Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    De energiesector als lichtend of verblindend voorbeeld?
    Giezen, M. ; Brouwer, Stijn ; Roest, Kees ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2017
    H2O online (2017). - 6
    energie - water - hernieuwbare energie - systemen - economie - energy - water - renewable energy - systems - economics
    De energiesector wordt in de watersector veelvuldig genoemd als voorbeeld voor de transitie richting een circulaire economie. In hoeverre werkt dit verhelderend of juist verblindend? In deze literatuurstudie laten de auteurs hun licht schijnen op de energiesector als voorbeeld wanneer het gaat om de introductie van nieuwe decentrale technieken. Vanuit zowel een technologisch, economisch, sociaal-cultureel als een institutioneel perspectief brengen de auteurs de contextuele systeemveranderingen die van invloed kunnen zijn op toepassing van decentrale technieken in kaart. Hiermee worden de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen energie- en watersectoren helder en ontstaat ruimte voor relativering en nuance.
    Philosophical explorations on energy transition
    Geerts, Robert-Jan - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bart Gremmen; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Josette Jacobs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430487 - 172
    philosophy - technology - sustainable energy - renewable energy - social change - energy consumption - quality - society - energy - filosofie - technologie - duurzame energie - hernieuwbare energie - sociale verandering - energiegebruik - kwaliteit - samenleving - energie

    This dissertation explores energy transition from a philosophical perspective. It puts forward the thesis that energy production and consumption are so intimately intertwined with society that the transition towards a sustainable alternative will involve more than simply implementing novel technologies. Fossil energy sources and a growth-based economy have resulted in very specific energy practices, which will change in the future. Broader reflection is needed to understand how and in which direction such change is acceptable and desirable.

    This reflection is initiated by articulating two pertinent problems with current energy practices that have thus far failed to receive appropriate attention in debates on energy transition: 1) the difficulty of dealing with intermittent sources in relation to the idea of cumulative accounting of energy consumption, and 2) the mismatch between expectations of ethical consumer behaviour in energy systems that discourage engagement.

    To move forward, instead of assuming that all consumption is equivalent and that more is better, we must develop a better informed and more nuanced idea of 'good' energy practices that actually contribute to our quality of life. One often overlooked aspect of this may be 'embodied engagement', which would suggest that automation of tasks through energy-consuming technologies may be convenient, but also tends to lead to a loss of appreciation for both the task and its result. Some things, like creating a cozy environment around a fireplace, or climbing a mountain, are better partly because they take effort. In such cases, the 'efficiency' of the technology (e.g. the heat-pump, or the automobile) is besides the point - the question is whether it gives us anything of value at all.

    Duurzame energie 2050 : verkenning rol van (agrarische) ondernemers in de energietransitie naar 2050
    Wijnands, Frank ; Holster, Henri - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 33
    boeren - plattelandsomgeving - duurzame energie - energie - energievoorraden - hernieuwbare energie - farmers - rural environment - sustainable energy - energy - energy resources - renewable energy
    Rural entrepreneurs (farmers) are going to play a major role in the energy transitions towards 2050. In professional dialogues between farmers and pertinent stakeholders it was shown that farmers are already involved in all aspects and are in the right position. The transition needs to be facilitated in local initiatives.
    Energie en eiwitwaardeschatting gras-klaverkuilen
    Schooten, H.A. van; Spek, J.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 994) - 33
    grasklaver - eiwitten - energie - voedingswaarde - biochemie - diervoedering - grass-clover swards - proteins - energy - nutritive value - biochemistry - animal feeding
    Energy status and ovarian follicular development
    Meng, Li - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jaap Keijer; Katja Teerds. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579170 - 144
    ovarian development - energy - follicles - reproduction - atresia - development - ovaries - ovariumontwikkeling - energie - follikels - voortplanting - atresie - ontwikkeling - ovaria

    Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular recruitment and growth is little investigated and not fully elucidated. Therefore, the overall goal of this thesis was to investigate the effects of an altered metabolism, and particularly an altered energy status, on ovarian follicular development. To achieve this goal, the first aim was to establish the role of autophagy in follicular degeneration under normal physiological conditions, with focus on preantral and antral follicles; The second aim was to elucidate the effects of a diet-induced reduction in thyroid hormone concentrations, affecting whole body metabolism, on ovarian follicular development; The third aim was to investigate the effect of an increased nutrient flux towards skeletal muscle on ovarian follicular development and the possible underlying mechanism.

    It is well known that granulosa cell death via apoptosis is the main cause of atresia of antral follicles, however, whether preantral follicular attrition makes use of the same cell death pathway is not clear. Therefore, in chapter 2 I have investigated different cell death pathways in the adult rat ovary to examine whether they represent the reported histological differences between preantral and antral atretic follicles. Based on the results of studies in other organs, I used microtubule-associated light-chain protein 3 (LC3) and QSQTM1/p62 as markers of autophagy and cleaved caspase 3 (cCASP3) as marker of apoptosis, using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and laser capture micro-dissection followed by qRT-PCR. The results showed that in the granulosa cells of atretic preantral follicles, p62 immunostaining was less intense compared to healthy preantral follicles, while no difference in LC3 immunostaining intensity was observed. In contrast, in antral follicles, no difference in both immunostaining and mRNA levels of LC3 and p62 were found between healthy and atretic follicles, indicating that autophagy was not responsible for attrition of antral follicles. cCASP3 immunostaining was scarce in the granulosa cells of atretic preantral follicles, whereas many cCASP3 positive apoptotic cells were present in atretic antral follicles, indicating that apoptosis is a major cell death pathway activated in antral follicle degeneration. Immunostaining for superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was reduced in preantral and antral atretic follicles. This observation was confirmed by a concomitant down regulation of Sod2 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that preantral follicular atresia mainly makes use of autophagy as cell death pathway, while antral follicles degenerate mainly via apoptosis.

    In chapter 3, the consequences of prolonged exposure to reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in adulthood on the size of the ovarian follicle pool are investigated. Besides having a direct effect on the functioning of many cells, changes in thyroid hormone levels also influence metabolism. In this study female rats at the age of 10 weeks were given a control diet or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid, resulting in a relatively mild chronic hypothyroid condition. At the age of 26 weeks animals were sacrificed and ovaries histologically evaluated. Plasma concentrations of relevant hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were determined. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle numbers and corpora lutea was observed. The percentage of atretic follicles was not different between the two groups. Plasma AMH concentrations showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total number of primary, preantral and antral follicles per ovary. The data indicate that prolonged mild hypothyroidism negatively affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as the size of the growing follicle population, which may impact fertility. AMH can serve, also under mild hypothyroid conditions, as a surrogate marker to assess the size of the growing ovarian follicle population, offering a non-invasive way to evaluate the correlation between female reproductive health and thyroid status.

    Subsequently, in chapter 4, the long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism initiated already in the foetal/neonatal period on ovarian follicular development were investigated. In contrast to the experiments described in chapter 3, the rats in this experiment were exposed to reduced thyroid hormone levels from the moment of conception until necropsy. Effects on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats were studied. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. The results of this investigation showed that continuous fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism resulted in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was significantly increased, while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 (Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) mRNA content and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (Gstm2) mRNA content. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the foetal/neonatal period resulted in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. In contrast to hypothyroidism induced in adulthood (chapter 3), no reduction in primordial or primary follicle numbers was observed, suggesting that the ovarian reserve was not affected.

    Chapter 5 addressed the question what the consequences were of a change in nutrient flux on ovarian follicular development. In this chapter mice were employed that ectopically express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in skeletal muscle (UCP1-TG). This did not affect adiposity, but led to a redistribution of energy sources away from the ovaries towards skeletal muscle tissue,; a model of skeletal muscle pseudo-starvation. The results showed that UCP1-TG female mice had increased energy expenditure, reduced body size, unchanged adiposity, increased plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) concentrations and reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels. UCP1-TG mice had a 30% lower number of healthy follicle compared to WT mice. Primary and preantral follicle numbers were decreased by 40%, while the number of atretic follicles was significantly increased and corpora lutea (CL) were absent in 40% of the ovaries of UCP1-TG mice. The latter suggested that these mice did not ovulate and thus were infertile. The elevated circulating FGF21 concentrations were not responsible for the ovarian phenotype, since UCP1-TG and UCP1-TG/FG21-/- mice show the same ovarian follicular phenotype. Significant correlation of circulating IGF1 levels with antral follicle, CL numbers and differentially activated AKT in healthy antral follicles and activated IRS2 in atretic follicles between WT and UCP1-TG mice shows, that IGF1 is, at least partly, responsible for the ovarian phenotype of these mice. Together, our data show that an energy drain towards skeletal muscle tissue negatively impacts growing pool of ovarian follicles and ovulation rate in female mice, which is, at least in part, mediated by IGF1, and not by FGF21.

    In conclusion, the results of my thesis research shows that preantral atresia occurs mainly through autophagy. Dietary induced chronic hypothyroidism, an intervention that reduces basal metabolic rate, initiated either during foetal/neonatal or adulthood impairs ovarian follicle development. The age at onset of hypothyroidism modified the effects of this condition on ovarian follicular development. A change in nutrient flux away from the ovaries towards skeletal muscle tissue negatively affects ovarian follicle development. Overall, the results of my thesis have provided new insights in the mechanisms of follicular attrition and shows that conditions that alter metabolic fuel use impact on ovarian follicular development.

    Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
    Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
    teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - sensors - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum
    The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
    Exergy analysis in industrial food processing
    Zisopoulos, F.K. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578326 - 229
    thermodynamics - energy - physical properties - food production - drying - food industry - efficiency - thermodynamica - energie - fysische eigenschappen - voedselproductie - drogen - voedselindustrie - efficiëntie

    The sustainable provision of food on a global scale in the near future is a very serious challenge. This thesis focuses on the assessment and design of sustainable industrial food production chains and processes by using the concept of exergy which is an objective metric based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. Three case studies are presented, two on a chain level (industrial bread and mushroom production), and one on a process level (conceptual spray drying of a lactose solution). Furthermore, industrial food production chains are categorized as thermodynamic archetypes and general rules are derived for their sustainable design exergy-wise. Additional methodological aspects related to e.g. the impact of system boundaries, the allocation of exergy values to waste streams, and the influence of the selection of the environment of reference on the outcome of the analysis, are also discussed.

    Evaluatie energiebelastingtarief glastuinbouw : vergelijking met energie-intensieve industriële sectoren
    Velden, N.J.A. van der; Silvis, H.J. ; Smit, Martine ; Blom, Martijn - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-027) - ISBN 9789462577909 - 63
    glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - industrie - economische evaluatie - vergelijkend onderzoek - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - industry - economic evaluation - comparative research
    Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa
    Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-025) - ISBN 9789462577428 - 47
    glastuinbouw - energiekosten - energiegebruik - energie - belastingen - tarieven - brandstoffen - elektriciteit - noord-europa - west-europa - europa - greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - fuels - electricity - northern europe - western europe - europe
    In Europa wordt belasting geheven op energie. De belastingen voor de belangrijkste energiesoorten in
    de glastuinbouw in de landen in Noordwest-Europa zijn onderzocht. In de afzonderlijke landen worden
    door de glastuinbouw verschillende brandstoffen ingezet, warmte en elektriciteit ingekocht en wkinstallaties
    gebruikt. De energiebelasting vertoont grote verschillen tussen landen en tussen
    energiesoorten per land. Verlaagde tarieven of vrijstellingen voor de glastuinbouw zijn er in alle
    onderzochte landen. In het algemeen zijn de kosten voor energiebelasting het hoogst in Denemarken,
    gevolgd door het Verenigd Koninkrijk, Nederland, Duitsland, Frankrijk, België en Polen. Bezien vanuit
    de energiebelasting is er in Noordwest-Europa geen gelijk speelveld voor glastuinbouwbedrijven.
    Protocol Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw : vernieuwde versie tot en met 2014
    Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota 2015-122a) - 42
    kassen - glastuinbouw - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - protocollen - methodologie - bedrijfsvoering - kastechniek - klimaatregeling - energiebesparing - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - energy - sustainability - sustainable energy - energy consumption - protocols - methodology - management - greenhouse technology - air conditioning - energy saving
    Het LEI voert de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw uit in opdracht van de Stichting Programmafonds Glastuinbouw/LTO Glaskracht Nederland en het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ). In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw wordt jaarlijks als eerste de energie-input en -output en de fysieke productie van glastuinbouwproducten gekwantificeerd. Vervolgens wordt de ontwikkeling van de energie-indicatoren bepaald. Ook wordt een jaarlijkse elektriciteitsbalans van de glastuinbouw opgesteld. Naast de elektriciteitsinput en -output wordt hierbij ook de elektriciteitsproductie en -consumptie in kaart gebracht. In de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw word ook het effect op het primaire brandstofverbruik c.q. de energie-efficiëntie en op het fossiel brandstofverbruik c.q. de CO2-emissie door wk-installaties in gebruik door de glastuinbouw bepaald. Dit geldt ook voor de inkoop van efficiënter geproduceerde energie (restwarmte en wk-warmte van energiebedrijven) en duurzame energie.
    Energie uit bloembolresten
    Dijk, W. van; Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
    BloembollenVisie (2015)295. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 26 - 26.
    bloembollen - agrarische afvalstoffen - afvalhergebruik - brandstoffen - biogas - energie - proeven - gasproductie - biobased economy - bio-energie - ornamental bulbs - agricultural wastes - waste utilization - fuels - biogas - energy - trials - gas production - biobased economy - bioenergy
    Bloembolresten zijn een goede aanvulling in het rantsoen van een vergister. De gasproductie liep uiteen van 100 m3 per ton vers voor lelieresten tot 250 m3 per ton vers voor tulpenresten. Dit blijkt uit proeven die zijn uitgevoerd met de vergister van ACRRES in Lelystad.
    Groenkennisnet Dossier Duurzame Energielandschappen
    Stremke, S. ; Waal, R.M. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen University
    energie - bio-energie - energiebronnen - zonne-energie - duurzame energie - waterkracht - windenergie - meervoudig landgebruik - landschap - landinrichting - lesmaterialen - energy - bioenergy - energy sources - solar energy - sustainable energy - water power - wind power - multiple land use - landscape - land development - teaching materials
    De duurzame energievormen hebben een lagere energiedichtheid dan de fossiele brandstoffen en de winning ervan neemt daarom vaak meer ruimte in beslag. Als ze zo in het landschap opgenomen worden dat ze bijdragen aan de ontwikkeling van de omgeving en de gemeenschap en bovendien andere functies en waarden van het landschap (voedselvoorziening, biodiversiteit, landschappelijke kwaliteit, en andere ecosysteemdiensten) niet aantasten kun je spreken van duurzame energielandschappen.
    Minder verbruik elektriciteit, meer licht voor de plant
    Hemming, S. - \ 2015
    Kas techniek 2015 (2015)januari. - p. 12 - 13.
    glastuinbouw - kastechniek - energie - energiebesparing - elektriciteit - lichtregiem - led lampen - kassen - snijbloemen - temperatuur - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - energy - energy saving - electricity - light regime - led lamps - greenhouses - cut flowers - temperature
    Terwijl de laatste jaren het energieverbruik voor warmte in de glastuinbouw flink is gedaald, stijgt het elektriciteitsverbruik. Volgens de LEI energiemonitor was deze in 2005 4.6 miljard kWh en in 2013 7.6 miljard kWh. Aanleiding om in het onderzoeksprogramma Kas als Energiebron een halvering van het elektriciteitsverbruik voor groeilicht bij gelijkblijvende opbrengsten als één van de belangrijke doelstellingen te formuleren.
    The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets
    Gorter, H. de; Drabik, D. - \ 2015
    New York (USA) : Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave studies in agricultural economics and food policy ) - ISBN 9781137414847
    agrarische economie - milieubeleid - biobrandstoffen - bio-energie - biomassa - energie - voedselprijzen - basisproducten - ethanolproductie - suikerriet - vluchtigheid - landbouwprijzen - agricultural economics - environmental policy - biofuels - bioenergy - biomass - energy - food prices - commodities - ethanol production - sugarcane - volatility - agricultural prices
    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains and oilseed markets since 2006. This book puts together theory and empirical evidence of how biofuel policies created a link between crop (food grains and oilseeds) and biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) prices. This combined with biofuel policies role in affecting the link between biofuels and energy (gasoline, diesel and crude oil) prices will form the basis to show how alternative US, EU, and Brazilian biofuel policies have immense impacts on the level and volatility of food grain and oilseed prices.
    Wat levert een Zonneweide per ha op?
    Spruijt, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : ACRRES - Wageningen UR - 15
    zonne-energie - zonnecollectoren - energie - rentabiliteit - prestatieniveau - vergelijkingen - akkerbouw - kosten-batenanalyse - solar energy - solar collectors - energy - profitability - performance - comparisons - arable farming - cost benefit analysis
    Agrarische ondernemers vragen zich wel eens af hoeveel zonnestroom er op een zonnepark opgewekt kan worden en of het aantrekkelijk is om minder productieve percelen uit productie te nemen en er stroom op te gaan produceren. Op de Zonneweide van ACRRES - Wageningen UR in Lelystad worden stroomproductie en rentabiliteit van verschillende typen PV panelen en vrije veldopstellingen vergeleken. Op basis van de onderzoekservaringen in de afgelopen jaren wordt in dit rapport beschreven wat de opbrengst van een zonneweide per ha kan zijn, hoe het saldo zich verhoudt tot dat van akkerbouwgewassen en of aanleg van een zonnepark op landbouwgrond rendabel kan zijn.
    Plant Physiology in Greenhouses
    Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2015
    Woerden : Horti-Text - ISBN 9789082332506 - 127
    plant physiology - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - protected cultivation - physiological functions - light - temperature - energy - energy saving - nutrients - plantenfysiologie - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - teelt onder bescherming - fysiologische functies - licht - temperatuur - energie - energiebesparing - voedingsstoffen
    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The book offers articles about fundamental research on plants, translated into possibilities for the day-to-day business in commercial greenhouses. Cultivation and cultivation techniques have changed a lot over the course of the past years. Now growers use one or sometimes more computers to control the climate as well as the watering and fertilisation of the crop. In advanced greenhouse horticulture the use of sensors, electronics and computers still increases. In recent years, the number of possible measurements has grown significantly. Measuring plant temperature instead of air temperature is one of the big leaps forward.
    Energiebesparende concepten voor de toekomst
    Hemming, S. - \ 2014
    Kas techniek (2014)9. - p. 8 - 9.
    glastuinbouw - energie - energiebesparing - duurzame energie - innovaties - demonstratiebedrijven, landbouw - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kastechniek - greenhouse horticulture - energy - energy saving - sustainable energy - innovations - demonstration farms - agricultural research - greenhouse technology
    In het IDC Energie in Bleiswijk ontwikkelt en test Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw nieuwe energie besparende systemen en concepten. In dit artikel worden alle vernieuwingen op een rij gezet die te boek staan als ‘veelbelovend’ of inmiddels hun weg naar de praktijk hebben gevonden
    Proefinstallatie brengt 'blauwe energie' dichterbij
    Didde, R. ; Baptist, M.J. - \ 2014
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 6 - 6.
    energie - duurzame energie - opwekking van elektriciteit - energiebronnen - zoet water - zout water - milieutechnologie - biobased economy - nadelige gevolgen - waddenzee - energy - sustainable energy - electricity generation - energy sources - fresh water - saline water - environmental technology - biobased economy - adverse effects - wadden sea
    Een wereldprimeur voor Nederland: 26 november 2014 opende koning Willem-Alexander op de Afsluitdijk de eerste proefinstallatie voor ‘blauwe energie’. Hier wordt energie opgewekt door contact tussen zout en zoet water. Wageningse wetenschappers stonden aan de wieg van de nieuwe energievorm.
    Protocol Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw. Versie tot en met 2013
    Velden, N.J.A. van der - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-025a) - 46
    glastuinbouw - kassen - energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - energiegebruik - warmtekrachtkoppeling - kooldioxide - emissie - nuttig gebruik - protocollen - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - energy - sustainability - energy consumption - cogeneration - carbon dioxide - emission - utilization - protocols
    Het LEI voert jaarlijks de Energiemonitor Glastuinbouw uit waarin de stand van de indicatoren wordt vast gesteld. Bij deze monitor behoort een Protocol. In dit Protocol zijn de definities, de conceptuele methodiek, de gebruikte databronnen en de werkwijze vastgelegd. Dit betreft de periode 2000-2013 .
    Energiemonitor van de Nederlandse glastuinbouw 2013
    Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 014-025) - ISBN 9789086156900 - 54
    glastuinbouw - energie - broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - emissie - reductie - nederland - greenhouse horticulture - energy - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - sustainability - emission - reduction - netherlands
    In de Nederlandse glastuinbouw vindt een energietransitie plaats. Deze transitie wordt ingegeven door het effect van het energiegebruik op het klimaat, de stijgende energieprijzen, de slinkende voorraden fossiele brandstof, de afnemende voorzieningszekerheid, het imago van de glastuinbouw en de duurzaamheidswensen van afnemers en consumenten in binnen- en buitenland. Tussen de glastuinbouwsector en de overheid zijn in diverse convenanten afspraken gemaakt over de CO2-emissie, de CO2-emissieruimte, de energie-efficiëntie en het aandeel duurzame energie. In 2013 kwam via de SER het Energieakkoord voor duurzame groei tot stand. Hierin is voor de glastuinbouw een inzet voor energiebesparing opgenomen. Het transitieprogramma 'Kas als Energiebron' (KaE) is het beleids- en uitvoeringsprogramma om de energiedoelen te realiseren. Dit transitieprogramma is een publiek-private samenwerking (PPS), waarin de glastuinbouw en de Nederlandse overheid invulling geven aan de ambitie om in 2020 in nieuwe kassen klimaatneutraal en economisch rendabel te telen. In juli 2014 zijn de doelen en ambities uit eerdere convenanten bijeengebracht in de Meerjarenafspraak Energietransitie Glastuinbouw. Hierin is de reductie van de CO2-emissie meer centraal komen te staan.
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