Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A health risk for consumers: the presence of adulterated food supplements in the Netherlands
    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W.H. ; Sijm, Dick T.H.M. ; Dam, Ruud van; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2019
    Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA)
    food supplement - dietary supplement - adulterants - pharmaceutical drug - food safety - regulation - enforcement
    The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.
    A health risk for consumers: the presence of adulterated food supplements in the Netherlands
    Biesterbos, Jacqueline W.H. ; Sijm, Dick T.H.M. ; Dam, Ruud van; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2019
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 36 (2019)9. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1273 - 1288.
    adulterants - dietary supplement - enforcement - food safety - Food supplement - pharmaceutical drug - regulation

    The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.

    Dietary supplement for energy and reduced appetite containing the β-agonist isopropyloctopamine leads to heart problems and hospitalisations
    Bovee, Toine F.H. ; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Bienenmann-Ploum, Monique E. ; Heskamp, Henri H. ; Bruchem, Gerard D. van; Ginkel, Leendert A. van; Kooijman, Martin ; Lasaroms, Johan J.P. ; Dam, Ruud van; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. - \ 2016
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 33 (2016)5. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 749 - 759.
    Biosensor - enforcement - health risks - internet - supplements - web shops

    In 2013 the Dutch authorities issued a warning against a dietary supplement that was linked to 11 reported adverse reactions, including heart problems and in one case even a cardiac arrest. In the UK a 20-year-old woman, said to have overdosed on this supplement, died. Since according to the label the product was a herbal mixture, initial LC-MS/MS analysis focused on the detection of plant toxins. Yohimbe alkaloids, which are not allowed to be present in herbal preparations according to Dutch legislation, were found at relatively high levels (400–900 mg kg–1). However, their presence did not explain the adverse health effects reported. Based on these effects the supplement was screened for the presence of a β-agonist, using three different biosensor assays, i.e. the validated competitive radioligand β2-adrenergic receptor binding assay, a validated β-agonists ELISA and a newly developed multiplex microsphere (bead)-based β-agonist assay with imaging detection (MAGPIX®). The high responses obtained in these three biosensors suggested strongly the presence of a β-agonist. Inspection of the label indicated the presence of N-isopropyloctopamine. A pure standard of this compound was bought and shown to have a strong activity in the three biosensor assays. Analysis by LC-full-scan high-resolution MS confirmed the presence of this ‘unknown known’ β3-agonist N-isopropyloctopamine, reported to lead to heart problems at high doses. A confirmatory quantitative analysis revealed that one dose of the preparation resulted in an intake of 40–60 mg, which is within the therapeutic range of this compound. The case shows the strength of combining bioassays with chemical analytical techniques for identification of illegal pharmacologically active substances in food supplements.

    Punishment and compliance: Exploring scenarios to improve the legitimacy of small-scale fisheries management rules on the Brazilian coast
    Karper, M.A.M. ; Lopes, P.P.M. - \ 2014
    Marine Policy 44 (2014). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 457 - 464.
    marine protected areas - resource-management - crime - enforcement - regulations - impacts - ocean - age
    This study investigated the effects of legal and societal punishment on fishermen's compliance behaviour, according to fishermen's age and level of dependency on fisheries, through the use of interviews and scenarios. Ninety-five fishermen living in a coastal park (Ponta do Tubardo Sustainable Development Reserve) in the Brazilian northeast, where controlled exploitation of natural resources is allowed, took part in this study. The results showed that age alone would not affect compliance, regardless of the level of enforcement. However, it was noticed that the fishermen who claimed to depend on the money provided by fisheries, regardless of their age, were more likely to say that they would not comply, even if enforcement were stricter. The scenario analysis showed that increased monitoring and punishment (including societal pressure) could enhance compliance, especially among younger fishermen, who claimed not to depend solely on fisheries. Therefore, fisheries management should also consider differences in social groups, and not focus solely on the enforcement and punishment mechanisms, assuring that livelihood options that consider different social needs are provided. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Diverse local regulatory responses to a new forestry regime in forest communities in the Bolivian Amazon
    Cano Cardona, W. ; Jong, W. de; Zuidema, P.A. ; Boot, R. - \ 2014
    Land Use Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 224 - 232.
    decentralization - governance - management - enforcement - systems - india
    Over the last decade, important land and forest governance reforms have taken place in many tropical countries, including the devolution of ownership rights over land and forests, decentralization that created mechanisms for forest dwellers to participate in decision making in lowest tiers of governments. These reforms have resulted in an intensive academic debate on governance and management of forests and how actors should be involved. An important but understudied element in this debate is the ways in which communities cope with new legislation and responsibilities. Property rights bestowed by the government leave many aspects undecided and require that local forest users devise principles of access and allocation and establish authority to control those processes. We studied 16 communities in the northern Bolivian Amazon to evaluate how forest communities develop and control local rules for resource access and use. We found that the first requirement to community rule design, enforcement, and effective forest management is the opportunity to, and equity of, access to forest resources among members. Under the newly imposed forestry regulations, communities took matters in their own hands and designed more specific rules, rights and obligations of how community members could and should use economically important resources. The cases suggest that communities hold and maintain capacity to prepare their own ownership arrangements and related rules, even if they are strongly conditioned by the regulatory reforms. Very specific local histories, that may differ from community to community, influence strongly how specific ideas are being shaped, which in northern Bolivia resulted in notable local differences. The results suggest that new regulatory regimes should create appropriate conditions for communities to define adequate or at least convenient forestry institutions that assure an acceptable level of collective coexistence according to each particular communal history.
    Implementation and Participation in China's Local Environmental Politics: Challenges and Innovations
    Kostka, G. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2013
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 3 - 16.
    public-participation - governance - enforcement
    With its recently published 12th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 2011–2015) China’s leaders have set ambitious national environmental targets and goals for developing a more sustainable economy and society. Past records, however, show that ambitious goals and regulations too often fail due to shortcomings in local implementation and civil society participation. At the sub-national level, economic, political, and social interests continue to dictate the political agenda and the participation of non-state actors remains limited. This article analyses these implementation and participation gaps and reviews recent innovations and experiments to address these gaps in local environmental politics in China. Although many ongoing experiments and new institutional arrangements can be identified, these projects and initiatives remain limited in scope and geographical spread. Further advances in policy enforcement and in opening up policy design to citizens and other non-state actors at the local level are needed in order to turn the article ambitions of the 12th FYP into reality.
    Opinions on legality principles considered in the FLEGT/VPA policy in Ghana and Indonesia
    Wiersum, K.F. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2013
    Forest Policy and Economics 32 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 14 - 22.
    voluntary partnership agreement - environmental governance - forest communities - poverty - livelihoods - enforcement - kalimantan - lessons - trade
    The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade programme (FLEGT) of the European Union aims at stimulating both legal timber production and good forest governance. The EU establishes Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) with individual tropical timber exporting countries; these VPAs should be developed through a stakeholder-inclusive governance process and define national standards for timber legality. The national policy level serves as an interface between the EU policy and the local realities of forest exploitation. This article assesses whether new assemblages of timber legality standards were developed at this interface. It presents the opinions of people actively engaged in the FLEGT/VPA process in Ghana (n = 38) and Indonesia (n = 40) about which principles regarding timber legality, law enforcement and social safeguards were considered during the VPA negotiations in each country. Almost half of the respondents (44%) were positive about the integrative focus of VPA discussions focusing on both forestry and livelihood issues, 40% considered it had mostly a limited focus or traditional timber sector focus, and 16% indicated a high degree of attention to social responsibility issues. There were differences in the characteristics of respondents and their opinions between Ghana and Indonesia; these reflect differences in organisation of the FLEGT/VPA process. The findings demonstrate how depending on country-specific policy processes principles from an international forest policy are adapted at national level; this may involve new assemblages of the original policy principles
    Price Effects of Dutch Hospital Mergers: An Ex-post Assessment of Hip-Surgery
    Kemp, R.G.M. ; Kersten, N. ; Severijnen, A.M. - \ 2012
    De Economist - Quarterly Review of The Royal Netherlands Economic Association 160 (2012)3. - ISSN 0013-063X - p. 237 - 255.
    competition - enforcement - markets
    This study analyses price effects of six mergers in the Dutch healthcare industry. We investigate whether the merging hospitals raised their prices for hip surgery after the merger and, if so, how patients react to this higher price. For seven of the twelve hospitals involved, we found a statistically significant price increase for hip surgery, for three hospitals we found a significant price decrease. There is no clear relationship between price changes of hip surgery and changes in travelling behaviour of patients post merger.
    Overview of available methods for Risk Based Control within the European Union
    Asselt, E.D. van; Sterrenburg, P. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2012
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 23 (2012). - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 51 - 58.
    food safety - enforcement - quality
    This paper gives an overview of methods available for implementing Risk Based Control (RBC), consisting of two steps: Risk Categorization (RC) and Risk Based Surveillance (RBS). Various models and approaches are available for prioritizing hazard-food combinations in RC. Economic models and expert elicitation can be used to include the food safety performance of processing companies in RBS, based on historical data, food safety management systems present and the level of compliance. When Member States apply RBC, the methodology used to derive the various scores for RC and RBS need to be grounded and documented to improve transparency in the applied procedure.
    The Impact of Interfirm Relationships on Investment: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Sector
    Dries, L.K.E. ; Swinnen, J. - \ 2010
    Food Policy 35 (2010)2. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 121 - 129.
    foreign direct-investment - farm investment - eastern-europe - latin-america - trade credit - poland - transition - horticulture - supermarkets - enforcement
    Financial constraints and credit market imperfections are a major constraint on investment, growth and poverty reduction in transition and developing countries. This paper analyses the impact on investments of financial assistance programs as part of interfirm relationships. Our empirical evidence is based on a two-stage survey methodology. Qualitative evidence on dairy companies' assistance programs was gathered in the first stage through in-depth interviews at the level of the dairy companies. Quantitative data on 290 milk producing rural households in Poland was collected through a random survey in the second stage. The empirical analysis shows that dairy companies have played an important role in financial assistance, in particular for dairy-specific investments. In addition, they had an important indirect impact on farm activities and investments through feed supply and loan guarantee programs
    Institutional Change, Contracts and Quality in Transition Agriculture: Evidence from the Bulgarian Dairy Sector
    Noev, N. ; Dries, L.K.E. ; Swinnen, J. - \ 2009
    Eastern European Economics 47 (2009)4. - ISSN 0012-8775 - p. 62 - 85.
    enforcement - economies - firms
    This paper investigates major developments in the Bulgarian dairy sector over the last decade. The evidence presented is based on a unique data set of agricultural households as well as interviews with dairy processors. We show that important structural changes have occurred in the dairy supply chain. These changes have been stimulated by both private initiatives at the dairy-processing level and increased government enforcement of stringent quality and hygiene regulations. As a result, vertical coordination has increased significantly. Foreign investors have played a major role. Also, the nature of vertical relations is changing, affecting contractual arrangements, payment delays, quality of the milk supply, and dairy processors' assistance to farmers
    Farmers, Vertical Coordination, and the Restructuring of Dairy Supply Chains in Central and Eastern Europe
    Dries, L.K.E. ; Germenji, E. ; Noev, N. ; Swinnen, J. - \ 2009
    World Development 37 (2009)11. - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 1742 - 1758.
    foreign direct-investment - trade credit - food safety - private - standards - transition - produce - supermarkets - enforcement - procurement
    The combination of transition and globalization since the early 1990s has caused dramatic changes in the dairy chains in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper uses survey evidence from several Central and East European countries to document the growth of vertical coordination in the dairy chain, its relationship with policy reforms, its effects and the implications for small farms. Evidence suggests that in several countries small dairy farms have benefited from vertical coordination processes by providing them access to inputs and higher value markets.
    Urban environmental governance innovations in China
    Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2009
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1 (2009)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 96 - 100.
    state - water - democratization - enforcement - transition - capacity - program - policy - law
    China's system of environmental governance is changing rapidly, resulting in new environmental institutions and practices. State authorities rule increasingly via laws and decentralise environmental policymaking and implementation. Non-state actors ¿ both private companies and (organised) citizens ¿ are given and taking more responsibilities and tasks in environmental governance. This results in new relations between state, market and civil society in environmental governance, with more emphasis on efficiency, accountability and legitimacy. The diffusion of these governance innovations throughout China as well as their environmental effectiveness will be focal points for future research
    Renewable Resource Regulation and Uncertain Prices: The Role of Financial Structure and Bankruptcy
    Damania, R. ; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2006
    Resource and Energy Economics 28 (2006)1. - ISSN 0928-7655 - p. 41 - 53.
    irreversible investment - fisheries - enforcement - management - model
    We analyze the interaction between regulatory policies and the financial structure of a fishery and show that firms with debts may respond differently to regulations than firms that have not accumulated debts. There are conditions where more stringent regulation is counterproductive, providing a perverse incentive to increase harvesting effort. We show that optimal regulation depends on the sector's financial structure, and demonstrate that there are cases when intervention is counterproductive, or too costly to implement. There are also cases where successful regulatory intervention can only be implemented when accompanied by a sufficiently large subsidy.
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