grains and oilseeds due to biofuels have created the high prices. The question is whether it is a coincidence that the past and current high price levels coincide with high oil prices or whether other reasons for the current price peak are more important.
Tuinbouwcluster: ruimte voor greenports
Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Hietbrink, O. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)februari. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 2
tuinbouw - clustering - concentratie van de productie - regionale ontwikkeling - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - economische groei - milieubeleid - infrastructuur - water - energie - regionale economie - horticulture - concentration of production - regional development - farm development - economic growth - environmental policy - infrastructure - energy - regional economics
Een herstructurering van de Greenports moet zich richten op milieudoelstellingen rond water en energie. Naast de te behalen milieuwinsten leidt een herstructurering naar verwachting ook tot een hoger rendement van de Greenports en tot een surplus aan economische activiteit.
The role of agriculture in economic development
Meijerink, G.W. ; Roza, P. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Markets, chains and sustainable development 4) - ISBN 9789085851516 - 33
plattelandsontwikkeling - globalisering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - markten - economische groei - economische ontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwsector - ontwikkelingslanden - ketenmanagement - duurzame ontwikkeling - rural development - globalization - small farms - markets - economic growth - economic development - agricultural development - agricultural sector - developing countries - supply chain management - sustainable development
Competitiveness of the European Food Industry : an economic and legal assessment 2007
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2007
Luxemburg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities - ISBN 9789279060335 - 328
marktconcurrentie - voedselindustrie - ruilvoet - concurrerend vermogen - productiviteit - economische groei - wereldmarkten - internationale handel - wereld - handelsonderhandelingen - agrarische handel - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - europa - europese unie - market competition - food industry - terms of trade - competitive ability - productivity - economic growth - world markets - international trade - world - trade negotiations - agricultural trade - food legislation - europe - european union
The competitiveness of the European food industry is weak compared to the US and Canada and at approximately the same level as the Australian and Brazilian industry. Scenarios show that unless the productivity growth in the EU is higher than in the rest of the world, EU competitiveness remains weak. Despite the weak competitive performance, a fair number of world leading food enterprises are located in the EU. Moreover the importance of the food industry in total manufacturing is growing, and the sub-sectors value added is higher than that of most other sub-sectors in manufacturing. The impact of food legislation does not seem to affect EU competitiveness negatively compared to the US. In general, EU companies’ view on the food legislation is positive. EU authorities can increase their support for the European industry by engaging in export negotiations. This study is one of the few or maybe even the first one, which included all subsectors of the food industry and benchmarked these with important non-EU countries.
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