Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Hoe meet je dierengeluk?
    Webb, L.E. - \ 2018
    animal welfare - animal behaviour - emotions - research
    A flavour of emotions : sensory & emotional profiling of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer
    Silva, Ana Patrícia - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): K. de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager; Manuela Pintado. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431743 - 181
    alcoholic beverages - alcohol intake - consumer attitudes - food preferences - emotions - alcoholische dranken - alcoholinname - houding van consumenten - voedselvoorkeuren - emoties

    Background

    Wine and beer are the most consumed alcoholic beverages worldwide and are known by the sensory pleasure and short terms effects such as relaxation and mood enhancement. However, it remains unclear what are the specific emotions evoked by wine or beer consumption. Non-alcoholic beer is considered a healthier beverage, as it does not contain alcohol, but it does not seem to be appealing to consumers since patterns of consumption are marginal compared to wine and beer consumption. One of the challenges in food research is to encourage consumers to adopt healthier choices to reduce life-style problems. Given the importance of moderate alcohol consumption in diet it seems important, from the nutritional perspective, to understand consumers´ perceptions of alcoholic versus non-alcoholic beverages.

    Aim

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of consumption experience of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer, and hence beverage choice, by using beverage-evoked emotions, in addition to their sensory perceptions.

    Methods

    After a literature review to know the determinants of wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer consumption, we performed a qualitatitve study (n=56) to explore the conceptualisations of the beverages in terms of functional and emotional associations. Following, we studied how the product name “BEER” or “NON-ALCOHOLIC BEER” influenced liking and the emotions elicited, before and after drinking either a beer or a non-alcoholic beer, when the beverages were given to 155 consumers in a bar, named correctly and incorrectly with respect to their composition. In the further studies, we used a dynamic approach, the temporal dominance of sensations and emotions and temporal liking. In one study, two similar tasting commercial wines, were compared by 80 consumers in a bar. In the last study 71 consumers compared three commercial beers that differed only in the intensity of added hop aroma.

    Results

    Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional conceptualisations. Beer mainly evokes high arousal positive emotions, such as energetic and adventurous. Wine mainly evokes low arousal emotions such as calm and loving. Non-alcoholic beer is a substitute and has negative and neutral emotional associations, such as disappointed and conscious. Therefore, we concluded that wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have different conceptualisations in consumer´s mind. Drinking a non-alcoholic beer named as “non-alcoholic beer” made consumers feel less excited after drinking. When the same beverage was named “beer”, consumers liked it more and felt more fulfilled. Drinking a beer named as “beer” changed emotional profile towards to a more positive direction since after drinking consumers felt more: fulfilled, exuberant, comforted, amused, joyful, happy and good, and less grumpy. When the same beverage was named “non-alcoholic beer”, the liking did not change but six positive emotions decreased, namely consumers felt less comforted, exuberant, good, happy, joyful and loving. Based on this study we concluded that the product name is at least as important as the flavour, as it influenced emotions and liking. Measuring emotions during consumption, we found that equally liked similar tasting wines evoked the same three dominant emotions in all stages of consumption: pleased, comforted and relaxed. However, these emotions evolved with different trajectories while drinking each wine, allowing a differentiation between wines. Lastly, when the sensory characteristics of a commercial beer were manipulated by adding hop aroma, different sensory profiles were dominant but liking did not change. The temporal dominance of emotions allowed to see that in beginning of consumption of the most aromatic beer there was a shift from negative to positive emotions. In the most aromatic beer only positive emotions were dominant: relaxed, pleased and happy, whereas in the control and in the less aromatic beers besides relaxed or pleased, disappointed was also dominant. Based on this outcome it seems possible to induce different emotion profiles by manipulating the sensory characteristics.

    Conclusions

    Wine, beer and non-alcoholic beer have an elaborated conceptualisation map in consumer´s minds and they evoke positive and negative emotions, that evolve during consumption. A balance between functional and emotional conceptualisations seems to be important for product success as well as the product name. During consumption sensations and emotions can evolve differently in similar tasting beverages that consumers equally liked. The relationship between sensory specific characteristics and emotions is still limited but we believe that these practical implications may help industries to create healthier versions of products to be experienced as the happier choices.

    Older adults, mealtime-related emotions, and functionalities : tailoring protein-enriched meals
    Uijl, Louise C. den - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Stefanie Kremer; Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578920 - 178
    meals - emotions - elderly nutrition - elderly - smell - food preferences - protein - proteins - questionnaires - young adults - chocolate - maaltijden - emoties - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - reuk - voedselvoorkeuren - eiwit - eiwitten - vragenlijsten - jongvolwassenen - chocolade

    Background and aim

    Dietary proteins are of special interest for the heterogeneous group of older adults, since these people do not always have an adequate protein intake. When protein-rich products are better aligned with the requirements of older persons, an adequate nutrient intake is more likely. In this thesis we therefore explored two approaches for tailoring protein-enriched meals to older consumer subgroups; emotion-based and functionality-based. We expected a better ‘product-cluster fit’ (i.e. a more positive meal experience) when the clusters’ meal associations are congruent to their mealtime expectations.

    Methods

    We conducted an online survey in which vital community-dwelling older adults (n=392) reported their mealtime-related emotions and mealtime functionality. Using a hierarchical clustering analysis we described clusters within our population. Subsequently, we explored the extent to which the expectations of these clusters can be applied for the development of tailored protein-enriched meals. For the emotion-based approach, we conducted two central location tests (CLTs, n=461) to explore older adults’ food-evoked emotions. For the functionality-based approach we conducted in-depth interviews in order to get further insights regarding functional mealtime expectations and attitudes towards proteins and protein-enrichment. Based on the latter insights we tailored PE meal concepts to two functionality-based segments. In a final home-use test, the members of the functionality-based segments (n=91) prepared and evaluated the tailored PE meal concepts.

    Results

    The emotion-based approach resulted in four clusters; pleasurable averages, adventurous arousals, convivial indulgers, and indifferent restrictives. These emotions that these segments associated with their mealtimes varied along the two dimensions valence and arousal. However, from both CLTs we learned that the variation in valence-arousal as observed for mealtime-related emotions was not observed for emotions related to actual foods. The latter makes it challenging to identify products that evoke emotions congruent to the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters.

    With regard to the functionality-based approach, we encountered three clusters; physical nutritioners, cosy socialisers, and thoughtless averages. The cosy socialisers value the social interactions and cosiness during their mealtimes, whereas the physical nutritioners focus more on the health and nutrient aspects of meals. Thoughtless averages have the least distinctive mealtime expectations. We translated these functional mealtime expectations into two PE meal concepts; one tailored to cosy socialisers and one tailored to physical nutritioners. These meal concepts were well-accepted by the participants. However, congruency between mealtime expectations and functional meal associations did not result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’.

    Conclusions

    Given the challenge to identify congruency between the meal associations and the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters, we consider the emotion-based approach to be not yet actionable enough as a basis for tailoring PE products to older consumers. In contrast, the functionality-based approach appeared to be more promising, since the functional meal expectations could be translated to well-accepted tailored PE meal concepts. However, the effectivity of our functionality-based approach was not yet confirmed in this thesis, since congruency between functional meal associations and functional meal expectations did not necessarily result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’. Future studies, focussing on e.g. other meal types, are recommended to further explore mealtime functionality as a basis for tailoring PE meals to older consumer subgroups.

    Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
    He, W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149
    stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

    Background and aim

    Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.

    Methods

    Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.

    Results

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.

    Conclusions

    Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

    Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice
    Gutjar, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574380 - 183
    voedselvoorkeuren - keuzegedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - emoties - sensorische wetenschappen - verpakking - food preferences - choice behaviour - consumer preferences - emotions - sensory sciences - packaging

    Abstract

    Introduction

    In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choice than sensory liking per se, as many highly liked products fail on the market. A broader perspective on how consumers experience a food product is needed, where we take into account that individuals experience and attach emotions and cognitive associations to foods. Measuring these, in addition to liking, might explain and predict food choice better.

    Aim

    The aim of this thesis was to test if food-evoked emotional and cognitive associations explain and predict food choice better than sensory liking per se. Hereby we focused on the sensory and packaging product properties. In addition, we investigated the link between sensory properties and emotional responses to foods; and the influence of the context appropriateness on choice.

    Methods

    We conducted a series of product profiling experiments of test products (breakfast drinks) with regular consumers. Participants rated emotional responses and liking to a set of tasted test products, and subsequently, after an interval of one week, participants’ actual choice was observed, after again tasting the series of product samples (presented blind) to choose from. In the following study we took the same measures, but now included the products packaging. Thus, participants rated emotional responses also to the product’s package and they chose one product after viewing the packages of all test products (without tasting). Two dessert products were included in the product set to assess the impact of eating occasion appropriateness. The test products were also evaluated by a trained panel on sensory characteristics using descriptive analysis. In the last study, we assessed cognitive terms (emotional and functional words) participants associate with sensory attributes and the products’ package. And, participants rated liking and chose, after an interval of one week, a product based on the products’ packages.

    Results

    The measured emotional responses could be decomposed in two dimensions, i.e. valence (pleasant to unpleasant) vs. arousal (calm to excitement). The combination of emotion valence and liking scores predicted individual choice based on the products taste for over 50% of all participants and was a better predictor of choice than liking scores alone. The combination of liking, valence and also arousal resulted in the best prediction for package-based choice with correct predicted individual choices for 41% of all participants. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the match, between the cognitive associations to the products sensory and packaging cues, was positively related to choice. However, liking ratings outperformed the product-package-match in predicting individual product choice. In particular, expected liking (based on the product’s package) predicted 25% more individual choices correct than the product-package-match. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a product was more likely to be chosen when the package provided context appropriate information (i.e. breakfast context for breakfast drinks). Lastly, we found that texture-related attributes were drivers of positive emotions and that specific taste-related attributes were drivers of specific arousal emotions.

    Conclusion

    Emotional and cognitive responses to foods are relevant drivers of choice behaviour. Food-evoked emotional responses predicted choice consistently better than liking scores alone. However, the combination of liking scores and emotions was the best predictor of food choice based on the product’s taste and packaging. Hence, emotions may explain and guide consumers’ choice behaviour. Furthermore, product profiles, based on cognitive product associations, seem to be related to choice behaviour; but it is still unclear what their contribution is in predicting choice based on liking per se.

    In addition, it was shown that appropriateness also influences package-based choice. Lastly, links between sensory and emotional profiling were identified which offer a possible application of the findings on food-evoked emotions in product development.

    Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being
    Schrieks, I.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): H.F.J. Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572904 - 211
    alcoholinname - drinken - doseringseffecten - emoties - welzijn - kwaliteit van het leven - alcohol intake - drinking - dosage effects - emotions - well-being - quality of life

    Abstract

    Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical well-being remain unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to further explore the acute effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being and the association between habitual alcohol consumption and emotional well-being and 2) to provide more insight into physiological markers that may be related to alcohol-induced emotional well-being.

    Methods: We compared the acute effects of alcohol (20-30 g) vs. alcohol-free drinks on mood, food reward and mental stress in three randomized crossover trials. To explore the short-term effects of alcohol on physiological markers of emotional well-being, we conducted four randomized crossover trials of 3-6 weeks in which 25-41 g alcohol/day, or no alcohol was consumed. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 randomized intervention trials with at least 2 weeks of alcohol intervention. Finally, the association between long-term alcohol consumption and health-related quality of life was investigated with a bidirectional, longitudinal analysis among 92,448 U.S. women of the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort.

    Results: Moderate alcohol consumption in an unpleasant ambiance resulted in higher happiness scores in women as compared to the consumption of alcohol-free drinks. Consumption of 20 gram alcohol increased subsequent intake and rewarding value of savoury foods in men, as measured by an increased implicit wanting and explicit liking of savoury foods. When alcohol was consumed by male volunteers immediately after a mental stressor, a reduced response of the stress hormones ACTH and cortisol, the inflammatory marker IL-8, and the percentage of monocytes in blood were observed. Furthermore, alcohol consumption was found to attenuate meal-induced NF-κB and to increase total antioxidant capacity in men. Four weeks of moderate alcohol consumption reduced circulating fetuin-A, while increasing urinary F2-isoprostanes in men. In women, short-term moderate alcohol consumption did not reduce fetuin-A but it tended to increase insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a higher physical health-related quality of life 2 years later. Vice versa, higher physical health-related quality of life was associated with a higher alcohol intake 2 years later. Moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with mental health-related quality of life in either direction, although moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher scores on the scales for social functioning and vitality.

    Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption may acutely improve emotional well-being by improving mood, increasing food reward and reducing mental stress. In the short-term, moderate alcohol consumption may attenuate meal-induced oxidative stress and circulating fetuin-A in men. In women, moderate alcohol consumption may improve insulin sensitivity. Habitual moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a small increase in physical health related quality of life but not with mental health related quality of life in women.

    Communicatie over Faunabeheer en Schadebestrijding, Een inventarisatie van communicatiestrategieën in de praktijk van FBE's
    Smit, A. ; Hoon, C. ; Lanters, R. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2611) - 29
    wildbeheer - jachtdieren - burgers - opinies - emoties - beleidsprocessen - provincies - nederland - wildlife management - game animals - citizens - opinions - emotions - policy processes - provinces - netherlands
    Het Faunafonds vraagt zich af hoe op dit moment de communicatie over Faunabeheer is geregeld, hoe dat in de praktijk uitpakt en of de weerstand in het veld of via de politiek de uitvoering van het Faunabeheerplan belemmert. Hiertoe is literatuuronderzoek gedaan en zijn de secretarissen van de FBE’s in alle provincies telefonisch geïnterviewd. De door het Faunafonds verwachte vertraging in de uitvoering van Faunabeheerplannen door publieke en politieke weerstand wordt door FBE’s niet herkend en onderschreven. Er is wel weerstand, maar deze is volgens de FBE’s hanteerbaar en lijkt de laatste jaren af te nemen. De FBE’s geven bovendien aan dat de vertraging vooral in juridische trajecten zit. Ze zien daar geen rol voor communicatie. De FBE’s geven aan wel behoefte te hebben aan ondersteuning in de communicatie, hoewel die behoefte zeer divers is.
    ANS Responses and Facial Expressions Differentiate between the Taste of Commercial Breakfast Drinks
    Wijk, R.A. de; He, W. ; Mensink, M.G.J. ; Verhoeven, R. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
    appraisal - emotions - odors
    The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success.
    Varkens delen lief en leed
    Reimert, Inonge - \ 2014
    animal production - pigs - animal behaviour - animal housing - animal health - animal welfare - pig farming - emotions - pig breeding
    Varkens hebben een simpele vorm van empathie waarbij ze emoties overnemen van hokgenoten.
    You Have Been Framed! How Antecedents of Information Need Mediate the Effects of Risk Communication Messages
    Terpstra, T. ; Zaalberg, R. ; Boer, J. de; Botzen, W.J.W. - \ 2014
    Risk Analysis 34 (2014)8. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 1506 - 1520.
    klimaatverandering - overstromingen - risicoanalyse - burgers - informatiebehoeften - climatic change - floods - risk analysis - citizens - information needs - attitude-change - perceived risk - seeking model - fear appeals - flood risks - pre model - trust - preparedness - perception - emotions
    This study investigates the processes that mediate the effects of framing flood risks on people's information needs. Insight into the effects of risk frames is important for developing balanced risk communication that explains both risks and benefits of living near water. The research was inspired by the risk information seeking and processing model and related models. In a web-based survey, respondents (n = 1,457) were randomly assigned to one of three communication frames or a control frame (experimental conditions). Each frame identically explained flood risk and additionally refined the message by emphasizing climate change, the quality of flood risk management, or the amenities of living near water. We tested the extent to which risk perceptions, trust, and affective responses mediate the framing effects on information need. As expected, the frames on average resulted in higher information need than the control frame. Attempts to lower fear appeal by stressing safety or amenities instead of climate change were marginally successful, a phenomenon that is known as a “negativity bias.” Framing effects were mediated by negative attributes (risk perception and negative affect) but not by positive attributes (trust and positive affect). This finding calls for theoretical refinement. Practically, communication messages will be more effective when they stimulate risk perceptions and evoke negative affect. However, arousal of fear may have unwanted side effects. For instance, fear arousal could lead to lower levels of trust in risk management among citizens. Regular monitoring of citizens’ attitudes is important to prevent extreme levels of distrust or cynicism.
    (Em)pathetic pigs? : the impact of social interactions on welfare, health and productivity
    Reimert, I. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Liesbeth Bolhuis; Bas Rodenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739964 - 264
    varkens - sociaal gedrag - sociaal milieu - emoties - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - fokwaarde - dierlijke productie - varkenshouderij - pigs - social behaviour - social environment - emotions - animal behaviour - animal welfare - animal health - breeding value - animal production - pig farming

    The welfare, health and productivity of intensively raised pigs may be affected by routine management procedures and the physical environment they are housed in, but also by their social environment, i.e. by social interactions between pen mates. In this thesis, the effect of social interactions on pig welfare, health and productivity has been investigated in several ways. On the one hand, a new breeding method based on interactions, i.e. on heritable effects on the performance of pen mates, was investigated. The effect of divergent selection for a relatively positive or negative indirect genetic effect on growth of pen mates on pig behavior and physiology was studied. On the other hand, it was investigated whether pigs can be affected by (the emotional state of) their pen mates on the basis of two social processes, emotional contagion and social support. Pigs selected for a relatively positive indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates seemed less fearful and less stressed in several novelty tests and they had lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations compared to pigs selected for a relatively negative indirect genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates. Moreover, it was found that pigs can indeed be affected by the emotional state of their pen mates either in a positive or negative way, which points to emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy, in pigs. Furthermore, evidence for social support has also been found. To conclude, this breeding method may be a strategy to improve the social environment of intensively raised pigs as pigs with relatively positive indirect genetic effects for growth may create a less stressful social environment for themselves. In addition, the welfare, health and productivity of pigs may not only depend on their own emotional state, but also on the emotional state of their pen mates.

    How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour
    Onwezen, M.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739070 - 230
    economie - menselijk gedrag - consumentengedrag - milieu - keuzegedrag - gedragseconomie - economische psychologie - perceptie - consumptie - emoties - zelfbesef - omgevingspsychologie - economics - human behaviour - consumer behaviour - environment - choice behaviour - behavioural economics - economic psychology - perception - consumption - emotions - self perception - environmental psychology

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-environmental decision making.

    We focus on pride and guilt, which belong to the group of self-conscious emotions. Self-conscious emotions occur when individuals are aware of themselves and reflect on themselves in order to evaluate whether their behaviour is in accordance with their (personal and social) standards. In short, we explore the fundamental way in which pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour via self-reflection. We propose that pride and guilt guide behaviour via a self-regulatory function, meaning that they provide feedback about how one is performing regarding one’s own standards and the perceived standards of others. The emotional feedback is used to guide oneself in accordance with these standards (i.e. self-regulation). Furthermore, we propose that the way one sees the self (who am I in relation to others), affects how individuals evaluate themselves, which in turn affects how pride and guilt are formed and guide behaviour.

    This thesis has both theoretical implications, as we increase understanding in the function of self-conscious emotions, and practical implications, as understanding the functions of pride and guilt in consumer decision making can be used to develop interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviour among consumers. For a thorough discussion of these implications we refer to the General Discussion. Below we provide a short overview of the findings of the individual chapters.

    Chapter 2 explores whether and how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. Previous studies do not provide clear evidence regarding the effects of pride and guilt on subsequent pro-environmental behaviour. Acting or not acting in a pro-environmental way might induce feelings of pride and guilt respectively, which does not necessarily mean that these emotions guide future pro-environmental choices. Three studies show that pride, and to a lesser extent guilt, guide future pro-environmental choices. Chapter 2 additionally explores how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. We propose that pride and guilt influence pro-environmental behaviour by providing information about whether the intended behaviour is in line with one’s standards, and not out of a basic tendency to feel good. Two studies show indeed that only related (endogenous) and not unrelated (exogenous) emotions affect pro-environmental behaviour. These findings imply that pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function and not via a basic mechanism to feel good.

    Chapter 3explores howpride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function. Up until now it was not clear how these emotions guide behaviour. The function of pride and guilt is explored in two vested theories: the Norm Activation model (NAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Several researchers who use the NAM propose that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with personal norms. However, these researchers have specified the nature of this association in different ways (including direct effects, mediating effects, or moderating effects), and have rarely tested these proposed associations empirically. This chapter shows how the function of pride and guilt within the NAM can be specified. The results support a self-regulatory function of pride and guilt which shows that they mediate the effects of personal norms on pro-environmental behaviour. Anticipated pride and guilt thus guide individuals to behave themselves in accordance with existing standards regarding the environment (i.e. self-regulatory function). Moreover, we integrated the NAM with the TPB and show that the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt remain present in an integrated NAM-TPB model (Bamberg et al., 2007). Pride and guilt mediate the effects of personal norms, attitudes, and injunctive social norms on intentions. Pride and guilt therefore seem to regulate individual behaviour regarding the environment so as to allow a person to be in accordance with one’s personal and social standards towards the environment.

    Chapter 4initially explores whether the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt differ across personally oriented versus pro-socially oriented contexts. Previous studies that explore the self-regulatory function of self-conscious emotions within the TPB show mixed findings regarding the mediating effects of these emotions. This chapter distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms and includes multiple contexts to explore whether this accounts for the mixed findings. Three survey studies show that anticipated pride and guilt regulate behavioural intentions to make them in accordance with attitudes and injunctive and descriptive social norms. Additionally, we show that the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across contexts, which may account for the mixed findings of previous studies. We show preliminary evidence that anticipated self-conscious emotions have a larger mediating effect in altruistic (i.e. organic and fair trade consumption) rather than personally oriented (i.e. healthy consumption) contexts.

    InChapter 5 we explore whether the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across collectivistic and individualistic countries. Based on previous studies (e.g., Mesquita, 2001), we suggest that the function of emotions might differ due to cultural differences in the construal of the self. We propose that the way one sees the self in relation to others (i.e. self-construal) affects the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Individualistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a private self (i.e. independent self) meaning that the self encompasses unique individuals with their own personal goals. Collectivistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a social self (i.e. interdependent self) meaning that the self encompasses family, friends, and important others, and a striving to reach group-based goals. We conducted a survey across eight collectivistic and individualistic countries. As expected the results show that there are no differences across countries in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt withinindividualistic and withincollectivistic cultures, but that there are differences betweencollectivistic and individualistic cultures. Individuals from collectivistic countries use more social standards and less personal standards to anticipate pride and guilt. These findings provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more socially driven for individuals from collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal (i.e. independent and interdependent self).

    Chapter 6explores whether the function of pride and guilt might also vary within individuals due to activating different construals of the self. Previous studies show that contextual cues can activate private versus social selves within an individual. We show that social media can also act as a contextual cue that activates the social self. Moreover, three experiments show that activating the social self increases the effects of guilt on pro-environmental intentions, whereas activating the private self increases the effects of pride on pro-environmental intentions. This finding implies that activating different construals of the self can increase the effects of emotions on intentions. Furthermore, we show that these effects occur because the activation of private versus social selves results in different self-evaluations. Activating the social self makes individuals more sensitive to social norms in self-evaluations that evoke emotions, whereas activating the private self makes individuals more sensitive to attitudes in self-evaluations that evoke emotions. The findings of this chapter imply that guilt is more social in nature than pride.

    Conclusion. The current thesis shows that pride and guilt guide pro-environmental consumer behaviour via a self-regulatory function. Pride and guilt occur after a self-reflection on personal and social standards related to the environment, and in turn they guide pro-environmental behaviour. This function differs when different employments of the self are activated or cultivated. Thus how one sees oneself through one’s own eyes and through the eyes of others affects the emotions that one experiences, and how these emotions affect subsequent pro-environmental intentions.

    Emoties en het activeren van milieuvriendelijke persoonlijke en sociale normen
    Onwezen, M.C. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2013
    ESB Economisch Statistische Berichten 98 (2013)4672S. - ISSN 0013-0583 - p. 32 - 36.
    consumentengedrag - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - normen - emoties - houding van consumenten - milieu - consumer behaviour - sustainability - standards - emotions - consumer attitudes - environment
    Hoewel een gedeelte van de mensen zegt het milieu belangrijk te vinden, gedragen ze zich niet altijd milieuvriendelijk. Een recent onderzoek toont aan dat de emoties trots en schuld ertoe bijdragen dat bestaande persoonlijke en sociale normen worden omgezet in intensies tot duurzaam gedrag.
    Food consumption value: developing a consumer-centred concept of value in the field of food
    Dagevos, H. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 2013
    British Food Journal 115 (2013)10. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1473 - 1486.
    emotions - choice - markets - model
    Purpose – This paper seeks to argue that a new and broader definition of food value should be introduced that includes other factors than the traditional mantra of nutritional value, appearance, and the like. This paper introduces the concept of food consumption value (FCV). Design/methodology/approach – The development of FCV is based upon various research traditions and corresponding bodies of literature. The four constituting parts of FCV origins in different lines of scholarly theorising. These lines of thought are discussed separately. Collectively, they form the breeding ground of the concept of food consumption value. Findings – The consumer-centred framework of FCV consists of four elements. Product value refers to food’s features and functionalities like taste or texture. Process value refers to consumers’ interest in the practices and processes of food production. Ethical considerations (consumer concerns) are thus taken into account. Furthermore, FCV encompasses location value and emotional value. Location value refers to the setting in which food is purchased or consumed. Emotional value is the most elusive element of FCV, because it refers to “feel goods” such as experience, entertainment, (self) indulgence or identity values with respect to the consumption of food products or brands. Practical implications – The message of FCV for (marketing) practitioners in the field of food is that value creation should depart from assessing consumer value in narrow senses such as value for money. The feelings that foods can arouse are anything but valueless intangibilities, but crucial assets of value creation and competitiveness. Another practical implication of FCV is that for value creation in the food supply chain it is a sine qua non that downstream (location value) and upstream (process value) are fine-tuned consistently and constructively. Originality/value – This paper is the first exploratory study on the development of the new concept of FCV that examines consumer value beyond tangible product attributes and price. This broader concept of FCV aims to interpret value in terms that adjust to today’s consumer-oriented food market. Though inspired by other interpretations of value in marketing and food studies, FCV differs from these.
    The pig's nose and its role in dominance relationships and harmful behaviour
    Camerlink, I. ; Turner, S.P. - \ 2013
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 84 - 91.
    seminatural environment - social recognition - familiarity - aggression - emotions - primates - welfare - odors - swine - touch
    Affiliative behaviour may have an essential role in many behavioural processes. Gently nosing between group members occurs in almost all social behavioural processes of pigs (Sus scrofa), but the reasons for its performance are unclear. We examined whether nosing between pigs was related to dominance relationships or harmful behaviours such as manipulation of the tail using 80 crossbred pigs. Both males and females, housed in straw pens, were studied at 8 weeks of age (10 pigs/pen). Dominance ranks were determined by a feed competition test. The behaviour of 64 focal pigs was observed for 2 h per pig in total. Pigs nosed their pen mates on average 36 ± 3 times within 2 h, and nosing behaviour mainly consisted of nose-to-nose contact, nosing the head and nosing the body, rather than nosing the ear, groin, tail or ano-genital region. These gentle pig-directed nosing behaviours, i.e. gently touching another individual with the snout, was here defined as social nosing. Dominance relationships did not influence the amount of nosing given or received. Social nosing was largely unrelated to harmful behaviour. Nosing the tail correlated with tail biting (rs = 0.37), but only 0.3 percent of social nosing was followed by this behaviour. Pigs which delivered much nosing did not receive less aggression, and nor did they receive a heightened amount of nosing in return. We suggest that pigs may nose each other for social recognition, as affiliative behaviour, to gain olfactory signals, or to satisfy an intrinsic need to nose. In conclusion, social nosing in pigs was largely unrelated to harmful behaviours, was not related to dominance relationships and should remain largely unaffected by efforts to minimise harmful behaviours in farming systems
    Relationship between growth rate and oral manipulation, social nosing, and aggression in finishing pigs
    Camerlink, I. ; Bijma, P. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2012
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 142 (2012)1-2. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 11 - 17.
    environmental enrichment - breeding programs - fattening pigs - animal-welfare - behavior - performance - swine - oxytocin - emotions - tree
    Pigs may affect each other's health, welfare and productivity through their behaviour. The effect of a pig on the growth rate of its pen mates is partly heritable and is referred to as its social genetic effect. Social genetic effects, also known as indirect genetic effects, have been found in a number of livestock breeds, in natural and laboratory populations, and in plant breeding and forestry, and have become an important research topic in recent years. In pigs, social genetic effects are hypothesized to be related to behaviour. The mechanism behind social genetic effects for growth, as well as the relationship between behaviours and growth itself, is largely unknown. To gain insight in the mechanism behind social genetic effects, we investigated the relationship between behaviours and growth rate in pigs. On a commercial pig farm, 398 finishing pigs in 50 pens (eight pigs/pen) were observed at 12 weeks of age using 2-min instantaneous scan sampling for 6 h during daytime. For 324 observed pigs, growth rate during the finishing period was known. The relationship between behaviours and growth rate during the finishing period was analysed with behaviour as explanatory variable in a mixed model. Results show that time spent giving behaviours, like oral manipulation, social nosing, aggression and belly nosing, was not related to own growth rate. Receiving behaviours, however, did relate to growth. Pigs that received more oral manipulation, observed as tail biting, ear biting and paw biting, grew less well (P <0.05). Growth rate was 43 (± 17) g/d lower in pigs that received oral manipulation during more than 2% of the observations as compared to pigs that did not receive oral manipulation. Pigs that received social nosing, a gentle touch or sniff at any part of the body, had a higher growth rate (P <0.05): growth rate differed 29 (± 17) g/d between pigs that received social nosing during more than 2% of observations as compared to not receiving social nosing at all. Receiving aggression and belly nosing, a forceful rubbing of the belly, did not influence growth rate. In conclusion, receiving oral manipulation and social nosing related to growth rate. This suggests that pigs selected for positive social genetic effects for growth may potentially show behavioural changes. Effects of selection for social genetic effects on behaviour and growth will be studied in future research.
    Autonomic nervous system responses on and facial expressions to the sight, smell and taste of liked and disliked foods
    Wijk, R.A. de; Kooijman, V.M. ; Verhoeven, R.H.G. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
    Food Quality and Preference 26 (2012)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 196 - 203.
    emotions
    Abstract Traditional sensory and consumer tests predict long term consumer acceptance of new products rather poorly, as evidenced by the high failure rates of new market introductions. These tests typical reflect conscious processes whereas consumer acceptance may also be based on unconscious processes, which may be measured by implicit physiological and behavioral measures. This study with 16 children (aged 8–10 years) and 15 young adults (mean age 22 years) explored the use of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the study of foods. Three liked and three disliked foods were selected for each participant and their responses were measured during the first sight of each food and when they received the instruction to either visually inspect, smell or taste the foods. The first sight of disliked foods compared to liked foods resulted in increased skin conductance responses (p = 0.05) and increased facial expressions of sadness, disgust, and angriness (p = 0.05). Skin conductance responses (SCRs) varied significantly with the type of instruction (p <0.001), with relatively small SCRs when participants were instructed to visually inspect the foods and larger SCRs when they are instructed to taste or smell the foods. When instructed to taste the foods, children showed increased SCRs for disliked foods while young adults showed decreased SCRs (p = 0.02). Heart rate varied with instruction and age group (p = 0.03). Children showed increased heart rate when instructed to visual inspect or taste the foods and reduced heart rate they were instructed to smell them. In contrast, young adults showed reduced heart rate when instructed to visual inspect and increased heart rate with instructed to taste or smell. Finger temperature was higher for liked foods than for disliked foods, irrespective of instruction and age group (p <0.01). It is concluded that implicit ANS and behavioral responses provide detailed information on food preferences in relation to specific food properties and phases of food sampling that may not be provided by other more explicit tests.
    Dieren doden; dode dieren: Emoties rondom dieren
    Buijs, Arjen - \ 2012
    nature management - animal welfare - emotions - perception - landscape experience - nature - attitudes - citizens - environmental psychology
    What is moral about guilt? Acting 'prosocially' at the disadvantage of others
    Hooge, I.E. de; Nelissen, R.M.A. ; Breugelmans, S.M. ; Zeelenberg, M. - \ 2011
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100 (2011)3. - ISSN 0022-3514 - p. 462 - 473.
    empathy-induced altruism - decision-making - shame - emotions - dilemma - anger - embarrassment - perspective - fairness - behavior
    For centuries economists and psychologists have argued that the morality of moral emotions lies in the fact that they stimulate prosocial behavior and benefit others in a person’s social environment. Many studies have shown that guilt, arguably the most exemplary moral emotion, indeed motivates prosocial behavior in dyadic social dilemma situations. When multiple persons are involved, however, the moral and prosocial nature of this emotion can be questioned. The present article shows how guilt can have beneficial effects for the victim of one’s actions but also disadvantageous effects for other people in the social environment. A series of experiments, with various emotion inductions and dependent measures, all reveal that guilt motivates prosocial behavior toward the victim at the expense of others around—but not at the expense of oneself. These findings illustrate that a thorough understanding of the functioning of emotions is necessary to understand their moral nature. Keywords: moral emotions, guilt, interpersonal relationships, prosocial behavior, social dilemmas
    Geurende gewassen
    Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2011
    ornamental plants - woody plants - ornamental herbaceous plants - ornamental bulbs - fragrance - organoleptic traits - organolepsis - experiential value - emotions - well-being
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