Plant responses to insect egg deposition
Hilker, M. ; Fatouros, N.E. - \ 2015
Annual Review of Entomology 60 (2015). - ISSN 0066-4170 - p. 493 - 515.
sogatella-furcifera horvath - elm leaf beetle - parasitoid anagrus-nilaparvatae - medfly ceratitis-capitata - oryza-sativa l. - defense responses - pieris-brassicae - host location - phytophagous insects - ovicidal substance
Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect defenses that involve egg parasitoids. Furthermore, we discuss the ability of plants to take insect eggs as warning signals; the eggs indicate future larval feeding damage and trigger plant changes that either directly impair larval performance or attract enemies of the larvae. We address the questions of how egg-associated cues elicit plant defenses, how the information that eggs have been laid is transmitted within a plant, and which molecular and chemical plant responses are induced by egg deposition. Finally, we highlight evolutionary aspects of the interactions between plants and insect eggs and ask how the herbivorous insect copes with egg-induced plant defenses and may avoid them by counteradaptations.
Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels
Fatouros, N.E. ; Lucas-Barbosa, D. ; Weldegergis, B.T. ; Pashalidou, F.G. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. ; Harvey, J.A. ; Gols, R. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
furcifera horvath homoptera - elm leaf beetle - whitebacked planthopper - cotesia-glomerata - herbaceous plants - pieris-brassicae - host location - rice plants - oviposition - defense
Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant’s volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels.