Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Reality effects of conflict avoidance in rewilding and ecotourism practices–the case of Western Iberia
Pellis, Arjaan - \ 2019
Journal of Ecotourism (2019). - ISSN 1472-4049
Conflict avoidance - ecotourism - rewilding - Social Systems Theory - Western Iberia

This paper explores the performative role of conflict avoidance in enabling rewilding and ecotourism visions in Western Iberia, one of the first European rewilding pilots situated in Northeast Portugal. Conflict avoidance is delineated here as a process based on expectations of potentially enduring, mutually contradicting and heated communications. In line with and contributing to a Social Systems Theory of conflicts, various examples of conflict avoidance are described as either a form of proactive anticipation to conflicts as risks or as a reactive adaptation to conflicts as dangers. The findings illustrate various forms of conflict avoidance in terms of silence, materialisation, co-optation, and ad hoc manoeuvring. These forms are subject to different goal dependencies of rewilding and ecotourism visions. Furthermore, these findings support a more critical discussion of the highly co-productive role of latent conflict processes in evolving rewilding and ecotourism practices in places like Western Iberia.

Ecotourism after nature : Anthropocene tourism as a new capitalist “fix”
Fletcher, Robert - \ 2019
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 27 (2019)4. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 522 - 535.
Anthropocene - capitalism - Capitalocene - disaster - ecotourism - voluntourism

How does ecotourism–conventionally characterized by its pursuit of a “natural” experience–confront assertions that “nature is over” attendant to growing promotion of the “Anthropocene”? One increasingly prominent strategy is to try to harness this “end of nature” itself as a novel tourism “product”. If the Anthropocene is better understood as the Capitalocene, as some contend, then this strategy can be viewed as a paradigmatic example of disaster capitalism in which crises precipitated by capitalist processes are themselves exploited as new forms of accumulation. In this way, engagement with the Anthropocene becomes the latest in a series of spatio-temporal “fixes” that the tourism industry can be seen to provide to the capitalist system in general. Here I explore this dynamic by examining several ways in which the prospect of the loss of “natural” resources are promoted as the basis of tourism experience: disaster tourism; extinction tourism; voluntourism; development tourism; and, increasingly, self-consciously Anthropocene tourism as well. Via such strategies, Anthropocene tourism exemplifies capitalism’s astonishing capacity for self-renewal through creative destruction, sustaining itself in a “post-nature” world by continuing to market social and environmental awareness and action even while shifting from pursuit of nonhuman “nature” previously grounding these aims.

Authenticity and the Contradictions of the “Ecotourism Script” : Global Marketing and Local Politics in Ghana
Büscher, Bram ; Bremer, Renée van den; Fletcher, Robert ; Koot, Stasja - \ 2017
Critical Arts 31 (2017)4. - ISSN 0256-0046 - p. 37 - 52.
authenticity - development - ecotourism - Ghana - marketing - politics
Tourism in Ghana has been developing rapidly over the last decade. By marketing over a dozen “community ecotourism” sites, particularly around monkey and forest sanctuaries, Ghana hopes to attract travellers to spend money in the country and so aid local development and protect natural resources. This paper analyses this trend, outlining several contradictions in the country’s national branding of “authenticity” in ecotourism and how this takes local shape in the case of the Tafi-Atome monkey sanctuary in Eastern Ghana. We propose that actors on different levels in Ghana appear to market and brand ecotourism according to a “script” that directs and influences local ecotourism practices in ways that obscure these contradictions and thereby enable continuation of and belief in the script. We conclude that this “ecotourism script” is central to the promotion and implementation of ecotourism in general, and needed to maintain the belief that the activity is an important conservation and development panacea.
Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya
Nthiga, R.W. ; Duim, V.R. van der; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Lamers, M.A.J. - \ 2015
Development Southern Africa 32 (2015)3. - ISSN 0376-835X - p. 407 - 423.
partnerships - ecotourism - management - wildlife - africa
Tourism-conservation enterprises (TCEs), such as eco-lodges, are a relatively new strategy of the African Wildlife Foundation for enhancing community livelihoods and wildlife conservation in wildlife-rich areas outside state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigates the extent to which TCEs succeed in meeting these objectives by focusing on two enterprises in Kenya: the Sanctuary at Ol Lentille and the Koija Starbeds. Empirical data were gathered between October 2010 and March 2013 through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, literature review and document analysis. Both TCEs demonstrated significant contributions to employment, education, healthcare and security. Compared with the Starbeds, the Sanctuary realised a much larger conservation area and more pronounced biodiversity recovery. The analysis showed that the contribution of TCEs to livelihoods and biodiversity conservation depends on the nature of the partnership arrangement, as well as the local, national and international contexts in which they operate.
From production-oriented farming towards multifunctional entrepreneurship : exploring the underlying learning process
Seuneke, P.L.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739131 - 207
landbouw bedrijven - ondernemerschap - landbouwproductie - ecotoerisme - multifunctionele landbouw - agrarisch onderwijs - farming - entrepreneurship - agricultural production - ecotourism - multifunctional agriculture - agricultural education

This thesis unravels the learning process underlying the switch from conventional production-oriented farming towards ‘multifunctional entrepreneurship’. In other words: the process by which former production-oriented farmers (men, women and their families) re-invent themselves as ‘multifunctional entrepreneurs’ and gain the necessary knowledge, skills and networks to re-develop their existing farm as a multifunctional one with the integration of new non-farming activities such as agro-tourism, nature and landscape management, processing and selling of farm products, professional (child)care and on-farm education. Apart from its contribution to theory with regard to the development of multifunctionality and multifunctional entrepreneurship, this thesis ultimately supports practitioners (such as teachers, trainers, advisers) in fostering this, for today’s and tomorrow’s agriculture and rural areas, valuable form of agricultural entrepreneurship.

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Boersma, M. ; Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2013
Experiment NL 2013 (2013)november. - p. 58 - 61.
ecotoerisme - landgebruik - toerisme - natuurbescherming - kenya - ecotourism - land use - tourism - nature conservation
Kan toerisme in Kenia samengaan met natuurbescherming? En pikt de lokale bevolking dan een graantje mee van de komst van westerse natuurliefhebbers? Drie wetenschappers onderzochten de plussen en minnen van ecotoerisme.
Evaluating land use options at the wildlife/livestock interface: an integrated spatial land use analysis
Chaminuka, P. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Akke van der Zijpp; C.M.E. Mccrindle, co-promotor(en): Rolf Groeneveld. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731333 - 258
wild - vee - rundvee - landgebruik - plattelandsgemeenschappen - ecotoerisme - middelen van bestaan - wildlife - livestock - cattle - land use - rural communities - ecotourism - livelihoods
In Africa, rural development and biodiversity conservation, are both important, but sometimes potentially conflicting priorities. Most rural areas adjacent to wildlife protected areas in Southern Africa have high biodiversity potential, but are characterised by high poverty, unemployment, and limited economic activity. The problems in these rural areas are further compounded by problems of crop destruction, and livestock depredation by wildlife. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), recently introduced in Southern Africa, have potential to address both biodiversity and poverty alleviation through promotion of multiple land uses such as wildlife ranching, tourism, livestock and crop production. It is however, not clear how these land uses can be combined, and what the associated socio-economic costs and benefits of alternative land use options in these areas are. This study proposed a spatial land use model for evaluating alternative land uses and development pathways in these rural areas. The model maximised net revenues from the land, assuming the presence of a social planner. The model proposed, considered a range of socio-economic and biophysical factors, identified jointly with rural communities. The study comprised five empirical chapters in which the following issues are addressed; (i) socioeconomic risks associated with agriculture at the interface, and community attitudes towards wildlife tourism land uses (ii) contribution of existing livelihood strategies to household incomes, (iii) potential for tourism development and (iv) trade-offs in net revenues between different options for land use. The case study areas was Mhinga, one of the rural areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA in South Africa. The study area is situated on the north-western border of Kruger National Park (KNP), next to the Punda Maria park gate. Results showed that the costs by wildlife related damage such as livestock depredation and diseases, were higher than the benefits in employment and subsidies from the park for households. As a consequence attitudes towards wildlife by farmers were generally negative. There was also no mechanism to compensate households incurring wildlife damage. Households living closer to the park had more problems with wildlife damage. When the contribution of different livelihood activities to household incomes were considered, the study found that the main sources of income were the government welfare grants, formal employment and cattle farming. Cattle farmers were not in support of introducing wildlife based land use activities as they considered them to impose costs on other livelihood activities. Some community members were however of the opinion that introducing wildlife tourism could create employment and improve household incomes, especially for those households not engaged in cattle farming. When preferences of tourists, towards supporting forms of ecotourism outside the KNP were analysed, through a choice experiment approach, the study found that tourists were interested in village tours and crafts markets, but generally reluctant to use accommodation facilities outside the park. Analysis of options for land based development at the interface showed that existing land use practices were not optimal. The model results indicate that, by introducing irrigation, tourism and wildlife land uses, net revenues from land could be doubled in the future. It is concluded that, given the socioeconomic and bio-physical constraints characteristic to the area, most income can be obtained by combining all four land uses in the area in optimal proportions. Factors such as property rights, and benefits distribution which could impact the ability of rural communities in the TFCA to support, utilize and benefit from wildlife resources need to be addressed before any land use changes are implemented.
Antarctic cruise tourism: the paradoxes of ambassadorship, "last chance tourism" and greenhouse gas emissions
Eijgelaar, E. ; Thaper, C. ; Peeters, P.M. - \ 2010
Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18 (2010)3. - ISSN 0966-9582 - p. 337 - 354.
ecotourism - aviation - impacts
This paper examines a paradoxical issue in tourism's adaptation to climate change and emissions reduction demands. Operators increasingly take tourists to destinations threatened by climate change, with Antarctica and other polar regions as favourites and cruise ship and aircraft as main transport modes. The selling point is to see a destination before it disappears, a form of last chance tourism. This has been claimed to increase the environmental awareness of tourists and make them “ambassadors” for conservation and the visited destination. Antarctic cruise ship passengers tripled from 2000 to 2007. The paper finds that high levels of greenhouse gas emissions are created by cruise ship tourists in general, and especially high levels for those visiting the Antarctic, up to approximately eight times higher per capita and per day than average international tourism trips. A survey found no evidence for the hypothesis that the trips develop greater environmental awareness, change attitudes or encourage more sustainable future travel choices. Of the Antarctic cruise passengers surveyed, 59% felt that their travel did not impact on climate change; fewer than 7% had or might offset their emissions. Alternative opportunities for visitation to glacial/polar destinations that comply with the desire to reduce future emissions are discussed.
Tourism, nature conservation and wealth creation in Africa. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences Volume 4 (Kampala, Uganda, 27-29 October 2007)
Duim, V.R. van der; Kloek, M.E. - \ 2008
Arhnem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775365 - 74
toerisme - natuurbescherming - armoede - afrika - ecotoerisme - plattelandsgemeenschappen - tourism - nature conservation - poverty - africa - ecotourism - rural communities
Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences. Volume 1: Tourism and nature in Africa
Kloek, M.E. ; Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2007
Arnhem : Association for Tourism and Leisure Education - ISBN 9789075775266 - 116
ontwikkeling van toerisme - ecotoerisme - landgebruiksplanning - natuurbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - afrika - tourism development - ecotourism - land use planning - nature conservation - sustainability - africa
Aspects of Tourism in Kenya. Thematic proceedings of Atlas Africa Conferences. Volume 3
Kloek, M.E. ; Duim, V.R. van der - \ 2007
Arnhem : ATLAS - ISBN 9789075775297 - 118
cultureel toerisme - natuurtoerisme - plattelandstoerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - impact van toerisme - toerismebeleid - toeristenindustrie - ecotoerisme - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kenya - cultural tourism - nature tourism - rural tourism - tourism development - tourism impact - tourism policy - tourist industry - ecotourism - sustainability - kenya
Pristine wilderness of the Taimyr peninsula; 2005 report
Ebbinge, B.S. ; Mazurov, Y.L. - \ 2006
Moscow (Russia) : Heritage Institute - ISBN 5864431389 - 180
wildernis - vogels - ganzen - laridae - zoogdieren - landschap - vegetatie - fauna - watervogels - ecotoerisme - lemmingen - siberië - vogeltrek - expedities - wilderness - birds - geese - laridae - mammals - landscape - vegetation - fauna - waterfowl - ecotourism - lemmings - siberia - bird migration - expeditions
Pristine wilderness of the Taimyr peninsula; 2004 report
Ebbinge, B.S. ; Mazurov, Y.L. - \ 2005
Moscow (Russia) : Heritage Institute - ISBN 5864431176 - 105
wildernis - toendra - natuurreservaten - ecosystemen - ecologie - vogels - ecotoerisme - siberië - expedities - natuur - wilderness - tundra - nature reserves - ecosystems - ecology - birds - ecotourism - siberia - expeditions - nature
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