Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A flavour of emotions : sensory & emotional profiling of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer
    Silva, Ana Patrícia - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager; Manuela Pintado. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431743 - 181
    alcoholic beverages - alcohol intake - consumer attitudes - food preferences - emotions - alcoholische dranken - alcoholinname - houding van consumenten - voedselvoorkeuren - emoties


    Wine and beer are the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide and are known by the sensory pleasure and short terms effects such as relaxation and mood enhancement. However, it remains unclear what are the specific emotions evoked by wine or beer consumption. Non-alcoholic beer is considered a healthier beverage, as it does not contain alcohol, but it does not seem to be appealing to consumers since patterns of consumption are marginal compared to wine and beer consumption. One of the challenges in food research is to encourage consumers to adopt healthier choices to reduce life-style problems. Given the importance of moderate alcohol consumption in diet it seems important, from the nutritional perspective, to understand consumers´ perceptions of alcoholic versus non-alcoholic beverages.


    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of consumption experience of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer, and hence beverage choice, by using beverage-evoked emotions, in addition to their sensory perceptions.


    After a literature review to know the determinants of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption, we performed a qualitatitve study (n=56) to explore the conceptualisations of the beverages in terms of functional and emotional associations. Following, we studied how the product name “BEER” or “NON-ALCOHOLIC BEER” influenced liking and the emotions elicited, before and after drinking either a beer or a non-alcoholic beer, when the beverages were given to 155 consumers in a bar, named correctly and incorrectly with respect to their composition. In the further studies, we used a dynamic approach, the temporal dominance of sensations and emotions and temporal liking. In one study, two similar tasting commercial wines, were compared by 80 consumers in a bar. In the last study 71 consumers compared three commercial beers that differed only in the intensity of added hop aroma.


    Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional conceptualisations. Beer mainly evokes high arousal positive emotions, such as energetic and adventurous. Wine mainly evokes low arousal emotions such as calm and loving. Non-alcoholic beer is a substitute and has negative and neutral emotional associations, such as disappointed and conscious. Therefore, we concluded that wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have different conceptualisations in consumer´s mind. Drinking a non-alcoholic beer named as “non-alcoholic beer” made consumers feel less excited after drinking. When the same beverage was named “beer”, consumers liked it more and felt more fulfilled. Drinking a beer named as “beer” changed emotional profile towards to a more positive direction since after drinking consumers felt more: fulfilled, exuberant, comforted, amused, joyful, happy and good, and less grumpy. When the same beverage was named “non-alcoholic beer”, the liking did not change but six positive emotions decreased, namely consumers felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. Based on this study we concluded that the product name is at least as important as the flavour, as it influenced emotions and liking. Measuring emotions during consumption, we found that equally liked similar tasting wines evoked the same three dominant emotions in all stages of consumption: pleased, comforted and relaxed. However, these emotions evolved with different trajectories while drinking each wine, allowing a differentiation between wines. Lastly, when the sensory characteristics of a commercial beer were manipulated by adding hop aroma, different sensory profiles were dominant but liking did not change. The temporal dominance of emotions allowed to see that in beginning of consumption of the most aromatic beer there was a shift from negative to positive emotions. In the most aromatic beer only positive emotions were dominant: relaxed, pleased and happy, whereas in the control and in the less aromatic beers besides relaxed or pleased, disappointed was also dominant. Based on this outcome it seems possible to induce different emotion profiles by manipulating the sensory characteristics.


    Wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have an elaborated conceptualisation map in consumer´s minds and they evoke positive and negative emotions, that evolve during consumption. A balance between functional and emotional conceptualisations seems to be important for product success as well as the product name. During consumption sensations and emotions can evolve differently in similar tasting beverages that consumers equally liked. The relationship between sensory specific characteristics and emotions is still limited but we believe that these practical implications may help industries to create healthier versions of products to be experienced as the happier choices.

    Older adults, mealtime-related emotions, and functionalities : tailoring protein-enriched meals
    Uijl, Louise C. den - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Stefanie Kremer; Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578920 - 178
    meals - emotions - elderly nutrition - elderly - smell - food preferences - protein - proteins - questionnaires - young adults - chocolate - maaltijden - emoties - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - reuk - voedselvoorkeuren - eiwit - eiwitten - vragenlijsten - jongvolwassenen - chocolade

    Background and aim

    Dietary proteins are of special interest for the heterogeneous group of older adults, since these people do not always have an adequate protein intake. When protein-rich products are better aligned with the requirements of older persons, an adequate nutrient intake is more likely. In this thesis we therefore explored two approaches for tailoring protein-enriched meals to older consumer subgroups; emotion-based and functionality-based. We expected a better ‘product-cluster fit’ (i.e. a more positive meal experience) when the clusters’ meal associations are congruent to their mealtime expectations.


    We conducted an online survey in which vital community-dwelling older adults (n=392) reported their mealtime-related emotions and mealtime functionality. Using a hierarchical clustering analysis we described clusters within our population. Subsequently, we explored the extent to which the expectations of these clusters can be applied for the development of tailored protein-enriched meals. For the emotion-based approach, we conducted two central location tests (CLTs, n=461) to explore older adults’ food-evoked emotions. For the functionality-based approach we conducted in-depth interviews in order to get further insights regarding functional mealtime expectations and attitudes towards proteins and protein-enrichment. Based on the latter insights we tailored PE meal concepts to two functionality-based segments. In a final home-use test, the members of the functionality-based segments (n=91) prepared and evaluated the tailored PE meal concepts.


    The emotion-based approach resulted in four clusters; pleasurable averages, adventurous arousals, convivial indulgers, and indifferent restrictives. These emotions that these segments associated with their mealtimes varied along the two dimensions valence and arousal. However, from both CLTs we learned that the variation in valence-arousal as observed for mealtime-related emotions was not observed for emotions related to actual foods. The latter makes it challenging to identify products that evoke emotions congruent to the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters.

    With regard to the functionality-based approach, we encountered three clusters; physical nutritioners, cosy socialisers, and thoughtless averages. The cosy socialisers value the social interactions and cosiness during their mealtimes, whereas the physical nutritioners focus more on the health and nutrient aspects of meals. Thoughtless averages have the least distinctive mealtime expectations. We translated these functional mealtime expectations into two PE meal concepts; one tailored to cosy socialisers and one tailored to physical nutritioners. These meal concepts were well-accepted by the participants. However, congruency between mealtime expectations and functional meal associations did not result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’.


    Given the challenge to identify congruency between the meal associations and the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters, we consider the emotion-based approach to be not yet actionable enough as a basis for tailoring PE products to older consumers. In contrast, the functionality-based approach appeared to be more promising, since the functional meal expectations could be translated to well-accepted tailored PE meal concepts. However, the effectivity of our functionality-based approach was not yet confirmed in this thesis, since congruency between functional meal associations and functional meal expectations did not necessarily result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’. Future studies, focussing on e.g. other meal types, are recommended to further explore mealtime functionality as a basis for tailoring PE meals to older consumer subgroups.

    Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
    He, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
    stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

    Background and aim

    Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.


    Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.


    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.


    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

    Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice
    Gutjar, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574380 - 183
    voedselvoorkeuren - keuzegedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - emoties - sensorische wetenschappen - verpakking - food preferences - choice behaviour - consumer preferences - emotions - sensory sciences - packaging



    In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choice than sensory liking per se, as many highly liked products fail on the market. A broader perspective on how consumers experience a food product is needed, where we take into account that individuals experience and attach emotions and cognitive associations to foods. Measuring these, in addition to liking, might explain and predict food choice better.


    The aim of this thesis was to test if food-evoked emotional and cognitive associations explain and predict food choice better than sensory liking per se. Hereby we focused on the sensory and packaging product properties. In addition, we investigated the link between sensory properties and emotional responses to foods; and the influence of the context appropriateness on choice.


    We conducted a series of product profiling experiments of test products (breakfast drinks) with regular consumers. Participants rated emotional responses and liking to a set of tasted test products, and subsequently, after an interval of one week, participants’ actual choice was observed, after again tasting the series of product samples (presented blind) to choose from. In the following study we took the same measures, but now included the products packaging. Thus, participants rated emotional responses also to the product’s package and they chose one product after viewing the packages of all test products (without tasting). Two dessert products were included in the product set to assess the impact of eating occasion appropriateness. The test products were also evaluated by a trained panel on sensory characteristics using descriptive analysis. In the last study, we assessed cognitive terms (emotional and functional words) participants associate with sensory attributes and the products’ package. And, participants rated liking and chose, after an interval of one week, a product based on the products’ packages.


    The measured emotional responses could be decomposed in two dimensions, i.e. valence (pleasant to unpleasant) vs. arousal (calm to excitement). The combination of emotion valence and liking scores predicted individual choice based on the products taste for over 50% of all participants and was a better predictor of choice than liking scores alone. The combination of liking, valence and also arousal resulted in the best prediction for package-based choice with correct predicted individual choices for 41% of all participants. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the match, between the cognitive associations to the products sensory and packaging cues, was positively related to choice. However, liking ratings outperformed the product-package-match in predicting individual product choice. In particular, expected liking (based on the product’s package) predicted 25% more individual choices correct than the product-package-match. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a product was more likely to be chosen when the package provided context appropriate information (i.e. breakfast context for breakfast drinks). Lastly, we found that texture-related attributes were drivers of positive emotions and that specific taste-related attributes were drivers of specific arousal emotions.


    Emotional and cognitive responses to foods are relevant drivers of choice behaviour. Food-evoked emotional responses predicted choice consistently better than liking scores alone. However, the combination of liking scores and emotions was the best predictor of food choice based on the product’s taste and packaging. Hence, emotions may explain and guide consumers’ choice behaviour. Furthermore, product profiles, based on cognitive product associations, seem to be related to choice behaviour; but it is still unclear what their contribution is in predicting choice based on liking per se.

    In addition, it was shown that appropriateness also influences package-based choice. Lastly, links between sensory and emotional profiling were identified which offer a possible application of the findings on food-evoked emotions in product development.

    Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being
    Schrieks, I.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): H.F.J. Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572904 - 211
    alcoholinname - drinken - doseringseffecten - emoties - welzijn - kwaliteit van het leven - alcohol intake - drinking - dosage effects - emotions - well-being - quality of life


    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical well-being remain unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to further explore the acute effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being and the association between habitual alcohol consumption and emotional well-being and 2) to provide more insight into physiological markers that may be related to alcohol-induced emotional well-being.

    Methods: We compared the acute effects of alcohol (20-30 g) vs. alcohol-free drinks on mood, food reward and mental stress in three randomized crossover trials. To explore the short-term effects of alcohol on physiological markers of emotional well-being, we conducted four randomized crossover trials of 3-6 weeks in which 25-41 g alcohol/day, or no alcohol was consumed. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 randomized intervention trials with at least 2 weeks of alcohol intervention. Finally, the association between long-term alcohol consumption and health-related quality of life was investigated with a bidirectional, longitudinal analysis among 92,448 U.S. women of the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort.

    Results: Moderate alcohol consumption in an unpleasant ambiance resulted in higher happiness scores in women as compared to the consumption of alcohol-free drinks. Consumption of 20 gram alcohol increased subsequent intake and rewarding value of savoury foods in men, as measured by an increased implicit wanting and explicit liking of savoury foods. When alcohol was consumed by male volunteers immediately after a mental stressor, a reduced response of the stress hormones ACTH and cortisol, the inflammatory marker IL-8, and the percentage of monocytes in blood were observed. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was found to attenuate meal-induced NF-κB and to increase total antioxidant capacity in men. Four weeks of moderate alcohol consumption reduced circulating fetuin-A, while increasing urinary F2-isoprostanes in men. In women, short-term moderate alcohol consumption did not reduce fetuin-A but it tended to increase insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a higher physical health-related quality of life 2 years later. Vice versa, higher physical health-related quality of life was associated with a higher alcohol intake 2 years later. Moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with mental health-related quality of life in either direction, although moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher scores on the scales for social functioning and vitality.

    Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption may acutely improve emotional well-being by improving mood, increasing food reward and reducing mental stress. In the short-term, moderate alcohol consumption may attenuate meal-induced oxidative stress and circulating fetuin-A in men. In women, moderate alcohol consumption may improve insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a small increase in physical health related quality of life but not with mental health related quality of life in women.

    Communicatie over Faunabeheer en Schadebestrijding, Een inventarisatie van communicatiestrategieën in de praktijk van FBE's
    Smit, A. ; Hoon, C. ; Lanters, R. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2611) - 29
    wildbeheer - jachtdieren - burgers - opinies - emoties - beleidsprocessen - provincies - nederland - wildlife management - game animals - citizens - opinions - emotions - policy processes - provinces - netherlands
    Het Faunafonds vraagt zich af hoe op dit moment de communicatie over Faunabeheer is geregeld, hoe dat in de praktijk uitpakt en of de weerstand in het veld of via de politiek de uitvoering van het Faunabeheerplan belemmert. Hiertoe is literatuuronderzoek gedaan en zijn de secretarissen van de FBE’s in alle provincies telefonisch geïnterviewd. De door het Faunafonds verwachte vertraging in de uitvoering van Faunabeheerplannen door publieke en politieke weerstand wordt door FBE’s niet herkend en onderschreven. Er is wel weerstand, maar deze is volgens de FBE’s hanteerbaar en lijkt de laatste jaren af te nemen. De FBE’s geven bovendien aan dat de vertraging vooral in juridische trajecten zit. Ze zien daar geen rol voor communicatie. De FBE’s geven aan wel behoefte te hebben aan ondersteuning in de communicatie, hoewel die behoefte zeer divers is.
    (Em)pathetic pigs? : the impact of social interactions on welfare, health and productivity
    Reimert, I. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Bas Rodenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739964 - 264
    varkens - sociaal gedrag - sociaal milieu - emoties - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - fokwaarde - dierlijke productie - varkenshouderij - pigs - social behaviour - social environment - emotions - animal behaviour - animal welfare - animal health - breeding value - animal production - pig farming

    The welfare, health and productivity of intensively raised pigs may be affected by routine management procedures and the physical environment they are housed in, but also by their social environment, i.e. by social interactions between pen mates. In this thesis, the effect of social interactions on pig welfare, health and productivity has been investigated in several ways. On the one hand, a new breeding method based on interactions, i.e. on heritable effects on the performance of pen mates, was investigated. The effect of divergent selection for a relatively positive or negative indirect genetic effect on growth of pen mates on pig behavior and physiology was studied. On the other hand, it was investigated whether pigs can be affected by (the emotional state of) their pen mates on the basis of two social processes, emotional contagion and social support. Pigs selected for a relatively positive indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates seemed less fearful and less stressed in several novelty tests and they had lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations compared to pigs selected for a relatively negative indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates. Moreover, it was found that pigs can indeed be affected by the emotional state of their pen mates either in a positive or negative way, which points to emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy, in pigs. Furthermore, evidence for social support has also been found. To conclude, this breeding method may be a strategy to improve the social environment of intensively raised pigs as pigs with relatively positive indirect genetic effects for growth may create a less stressful social environment for themselves. In addition, the welfare, health and productivity of pigs may not only depend on their own emotional state, but also on the emotional state of their pen mates.

    How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour
    Onwezen, M.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739070 - 230
    economie - menselijk gedrag - consumentengedrag - milieu - keuzegedrag - gedragseconomie - economische psychologie - perceptie - consumptie - emoties - zelfbesef - omgevingspsychologie - economics - human behaviour - consumer behaviour - environment - choice behaviour - behavioural economics - economic psychology - perception - consumption - emotions - self perception - environmental psychology

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-environmental decision making.

    We focus on pride and guilt, which belong to the group of self-conscious emotions. Self-conscious emotions occur when individuals are aware of themselves and reflect on themselves in order to evaluate whether their behaviour is in accordance with their (personal and social) standards. In short, we explore the fundamental way in which pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour via self-reflection. We propose that pride and guilt guide behaviour via a self-regulatory function, meaning that they provide feedback about how one is performing regarding one’s own standards and the perceived standards of others. The emotional feedback is used to guide oneself in accordance with these standards (i.e. self-regulation). Furthermore, we propose that the way one sees the self (who am I in relation to others), affects how individuals evaluate themselves, which in turn affects how pride and guilt are formed and guide behaviour.

    This thesis has both theoretical implications, as we increase understanding in the function of self-conscious emotions, and practical implications, as understanding the functions of pride and guilt in consumer decision making can be used to develop interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviour among consumers. For a thorough discussion of these implications we refer to the General Discussion. Below we provide a short overview of the findings of the individual chapters.

    Chapter 2 explores whether and how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. Previous studies do not provide clear evidence regarding the effects of pride and guilt on subsequent pro-environmental behaviour. Acting or not acting in a pro-environmental way might induce feelings of pride and guilt respectively, which does not necessarily mean that these emotions guide future pro-environmental choices. Three studies show that pride, and to a lesser extent guilt, guide future pro-environmental choices. Chapter 2 additionally explores how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. We propose that pride and guilt influence pro-environmental behaviour by providing information about whether the intended behaviour is in line with one’s standards, and not out of a basic tendency to feel good. Two studies show indeed that only related (endogenous) and not unrelated (exogenous) emotions affect pro-environmental behaviour. These findings imply that pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function and not via a basic mechanism to feel good.

    Chapter 3explores howpride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function. Up until now it was not clear how these emotions guide behaviour. The function of pride and guilt is explored in two vested theories: the Norm Activation model (NAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Several researchers who use the NAM propose that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with personal norms. However, these researchers have specified the nature of this association in different ways (including direct effects, mediating effects, or moderating effects), and have rarely tested these proposed associations empirically. This chapter shows how the function of pride and guilt within the NAM can be specified. The results support a self-regulatory function of pride and guilt which shows that they mediate the effects of personal norms on pro-environmental behaviour. Anticipated pride and guilt thus guide individuals to behave themselves in accordance with existing standards regarding the environment (i.e. self-regulatory function). Moreover, we integrated the NAM with the TPB and show that the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt remain present in an integrated NAM-TPB model (Bamberg et al., 2007). Pride and guilt mediate the effects of personal norms, attitudes, and injunctive social norms on intentions. Pride and guilt therefore seem to regulate individual behaviour regarding the environment so as to allow a person to be in accordance with one’s personal and social standards towards the environment.

    Chapter 4initially explores whether the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt differ across personally oriented versus pro-socially oriented contexts. Previous studies that explore the self-regulatory function of self-conscious emotions within the TPB show mixed findings regarding the mediating effects of these emotions. This chapter distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms and includes multiple contexts to explore whether this accounts for the mixed findings. Three survey studies show that anticipated pride and guilt regulate behavioural intentions to make them in accordance with attitudes and injunctive and descriptive social norms. Additionally, we show that the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across contexts, which may account for the mixed findings of previous studies. We show preliminary evidence that anticipated self-conscious emotions have a larger mediating effect in altruistic (i.e. organic and fair trade consumption) rather than personally oriented (i.e. healthy consumption) contexts.

    InChapter 5 we explore whether the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across collectivistic and individualistic countries. Based on previous studies (e.g., Mesquita, 2001), we suggest that the function of emotions might differ due to cultural differences in the construal of the self. We propose that the way one sees the self in relation to others (i.e. self-construal) affects the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Individualistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a private self (i.e. independent self) meaning that the self encompasses unique individuals with their own personal goals. Collectivistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a social self (i.e. interdependent self) meaning that the self encompasses family, friends, and important others, and a striving to reach group-based goals. We conducted a survey across eight collectivistic and individualistic countries. As expected the results show that there are no differences across countries in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt withinindividualistic and withincollectivistic cultures, but that there are differences betweencollectivistic and individualistic cultures. Individuals from collectivistic countries use more social standards and less personal standards to anticipate pride and guilt. These findings provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more socially driven for individuals from collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal (i.e. independent and interdependent self).

    Chapter 6explores whether the function of pride and guilt might also vary within individuals due to activating different construals of the self. Previous studies show that contextual cues can activate private versus social selves within an individual. We show that social media can also act as a contextual cue that activates the social self. Moreover, three experiments show that activating the social self increases the effects of guilt on pro-environmental intentions, whereas activating the private self increases the effects of pride on pro-environmental intentions. This finding implies that activating different construals of the self can increase the effects of emotions on intentions. Furthermore, we show that these effects occur because the activation of private versus social selves results in different self-evaluations. Activating the social self makes individuals more sensitive to social norms in self-evaluations that evoke emotions, whereas activating the private self makes individuals more sensitive to attitudes in self-evaluations that evoke emotions. The findings of this chapter imply that guilt is more social in nature than pride.

    Conclusion. The current thesis shows that pride and guilt guide pro-environmental consumer behaviour via a self-regulatory function. Pride and guilt occur after a self-reflection on personal and social standards related to the environment, and in turn they guide pro-environmental behaviour. This function differs when different employments of the self are activated or cultivated. Thus how one sees oneself through one’s own eyes and through the eyes of others affects the emotions that one experiences, and how these emotions affect subsequent pro-environmental intentions.

    Emoties en het activeren van milieuvriendelijke persoonlijke en sociale normen
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2013
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 98 (2013)4672S. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 32 - 36.
    consumentengedrag - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - normen - emoties - houding van consumenten - milieu - consumer behaviour - sustainability - standards - emotions - consumer attitudes - environment
    Hoewel een gedeelte van de mensen zegt het milieu belangrijk te vinden, gedragen ze zich niet altijd milieuvriendelijk. Een recent onderzoek toont aan dat de emoties trots en schuld ertoe bijdragen dat bestaande persoonlijke en sociale normen worden omgezet in intensies tot duurzaam gedrag.
    Families on the balance: eating behaviour and weight status of adolescents and their families
    Snoek, H.M. - \ 2010
    Radboud University Nijmegen. Promotor(en): R.C.M.E. Engels; J.M.A.M. Janssens; T. van Strien. - Den Haag : Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen - ISBN 9789090249452 - 238
    voedingsgewoonten - eten - dwangmatig eten - mentale stress - emoties - gedrag - adolescenten - gezinnen - feeding habits - eating - compulsive eating - mental stress - emotions - behaviour - adolescents - families
    This dissertation focusses on three eating styles: Emotional eating which is the tendency to eat in response to emotional (dis)stress, external eating which is the tendency to eat in response to food cues, and restrained eating which is the tendency to restrict food intake in order to loose weight or prevent weight gain.
    Zorgen over de intensieve veehouderij
    Gremmen, H.G.J. ; Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2010
    In: Over zorgvuldige veehouderij. Veel instrumenten, één concert / Eijsackers, H., Scholten, M., Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Essaybundel 2010 ) - ISBN 9789085858959 - p. 26 - 33.
    dierenwelzijn - intensieve dierhouderij - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - maatschappelijk draagvlak - landbouw en milieu - dierziekten - emoties - dierlijke productie - animal welfare - intensive husbandry - corporate social responsibility - public support - agriculture and environment - animal diseases - emotions - animal production
    In Nederland worden al een paar duizend jaren dieren gehouden. Dierlijke producten werden vroeger geproduceerd op kleinschalige, gemengde bedrijven. Een groot deel van de bevolking werkte toen op deze bedrijven en consumeerde wat ze produceerden. Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog is een verschuiving opgetreden van extensieve naar steeds intensievere veehouderij. ‘Zo veel mogelijk efficiënt produceren voor zo weinig mogelijk geld’, dicteerde de Mansholt-doctrine. Dit had vele gevolgen, zoals de verschuiving van de aandacht van het individuele dier naar de veehouderij als systeem en de professionalisering van de veehouders; maar er zijn ook milieuproblemen opgetreden en de afgelopen jaren een aantal spraakmakende uitbraken van dierziekten
    Snijbloemen versterken positieve gevoelens en stemmingen : wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar het effect van snijbloemen op de gemoedstoestand van de mens
    Vermeer, F. ; Mojet, J. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Koster, A.C. - \ 2009
    Zoetermeer : Produktschap Tuinbouw, afdeling Markt & Innovatie
    snijbloemen - visuele prikkels - stimulatie - emoties - plezier - kleur - welriekendheid - verkoopbevordering - consumentengedrag - marketing - belevingswaarde - gevoeligheid - cut flowers - visual stimuli - stimulation - emotions - enjoyment - colour - fragrance - sales promotion - consumer behaviour - marketing - experiential value - sensitivity
    Onderzoek van Wageningen UR naar de invloed van snijbloemen op gevoelens en stemmingen toont postieve resultaten. Dit biedt veel kansen voor reclame- en voorlichtingscampagnes, maar ook voor verkoopgesprekken en toepassingsmogelijkheden in bijvoorbeeld restaurants
    De beleving van vlees
    Sijtsema, S.J. ; Wolf, C.W.G. ; Dagevos, H. - \ 2008
    Meat & Meal Management 8 (2008)2. - ISSN 1572-073X - p. 28 - 29.
    bedrijven - consumentenonderzoeken - vleeswaren - consumptiepatronen - emoties - perceptie - besluitvorming - bedrijfsmanagement - belevingswaarde - businesses - consumer surveys - meat products - consumption patterns - emotions - perception - decision making - business management - experiential value
    Eten is emotie wordt vaak gezegd. Wat houdt dit in voor vlees? Onderzoeksinstituut LEI (onderdeel van Wageningen UR) deed onderzoek naar de beleving van consumenten als emotionele wezens. Welke associaties en wensen leven en waar kun je als producent of retailer op inspringen?
    Bakens in het landschap: Van wie en voor wie
    Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2007
    Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 17 (2007)2. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 36 - 38.
    fysiografische elementen - landschapsarchitectuur - landschap - attitudes - opinies - perceptie - zichtbaarheid - ruimtelijke ordening - emoties - physiographic features - landscape architecture - landscape - attitudes - opinions - perception - visibility - physical planning - emotions
    Een essay over mentale bakens en hun belang. Bakens zijn niet alleen opvallende fysische verschijnselen, maar kunnen ook als mentale constructies worden opgevat. In die zin zijn ze vaak minder duidelijk zichtbaar, maar daarom niet minder belangrijk. We zouden meer moeten weten hoe mensen zich feitelijk in hun omgeving oriënteren en wat voor betekenis ze aan bepaalde (mentale) bakens hechten. Wat doen die toeschouwers met landschappen?
    Aandacht voor emotie: een stappenplan om affectie in strategievorming te integreren
    Kroon, S.M.A. van der; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Wolf, C.W.G. ; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789086150854 - 50
    bedrijven - regering - bedrijfsvoering - perceptie - emoties - besluitvorming - nederland - businesses - government - management - perception - emotions - decision making - netherlands
    Dit onderzoek richt zich op de vraag hoe inzicht in (met name de affectieve component van) percepties en posities van actoren in de omgeving van bedrijfsleven en overheden kan bijdragen aan het strategievormingsproces van deze organisaties. Daartoe is, op basis van literatuur en het kritisch belichten van een aantal reeds opgedane ervaringen in projecten door het LEI uitgevoerd, een specifiek stappenplan nader uitgewerkt en geëvalueerd. This study focuses on the question as to how the strategy-formulation processes of the business community and the authorities can benefit from insight into (in particular, the affective component of) the perceptions and positions of players in their environments. The study made use of information available in the literature and a critical review of some experience already acquired in LEI projects to formulate and evaluate a specific incremental plan
    De beleving van tijd
    Coeterier, J.F. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 347) - 121
    tijd - perceptie - emoties - psychologie - milieu - landschap - nederland - beleving - filosofie - maatschappijwetenschappen - time - perception - emotions - psychology - environment - landscape - netherlands
    In opdracht van de Rijksplanologische Dienst is een literatuuronderzoiek uitgevoerd naar de beleving van tijd. In de meeste literatuur worden twee fundamenteel verschillende vormen van tijdbeleving onderscheiden, die elkaar vrijwel uitsluiten: externe kloktijd en interne duurbeleving. Beide belevingen treden niet vaak of regelmatig op. Er zijn hele perioden op een dag dat iemand geen tijdbesef heeft. Uit veldonderzoek bleek dat er veel variatie in tijdbeleving is tussen mensen. Dat komt door de vele factoren die tijdbeleving beïnvloeden. Hoewel lang niet alle resultaten zich daarvoor leenden, zijn er aandachtspunten genoemd voor een mogelijk tijdbeleid, zoals het in stand houden van omgevingen met een eigen tijdbeleving.
    Liefdes voor de natuur
    Lengkeek, J. - \ 2001
    In: Producten van verbeelding / Lengkeek, J., Boomars, E.A.M., Wageningen : Departement Omgevingswetenschappen - ISBN 9789067546416 - p. 35 - 50.
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - perceptie - emoties - natuur - natural resources - environment - perception - emotions - nature
    Animal subjectivity : a study into philosophy and theory of animal experience
    Lijmbach, S. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J.J.A.A. Korthals; F.J. Grommers; F.W.J. Keulartz. - S.l. : Lijmbach - ISBN 9789054859444 - 169
    dieren - diergedrag - filosofie - psychologie - emoties - dierenwelzijn - animals - animal behaviour - philosophy - psychology - emotions - animal welfare

    For many people, laypeople as well as animal scientists and philosophers, animal welfare involves animal feelings. Scientifically, however, animal feelings are problematic. In the concluding remarks of a conference about the welfare of domestic animals in 1994, for example, two questions for further research were proposed: (1) What is the nature of feelings? and (2) Why is it not possible to measure the occurrence of feelings in animals directly? This book intends to give a philosophical and scientific-theoretical answer to both questions. The two questions are transformed into the following: (1) How can we conceptualize animal experiences such as feelings or emotions in a philosophically and theoretically sound way? and (2) Which method is appropriate to gain knowledge of animal experiences?

    These questions are answered first by examining two ethological animal welfare theories, namely that of Wiepkema and Toates and that of Dawkins. These theories have animal feelings of welfare as their subject matter. My conclusion after examining these welfare theories is that they do not conceptualize and obtain scientific knowledge of animal feelings at all. These theories only study animal behaviour and physical aspects of animals and assume that these aspects refer to animal feelings of welfare. Because they are applications of animal ethology, these theories stick to the natural-scientific method of research. The use of this method leads to two different conceptualizations of animal welfare feelings. The theory developed by Wiepkema and Toates conceives of animal feelings as unobservable, internal causes of animal behaviour. In Dakwins' theory, seen as a logical-behaviouristic theory, "animal feelings" are names for particular forms of law-governed animal behaviour. My comment on both theories is that animal experiences are solely theoretical concepts or designations. These ethologists simply assume rather than demonstrate that particular animal behaviour is caused by or associated with animal experiences.

    Wiepkema, Toates and Dawkins also acknowledge this. In order to say that animal behaviour refers to subjective animal feelings, they use the argument from analogy that states that because there are similarities between human and vertebrate animal behaviour and (neuro)physiological processes, it is plausible that animals have similar experiences as humans. However, like most animal welfare scientists, they correctly say that this is an unscientific argument. My final conclusion is that it is impossible to infer subjective animal experiences from objectively studied, physical and behavioural phenomena.

    This conclusion is in line with the main thesis of philosophical hermeneutics. This thesis states that subjects cannot be studied as such in a natural-scientific way because the concept of 'subject' demands a different, non-objectivating method of knowledge. Philosophical hermeneneutics can perhaps answer the question of a proper concept for subjective animal experience, although animals are not the explicit subject matter of this discipline.

    Two founding fathers of 20th Century hermeneutics, namely Dilthey and Gadamer, are studied concerning the concepts of 'subject' and 'experience'. My conclusion is that the subject-philosophy of these two philosophers is primarily a philosophy for human subjects, thereby more or less excluding the possibility for animal subjectivity. Since Gadamer does not consider animals linguistic beings, he seems to exclude animal experience. However, he opens up the way to a philosophy about animal experiences as bodily experiences. Dilthey, in his later writings, follows the same line of reasoning as Gadamer emphasizing the common, cultural-historical meaning of experiences and their expression and understanding, which is typically human. In his early writings, however, Dilthey underlines the individual, subjective aspects of experiences in humans and higher animals. Although he later does not reject this psychological foundation of experience, he simply fails to ask: what about animal experience? thereby evading the question of how we as cultural and historical humans can understand non-cultural and non-historical animal experience. The line of reasoning these two philosophers have in common is that they say: if animals have experiences, then these experiences must be similar to human experiences. Actually, their subject-philosophy is a philosophy of human subjectivity which can hardly cover animal experiences.

    Rather than trying to find a philosophical concept of human experience that can cover animal experience, a third possibility between human experience and the absence of experience is looked for. The philosophies of the phenomenologists Merleau-Ponty and Plessner which emphasize the bodily character of human and animal experience offer this possibility.

    Merleau-Ponty's philosophical phenomenology seems to promise a conceptualization of bodily animal experiences. The conclusion of his analysis of human perceptions is that not the linguistic but the bodily way of human being is the foundation of human perceptions and experiences. He sees the human body as ambiguous: both physical and conscious (i.e., experiencing) and he assumes this philosophical analysis adequate to cover animal relationships with their environment. Inspired by the difference that Merleau-Ponty makes between the bodily comprehension of humans and the hermeneutic understanding of person, I propose the concept of the impersonal meaning of animal experience as an alternative of the personal, cultural and historical character of human experience.

    Because Merleau-Ponty repeatedly says that all living beings are intertwinings of physical body and consciousness, he seems to say that plants and micro-organisms are also experiencing beings, thereby making no distinction between animals and other non-human organisms.

    Plessner offers the required specification. He asserts that human as well as animal relationships to their environment are mediated by a self. To him, the human relationship to the environment is mediated by language, personality, culture and history. What Plessner calls a "double human self" - namely a bodily bound self and a reflective "I" - is the foundation of this relationship. He further states that human personality, culture and history give form to bodily experiences. Animals, by contrast, cannot distance themselves from their own body and bodily-bound self. Animals do not have the capacity of reflective, linguistic, personal or cultural-historical experience; they have only bodily and environmentally tied, here-and-now experiences. Thereby, Plessner provides an elaborated, philosophical concept of animal experience that is not similar to the concept of human experience.

    Buytendijk, who worked as an animal psychologist around the middle of this century, can be seen as applying Plessner's concept of bodily and environmentally tied animal experience to research. He fully adopted Plessner's philosophy of animals and humans and in his own animal experiments and in discussions of those performed by others, he adopts the view that animal behaviour is an expression of their experiences which are bound to the present Umwelt and bodily possibilities of the animals involved.

    When comparing the method that Buytendijk used with the hermeneutical and phenomenological method of understanding human experiences, one can see that:

    1. Unlike the meaning of human experiences, the meaning of animal experiences is not personal within a cultural-historical context. This is a vital, impersonal meaning that is bound to momentary bodily perceptions and actions in the present Umwelt .
    2. We can understand this meaning within a species-specific context.
    3. This species-specific context is not given beforehand as a standard for interpreting animal behaviour. We attain knowledge of this context by interpreting the meaning of expressions of particular animals of a species under various circumstances.
    4. Because animals, contrary to humans, are not open to others, we cannot share with them our knowledge of the meaning of their experiences.

    The conclusion of these comparisons is that our interpretation of the meaning of animal expressions always remains, conceptually and methodically, our human interpretation. Whether our interpretations of the meaning of animal expressions are more or less adequate depends on whether they meet the usual standards of hermeneutical understanding: coherence between interpretations and accordance with biological knowledge of the animals involved.

    Finally, two contemporary animal welfare debates are discussed. The first (a conference about welfare of domestic animals in 1994) is a philosophical and theoretical debate about the concept of animal welfare and the method for measuring it. The two main issues at that conference were: are feelings a fundamental aspect of animal welfare? and how can we measure animal welfare? The second question turned out to be the most important. Some participants said that feelings, although important, should not belong to the scientific concept of animal welfare because they cannot be measured; physical indicators of welfare are sufficient for speaking of welfare. Other participants held that we can indirectly know feelings by measuring physical and behavioural indicators. However, most of these indicators are the same as those used by animal welfare scientists who claim that they measure only the physical aspects of animal welfare, irrespective of associated animal feelings. Animal welfare scientists who stress feelings of welfare simply add that these observations refer to the animals' feelings of poor welfare. One participant of the conference argued that physical indicators of animal welfare cannot be used as indicators of feelings of welfare too; these feelings have to be demonstrated independently of physical indicators of welfare.

    In the second debate about welfare of farm mink, the validity of the argument that feelings have to be demonstrated independently has been exemplified. The question in this debate was whether some particular behaviour of farm mink, called "stereotypic behaviour", counted as expressions of poor welfare. All participants in this debate tried to demonstrate or contest this by means of natural-scientific experiments. A critical reading of this debate demonstrates that scientists only agree upon the designs and results of such experiments if they also agree upon the interpretation of the meaning of the animals' behaviour. Almost all the conclusions from experiments regarding mink's welfare can be contested from the point of view of another interpretation of the mink's behaviour. This debate shows the primacy of the interpretation of animal behaviour as an expression of experiences over results of natural- scientific experiments. This primacy requires an explicit method for interpreting animal behaviour in order to reach an agreement about various interpretations. The type of research into welfare of farm mink as used by one of the participants in this debate is considered as containing elements of such an interpretative method. Contrary to her own intention, the researcher does not see the mink's behaviour only as a causal effect of fulfilled or unfulfilled needs, but primarily as meaningful behaviour. By carefully looking at and comparing the form of the behaviour of farm mink and wild mink, she tries to interpret their behaviour. The aim of these interpretations is not to look into the animals' heads in order to see experiences as causes of animal behaviours. I state that the aim is to attain a coherence between the assumed meanings of various animal behaviours. This coherence provides us with a background for natural-scientific explanations of these behaviours, experimental results and other physical data.

    At the end of this book, the four principles of animal welfare research as an integration of interpretative and natural-scientific research are evaluated:

    1. In order to study animal welfare as subjective experience, a view is needed that conceptually and methodically maintains animal welfare as subjective experience. Saying that animal welfare is not only physical but primarily a matter of feelings, requires something other than physical measurements of welfare. The debate about farm mink shows that scientists studying animal welfare from a natural-scientific angle already take this view, albeit implicitly. The method developed above can make the interpretation of animal behaviour a matter on which ethologists and other animal scientists can attain an argumentative consensus.
    2. Although the concept of animal welfare is about what matters to the animal, the animal's point of view should be abandoned as the criterion of knowledge of animal experiences of welfare. Animals are not able to agree upon interpretations of their behaviour. Hence, these interpretations always remain human interpretations.
    3. The species-specificity of animal behaviour cannot function as the criterion of animal welfare. Whether a particular animal behaviour is species-specific or not depends on one's interpretations of various behaviours of animals of a certain species.
    4. Interpretations of animal behaviour as indications of good or poor animal welfare should not be in contradiction with natural-scientific research data that also refer to good or poor welfare. They should be brought into coherence with each other. Natural science studies the physical aspect and interpretative science the expressive aspect. These two types of research are not independent of each other; they both rely upon background knowledge regarding what counts as good or poor animal welfare. In some cases the results of both types of research can contradict and challenge each other. I argue that one cannot say beforehand which of these views is correct; this can only be decided upon by trying to attain a new consensus about interpretative and natural-scientific assessments of the animals' welfare.
    Behaviour as a possible indicator for pain in piglets
    Wemelsfelder, F. ; Putten, G. van - \ 1985
    Zeist : I.V.O. (I.V.O.-report. Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" no. B-260) - 61
    huisvesting, dieren - dierenwelzijn - emoties - pijn - biggen - diergeneeskunde - animal housing - animal welfare - emotions - pain - piglets - veterinary science
    Voor deze studie werd het gedrag van mannelijke biggen voor, tijdens en na de castratie bestudeerd en vergeleken met dat van hun vrouwelijke toomgenoten. Gedurende vijf dagen na de castratie vertoonden de biggen afwijkend gedrag, waarvan een gedeelte alleen maar verklaard kon worden door de aanname van pijn en druk op de wonden. Tijdens de castratie bleek uit een geluidsanalyse dat het openen van de balzak geen, maar het trekken aan en doorsnijden van de zaadstreng wel verandering van gekrijs teweegbracht, hetgeen duidt op het buitengewoon pijnlijk zijn. Uit het onderzoek bleek dat biggen niet alleen pijn ervaren maar er ook aan lijden, zoals blijkt uit hun gedrag bij het gaan liggen en zogen
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