Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal- and plant-derived food : results of a survey across Europe
    Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Castelari, Massimo ; Bodi, Dorina ; Ronczka, Stefan ; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika ; These, Anja - \ 2018
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 35 (2018)1. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 118 - 133.
    eggs - herbal supplements - mass spectrometry - meat - milk - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - survey - tea

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and particularly in tea. To obtain a comprehensive overview of the PA content in animal- and plant-derived food from the European market, and to provide a basis for future risk analysis, a total of 1105 samples were collected in 2014 and 2015. These comprised milk and milk products, eggs, meat and meat products, (herbal) teas, and (herbal) food supplements collected in supermarkets, retail shops, and via the internet. PAs were detected in a large proportion of plant-derived foods: 91% of the (herbal) teas and 60% of the food supplements contained at least one individual PA. All types of (herbal) teas investigated were found to contain PAs, with a mean concentration of 460 µg kg−1 dry tea (corresponding to 6.13 µg L−1 in [herbal] tea infusion). The highest mean concentrations were found in rooibos tea (599 µg kg−1 dry tea, 7.99 µg L−1 tea infusion) and the lowest in camomile tea (274 µg kg−1 dry tea, 3.65 µg L−1 tea infusion). Occurrence of PAs in food supplements was found to be highly variable, but in comparable ranges as for (herbal) tea. The highest concentrations were present in supplements containing plant material from known PA-producing plants. In contrast, only 2% of the animal-derived products, in particular 6% of milk samples and 1% of egg samples, contained PAs. Determined levels in milk were relatively low, ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 µg L−1 and only trace amounts of 0.10–0.12 µg kg−1 were found in eggs. No PAs were detected in the other animal-derived products.

    Bringing eggs and bones to light : affecting leg bone development in broiler chickens through perinatal lighting schedules
    Pol, Carla W. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp, co-promotor(en): H. van den Brand; I.A.M. Roovert-Reijrink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431422 - 214
    broilers - limb bones - biological development - embryonic development - eggs - light regime - incubation - hatching - circadian rhythm - animal pathology - animal health - poultry farming - vleeskuikens - beenderen van ledematen - biologische ontwikkeling - embryonale ontwikkeling - eieren - lichtregiem - broeden - uitbroeden - circadiaan ritme - dierpathologie - diergezondheid - pluimveehouderij

    Leg bone pathologies are a common problem in broiler chickens, and they can lead to decreased welfare and poor production performance. It can be speculated that the ae­tiology of some leg bone pathologies lies, to some extent, in suboptimal early life bone development. One factor that can be speculated to affect bone development, and conse­quently leg health, in broiler chickens is application of light. Light has several properties, such as light intensity, color, duration, and schedule. The present thesis focuses on ligh­ting schedules. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules applied during incubation and in the early post hatch period (the brooding period) affected leg bone development throughout a broiler’s life and leg health at slaughter age.

    In 4 studies, effects of eggshell temperature (EST) and lighting schedule during incuba­tion and in the brooding period on leg bone development, leg health, and production parameters were explored. The first study found that an EST of 39.4°C led to lower bone dimensions at hatch than an EST between 37.8 and 38.6°C. It was then decided that incubation experiments on bone development would best be performed at a constant EST of 37.8°C, as this is also an EST that leads to good hatchability and chick quality. In two studies, the effects of circadian lighting schedules during incubation on leg bone development and leg health were investigated. Staining of the embryonic leg bones sho­wed that applying a circadian lighting schedule of 12 hours of light, followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D) resulted in an earlier onset of embryonic ossification of the tibia than continuous light (24L). Compared to 24L, 12L:12D furthermore resulted in higher tibia weight and length, and higher tibial cortical area, cortical thickness, and second moment of area around the minor axis at hatch as revealed by MicroCT scanning. It was furthermore found that 12L:12D resulted in a lower incidence of the leg pathology tibial dyschondroplasia. Continuous darkness (24D) was mostly intermediate. On the other hand, a circadian lighting schedule of 16 hours of light, followed by 8 hours of darkness (16L:8D) did not show the same stimulatory effect on leg bone development, as no dif­ferences in gene expression markers involved in embryonic ossification were found, leg bone dimensions at hatch were not increased, and bone mineral content as determined by DXA scanning was not higher for 16L:8D. It can therefore be speculated that the dark period should exceed 8 hours per day during incubation for increased bone dimensions and ossification. However, incidence and severity of the leg bone pathologies in the form of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and epiphyseal plate abnormalities were lowest for broilers exposed to 16L:8D during incubation, and tibial dyschondroplasia tended to be lower for 16L:8D than for 24D. Interactions between incubation and mat­ching or mismatching post hatch lighting schedules were not found. It was speculated that the endocrine factors (pineal) melatonin, growth hormone, corticosterone, and IGF- 1 were a pathway through which light affected leg bone development, but no evidence was found to support this hypothesis. Production performance was not greatly influen­ced by incubation lighting schedule, but 24L was found to result in higher body weights at slaughter age than 16L:8D and 24D. In the final experiment, lighting schedules were applied during the brooding period from day 0 to 4 after hatching and leg bone develop­ment was measured at day 4 post hatch. 24L led to increased leg bone dimensions, but lower developmental stability of the leg bones than a lighting schedule with 1 or 6 hours of darkness after every 2 hours of light.

    The overall findings of this thesis suggest that continuous light during incubation and in the brooding period had a detrimental effect on embryonic and early post hatch leg bone development and health. The involvement of endocrine factors was not clarified from the current results. Applying a light-dark rhythm during incubation may improve embryonic leg bone development and leg health at slaughter age compared to continuous light and continuous darkness, without affecting post hatch production performance, but it appears that the dark period should last longer than 8 hours per day for optimal leg bone development.

    Predicting hairline fractures in eggs of mature hens
    Mourik, S. van; Alders, Bart ; Helderman, F. ; Ven, L.J.F. van de; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2017
    Poultry Science 96 (2017)6. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1956 - 1962.
    hairline fractures - eggs
    Eggshell damage poses a serious problem for the consumption egg industry. Increasing the maximum age of laying hens will increase eggshell damage due to loss of shell strength. This poses a serious problem for automatic collection, packing, and transport. We performed a model based study focused on hairline fractures in eggs of 88-week-old hens, and simulated side collisions on 1,235 eggs using a specially designed pendulum. The kinetic energy at the moment of impact was related to the accelerations measured by an electronic egg going through the transport chain. Further, several egg mechanical properties were measured.For collisions with a realistic impact, fracture occurrence correlated negatively with dynamic stiffness (14%), mass (15%), shape index (9%), and damping ratio (12%). We manipulated the data set to investigate the influence of improving egg properties. Removing the least favorable 50% of the eggs based on stiffness and mass resulted in a moderate reduction of fracture occurrence, from 7.7% down to 4.4%.The peak acceleration of an egg running through the transport chain lies typically in the range of 15 to 45 g. Our model predicts that a moderate decrease from 30 g down to 20 g will result in a drastic reduction of fracture occurrence from 7.7% down to 0.3 to 1% (95% confidence region), whereas an increase to 40 g will increase fracture occurrence to 42 to 55%.The model predicts that severe collisions pose a relatively high risk for eggshell damage, which suggests that a reduction of collision severity is of first priority when increasing the age of laying hens.
    Transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various herbs to eggs and meat in laying hens
    Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Witte, Susannah L. de; Stoopen, Geert M. ; Meulen, Jan van der; Wikselaar, Piet G. van; Gruys, Erik ; Groot, Maria J. ; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2016
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 33 (2016)12. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1826 - 1893.
    eggs - laying hens - liver - meat - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids - transfer

    To investigate the potential transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), laying hens were fed for 14 days with diets containing 0.5% of dried common ragwort, common groundsel, narrow-leaved ragwort or viper’s bugloss, or 0.1% of common heliotrope. This resulted in total PA levels in feed of respectively 5.5, 11.1, 53.1, 5.9 and 21.7 mg kg 1, with varying composition. PAs were transferred to eggs, in particular yolk, with steady-state levels of respectively 12, 21, 216, 2 and 36 µg kg 1. Overall transfer rates for the sum of PAs were estimated between 0.02% and 0.23%, depending on the type of PAs in the feed. In animals slaughtered shortly after the last exposure, levels in meat were slightly lower than those in eggs, levels in livers somewhat higher. When switched to clean feed, levels in eggs gradually decreased, but after 14 days were still above detection limits in the hens exposed to higher PA levels. Similar was the case for meat and especially kidneys and livers. It is concluded that the intake of PA containing herbs by laying hens may result in levels in eggs and meat that could be of concern for consumers, and as such should be avoided.

    Are all eggs equal? : embryonic development and nutrient metabolism in chicken eggs of different origins
    Nangsuay, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Henry van den Brand; R. Meijerhof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577749 - 213
    eggs - hens - broilers - characteristics - strains - embryonic development - nutrients - metabolism - hatcheries - poultry - nutrition physiology - eieren - hennen - vleeskuikens - karakteristieken - stammen (biologisch) - embryonale ontwikkeling - voedingsstoffen - metabolisme - broedinstallaties - pluimvee - voedingsfysiologie

    Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. The aim of this thesis was therefore 1) to investigate effects of egg origin on nutrient and O2 availability, 2) to investigate effects of egg origins on nutrient metabolism and embryonic development and 3) to investigate consequences of different egg origins on the incubation process and hatching characteristics. In five studies, effects of different egg origins on nutrient and O2 availability, nutrient metabolism, embryo development and hatching characteristics were investigated. The first and second study focused on breeder age and egg size. The third study on breed; broilers and layers. The fourth study on broiler strain and the fifth study on breeder age, strain and eggshell temperature (EST). The overall findings in this thesis suggest that hatching eggs from different origins are not equal in availability of nutrients and O2. Nutrient availability is altered through variation in yolk size, especially by the effects of breeder age and breed. O2 availability is altered by differences in eggshell properties, which is influenced by especially breed and broiler strain. The availability of both nutrients and O2 plays a role on nutrient metabolism measured as embryonic heat production (HP) and consequently on embryonic development. Between incubation day (E) E7 and E14, both nutrient and O2 availability might affect nutrient metabolism as shown in the results of the broiler and layer comparison. Between E14 and hatching, the availability of O2 becomes the most determinant factor for nutrient metabolism and consequently for embryonic development. An increase in EST from 37.8 to 38.9°C from E7 onward resulted in an acceleration of nutrient metabolism and embryonic development until E16, but thereafter a high EST resulted in reduced yolk free body mass development. Embryos with an accelerated metabolic speed at an early stage of incubation, caused by an increased EST, might reach limited O2 availability at a higher magnitude than the embryos at a normal EST. As a result, nutrient metabolism is restricted and embryonic development is depressed. It can be concluded that not only the HP, but also the availability of O2 is crucial to be taken into account for developing incubator temperature. The principle is to obtain an optimal EST, which could maintain the balance between O2 requirement (driven by nutrient metabolism) and O2 availability for a continuing optimal nutrient metabolism to generate sufficient energy for embryonic development throughout incubation.

    Nederlandse handelsbalans eieren
    Horne, P.L.M. van; Jukema, G.D. - \ 2016
    LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-012d) - 2
    handelsbalans - eieren - export - nederland - balance of trade - eggs - exports - netherlands
    In 2014 nam de exportwaarde van consumptie-eieren iets af in vergelijking met 2013. Ook de invoerwaarde is licht gedaald. De handelsbalans kwam eveneens iets lager uit. De verwachting voor 2015 is dat de exportwaarde toeneemt. Voor de Nederlandse pluimveesector is Duitsland een heel belangrijke exportbestemming. Van de in Nederland geproduceerde eieren gaat circa de helft naar Duitsland. Het merendeel is export als consumptie-ei, maar ook veel eiproduct gaat naar onze Oosterburen. De waarde van de export van consumptie-eieren was in 2014 bijna € 380 mln.
    Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments : a historic perspective
    Leenstra, F. ; Napel, J. Ten; Visscher, J. ; Sambeek, F. Van - \ 2016
    Worlds Poultry Science Journal 72 (2016)1. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 21 - 36.
    breeding - cages - eggs - free range - genetics - husbandry - layers - welfare

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems. Although battery cages are still the main system used worldwide, the number of hens housed in aviaries and free-range systems has increased in Europe, Australasia and some parts of the USA, but aviaries and free-range systems are still considered a niche sector compared to caged housing. The following paper reviews how breeding and selection have responded to changes in housing and management and whether different types of housing require different breeding programmes and, more specifically, whether a dedicated breeding programme should be developed for aviary and free-range systems. From the available literature it was concluded that broadening the selection goal in existing lines is the best option for breeding programmes to provide genotypes that are suitable for a range of housing systems.

    Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11
    Adamse, P. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Schoss, S. ; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2015
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1301 - 1311.
    toxic equivalency factors - contaminated feed - milk - food - fat - residues - pcdfs - pcdds - eggs
    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.
    Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
    eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
    Chemical ecology of phytohormones: how plants integrate responses to complex and dynamic environments
    Dicke, M. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2014
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 40 (2014)7. - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 653 - 656.
    multitrophic interactions - insect herbivores - jasmonate - defense - resistance - immunity - eggs - arabidopsis - modulation - evolution
    Dioxines en PCB's in eieren van particuliere kippenhouders
    RIKILT, - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2014.012) - 25
    eieren - dioxinen - voedselveiligheid - pluimveehouderij - eggs - dioxins - food safety - poultry farming
    Dit rapport geeft een eerste beeld van gehaltes in eieren van particuliere kippenhouders en doet een aantal aanbevelingen om de inname van dioxines en dioxineachtige PCB’s door leghennen te reduceren.
    Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken
    Aslam, M.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Mari Smits; T.G.G. Groothuis, co-promotor(en): Henri Woelders. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570757 - 192
    kippen - eieren - geslachtsverhouding - karakteristieken - nageslacht - toewijzing - polymerase-kettingreactie - hormonen - voedselbeperking - dierveredeling - fowls - eggs - sex ratio - characteristics - progeny - allocation - polymerase chain reaction - hormones - food restriction - animal breeding

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of the chicken egg can be predicted by measurable differences in male and female eggs at unincubated stage and if the female primary sex ratio can be induced in laying chicken using different experimental conditions such as feed restriction and corticosterone feeding. The method of sex determination in unincubated chicken eggs using PCR targeted to CHD1 gene was first developed. This method was subsequently used to study the primary sex ratio bias as well as relationship between egg sex and yolk hormones. No significant relationship of the sex of egg with concentrations of several hormones (testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone) and glucose in yolk as well as of egg parameters (mass, width and length) was found. Effect of feed availability on sex ratio was tested in two separate studies. In one study, the rate of change of hen body mass between day of laying and day of laying minus 2 days (encompass time of meiosis completion) was a significant predictor for the sex of that egg, suggesting meiotic drive as mechanism of sex ratio bias. This relationship was not found in the later study. The difference in results could be due to the reason that hens decreased in body mass much less in the later study as compared to earlier study. Blood corticosterone concentrations were associated with sex ratio per hen in the earlier study. Effect of egg mass on egg sex was studied during the later experiment of feed restriction. The egg sex ratio per hen was negatively associated with the average egg mass per hen in the feed restriction group. Two groups of hens were selected from the feed restriction group i.e. male biased hens with low egg mass and female biased hens with high egg mass for microarray analysis of gene expression in the germinal disc of collected F1 follicle. The results did not show differential expression of genes between the groups. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus and chromosomal movement were differently enriched between the groups, supporting meiotic drive as potential mechanisms underlying sex ratio determination. In another experiment, blood circulating levels of corticosterone in hens were increased by feeding corticosterone mixed feed under ad libitum. The blood levels of corticosterone were significantly higher in treated hens but these levels were not associated with sex ratio. Treatment did not affect the overall sex ratio, but affected the sex ratio in interaction with hen body mass. In the corticosterone group, sex ratio, laying rate, and fertility rate per hen were decreased in heavy hens. These results suggest that three parameters (sex ratio, laying rate and fertility rate) are connected at the level of ovarian physiology. Interference with meiosis have been shown to affect these three parameters, suggesting the involvement of meiotic drive as mechanism of sex ratio bias.

    Leghennenhouderij in diep dal
    Horne, P.L.M. van; Wisman, J.H. - \ 2014
    Agri-monitor 2014 (2014)june. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - eieren - prijzen - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rendement - poultry farming - hens - eggs - prices - farm results - returns
    De leghennenhouders ontvangen nu al twee jaar eierprijzen fors onder de kostprijs. Vooral scharrelhennenhouders hebben moeite het hoofd boven water te houden. Het perspectief voor het komende halfjaar is niet gunstig.
    Authentication of organic eggs by LC fingerprinting and isotope ratio analysis
    Ruth, S.M. van; Rogers, K. ; Newton-Smith, E. ; Koot, A.H. ; Alewijn, M. - \ 2012
    analytische methoden - massaspectrometrie - vloeistofchromatografie - eieren - biologische voedingsmiddelen - principale componentenanalyse - analytical methods - mass spectrometry - liquid chromatography - eggs - organic foods - principal component analysis
    The aim of the present study was to develop and modify fingerprint methodology for the verification of Dutch organic eggs versus conventional (barn/free range) eggs.
    Concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse eiersector
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086155996 - 74
    dierlijke producten - eieren - pluimvee - markten - statistiek - prijzen - economische productie - productiekosten - marktconcurrentie - animal products - eggs - poultry - markets - statistics - prices - economic production - production costs - market competition
    Het LEI heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) en het Productschap Pluimvee en Eieren (PPE) een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de concurrentiekracht van de Nederlandse eiersector. Centrale vraag daarbij is of de Nederlandse eierketen concurrerend is. Belangrijk onderdeel van de studie is een vergelijking van de huidige en toekomstige positie van de Nederlandse eierketen ten opzichte van de belangrijkste concurrerende productielanden. In deze studie zijn de productiekosten van eieren in Nederland vergeleken met de productiekosten in het belangrijke afzetgebied Duitsland en met die van enkele concurrerende landen in Noordwest Europa. Ook is een vergelijking gemaakt van productiekosten van eieren met enkele landen buiten Europa.
    Competitiveness of the EU egg industry
    Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI-report : Markets & chains ) - ISBN 9789086155989 - 51
    eieren - eipoeder - import - heffingen - invoerrechten - landbouwprijzen - prijzen - europese unie - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - hennen - dierenwelzijn - handel - markten - eggs - dried egg - imports - levies - import levies - agricultural prices - prices - european union - poultry - animal production - hens - animal welfare - trade - markets
    Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of all this legislation is an increase in the cost of producing eggs. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. These multi- or bilateral negotiations are designed to further liberalise trade by either further reducing import tariffs or removing them altogether. In this report the impact of lowering import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg industry is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2012 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg industry.
    Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: Temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment
    Gomez-Ramirez, P. ; Martinez-Lopez, E. ; Garcia-Fernandez, A. ; Zweers, A.J. ; Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2012
    Chemosphere 88 (2012)8. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 903 - 911.
    brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers - polychlorinated-biphenyls - organochlorine contaminants - haliaeetus-albicilla - hieraaetus-pennatus - breeding success - residue levels - great-lakes - eggs
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by other European owls in the same decade, probably due to the greater agricultural activity in our study area. Compared to other European raptors, exposure to PCBs can be considered intermediate, but low to PBDEs. Land use differences and prey availability were the rationale to divide the study area in two subareas in further assessments. Temporal trends of HCB, p,p'-DDE, ß-HCH, PCBs and PBDEs were significantly different in each subarea, generally increasing over time in the Southern but decreasing or remaining stable in the Northern. On the contrary, levels of cyclodienes tended to decrease in both subareas. Dietary shifts with a greater amount of birds are suggested as a cause for increasing organochlorine loads in raptors. This may explain the increasing trend in the Southern territories. However, due to the proximity of most of these nests to Cartagena, an important industrial city, increasing environmental pollution cannot be ruled out. Although average levels of the compounds analysed are below threshold levels, 17% of the samples exceeded 400 pg g-1 ww (wet weight), the LOAEC for Total TEQs. Moreover, a negative correlation between TEQ concentrations and the metabolizable fraction of PCBs (Fprob = 0.0018) was found when TEQs values were above 10 pg g-1 ww. This could be indicative of hepatic enzymes induction in the birds exposed at higher concentrations, which are mainly breeding in the Southern subarea. These females could be suffering from Ah-receptor-related toxic effects, some of which have been related to altered bird reproduction. Finally, a significant negative correlation between p,p'-DDE levels and eggshell thickness (r = -0.469, p <0.001) was observed, with about 17% of eggshell thinning for eggs with p,p'-DDE levels above 100 µg g -1 lw. The persistence of this degree of thinning over a period of time has been related to population declines in other raptor species
    Eierproductie duurder dan ooit
    Vermeij, I. ; Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
    De Pluimveehouderij 42 (2012)8. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 32 - 33.
    eierproductie - pluimveehouderij - eieren - huisvesting van kippen - landbouwprijzen - kosten - berekening - egg production - poultry farming - eggs - chicken housing - agricultural prices - costs - calculation
    De hogere voerprijzen laten de kostprijs van consumptie-eieren weer stijgen. Ten opzichte van twee jaar geleden (de vorige berekening) is de kostprijs ongeveer 10 procent hoger.
    Exploring ecological sustainability in the production chain of organic eggs
    Dekker, S.E.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp; Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Andre Aarnink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731494 - 175
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - eierproductie - eieren - biologische landbouw - milieueffect - ecologische beoordeling - duurzame veehouderij - ketenmanagement - nederland - poultry farming - hens - egg production - eggs - organic farming - environmental impact - ecological assessment - sustainable animal husbandry - supply chain management - netherlands
    De visie van de biologische landbouw op duurzaamheid is verwoord door IFOAM in hun doelstelling en in de 4 beginselen van de biologische landbouw en is vertaald in diverse praktische regels voor biologische productie. In dit proefschrift noemen we deze visie het biologisch-ethisch kader. De hoofddoelstelling van dit proefschrift was het vaststellen van het effect van dit biologisch-ethisch kader op de integrale milieubelasting van biologische eierproductie in Nederland. Deze doelstelling werd benaderd vanuit 3 invalshoeken: 1) het vaststellen van het verschil in integrale milieubelasting van eierproductie met en zonder het biologisch-ethisch kader, 2) het identificeren van de belangrijkste milieuproblemen in het bestaande biologische eierproductiesysteem in Nederland en 3) het verkennen van mogelijkheden om de integrale milieubelasting van Nederlandse biologische eierproductie te verbeteren binnen de grenzen van het biologisch-ethisch kader.
    Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments
    Bolle, L.J. ; Jong, C.A.F. ; Bierman, S.M. ; Beek, P.J.G. van; Keeken, O.A. van; Wessels, P.W. ; Damme, C.J.G. van; Winter, H.V. ; Haan, D. de; Dekeling, R.P.A. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
    dover sole - hearing-loss - ship noise - fish - biscay - bay - water - signals - growth - eggs
    In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa2 (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa2s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa2s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised
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