Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Gesellschaftliche Beteiligung in Natura 2000-Gebieten : Erfahrungen in Dänemark, England und Deutschland
    Kamphorst, D.A. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 41) - 12
    natura 2000 - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - denmark - england - germany - natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - denemarken - engeland - duitsland
    Seit 2013 ist das Engagement der Gesellschaft für den
    Erhalt der Natur ein ausdrückliches Anliegen der niederländischen
    Regierung. Da Nachbarländer der Niederlande ähnliche
    Bestrebungen haben, wurden mit der vorliegenden Untersuchung
    deren Konzepte sowie die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in den
    folgenden drei Untersuchungsgebieten betrachtet: Exmoor
    National Park (England), Naturpark Aukrug (Schleswig-Holstein,
    Deutschland) und Lille Vildmose (Dänemark). Wichtige Elemente
    eines erfolgreichen Projekts, dessen Zweck die Einbeziehung
    der Gesellschaft ist, sind laut der Untersuchung die frühzeitige
    Beteiligung örtlicher Interessenvertreter (sogenannte
    Stakeholder), spannende Erzählperspektiven, gleichberechtigte
    Kooperationen, der flexible Einsatz von Fördermitteln sowie die
    Anwesenheit örtlicher Vermittler (Broker).
    Societal involvement in Natura 2000 areas : Experiences in Denmark, England and Germany
    Kamphorst, D.A. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 41) - 10
    natura 2000 - nature conservation - environmental policy - germany - denmark - england - natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - duitsland - denemarken - engeland
    Since 2013, involving society in nature conservation has become an explicit ambition of the Dutch government. As neighbouring countries of the Netherlands have similar ambitions, this research reviewed the policies in these countries and the experiences gained in three study areas: Exmoor National Park (England); Naturpark Aukrug (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) and Lille Vildmose (Denmark). The research shows that early engagement of local stakeholders, a motivating narrative, equality in cooperation, flexibility of subsidies and presence of local brokers are important elements of successful governance aimed at involving society.
    Waardekaarten van: Outer Thames Estuary, Haisborough, Hammond and Winterton & Margate and Long Sands
    Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C054/15) - 16
    vissersschepen - engeland - kustwateren - kaarten - taxatie - demersale visserij - schol - tong (vis) - tarbot - raja - fishing vessels - england - coastal water - maps - valuation - demersal fisheries - plaice - dover soles - turbot - raja
    Dit rapport is geschreven in opdracht van VisNed. IMARES is gevraagd om waardekaarten en tabellen te leveren van alle bodem beroerende Nederlandse visserijschepen binnen de gebieden 1) Haisborough, Hammond and Winterton, 2) Margate and Long Sands voor de Engelse kust en 3) Outer Thames Estuary.
    Do state traditions matter? Comparing deliberative governance initiatives for climate change adaptation in Dutch corporatism and British pluralism
    Vink, M.J. ; Benson, D. ; Boezeman, D. ; Cook, H.E. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2015
    Journal of Water and Climate Change 6 (2015)1. - ISSN 2040-2244 - p. 71 - 88.
    klimaatadaptatie - waterbeheer - regionale planning - governance - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - verenigd koninkrijk - climate adaptation - water management - regional planning - governance - international comparisons - netherlands - uk - policy - frames - management - england - context
    In the emerging field of climate adaptation, deliberative governance initiatives are proposed to yield better adaptation strategies. However, introducing these network-centred deliberations between public and private players may contrast with traditions of interest intermediation between state and society. This paper shows how state traditions affect newly set up deliberative governance initiatives. Because of the similarities in geographical characteristics and the differences in state tradition we choose qualitative case studies in Dutch and British water management. Our comparison is two-fold. First, we compare deliberative governance initiatives in the different state traditions of the Netherlands and UK. Second, we compare the newly set up deliberative governance initiative to an existing policy regime mainstreaming climate adaptation in a similar state tradition, in our case the Netherlands. We find that: (1) Deliberative governance initiatives in the (neo-)corporatist state tradition of the Netherlands yields learning but shows apathy among politically elected decision-makers compared to deliberative governance initiatives in the pluralist state tradition of the UK where clearly defined rules and responsibilities yields negotiation and action; (2) A typical corporatist policy regime mainstreaming climate adaption in a (neo-)corporatist state tradition yields effective and legitimate policy formation but lacks learning.
    Collective agri-environment schemes: How can regionalenvironmental cooperatives enhance farmers’ intentions foragri-environment schemes?
    Dijk, W.F.A. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Berendse, F. ; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2015
    Land Use Policy 42 (2015). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 759 - 766.
    perceived behavioral-control - planned behavior - agricultural landscapes - social identity - self-efficacy - group norms - biodiversity - conservation - management - england
    The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecologically and socially sustainable. In the Netherlands, some AES are performed collectively by large regional groups of farmers called Environmental Cooperatives (EC). We hypothesise that these cooperatives enhance farmers’ intention to participate by facilitating the application of AES, but also by generating group pressure. In the study at hand, we used an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to investigate which factors are associated with farmers’ intention to participate in two kinds of collective AES (ditch bank management and the protection of meadow birds). Our results demonstrate that attitude and perceived personal ability to participate in these AES are associated with the intention of farmers to participate in ditch bank management. However, for the protection of meadow birds, social pressure, self-identity and facilitation by the EC also relate to the intention of farmers. We conclude that the facilitation undertaken by ECs positively relates to farmers’ intention to participate in collective AES.
    Understanding farmers’ intention to adopt improved natural grassland using the theory of planned behavior
    Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Ribeiro, C.M. ; Lutke, V. - \ 2014
    Livestock Science 169 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 163 - 174.
    dairy farmers - conservation - management - attitudes - decisions - england
    Studiesontheadoptionofinnovationsusuallyignoreunderlyingpsychologicalconstructs that affectfarmers’ decisionsandbehavior,suchasintention,perceptions,andbeliefs.This paperusespsychologicalconstructsfromthetheoryofplannedbehavior(TPB)toanalyze factors thataffecttheadoptionofimprovednaturalgrassland.TheTPBhypothesizesthat adoption isdrivenbyintention,whichinturnisdeterminedbythreepsychological constructs:attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrol.Thesethree psychologicalconstructsarederivedfrombehavioral,normativeandcontrolbeliefs, respectively.Thefirstobjectivewastoidentifytheinfluenceofattitude,subjectivenorm, and perceivedbehavioralcontrolontheintentionoffarmerstouseimprovednatural grassland. Thesecondobjectivewastounderstandtheroleoffarmers’ beliefsasdriversof their attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrol.Thetheoreticalframe- work andmodelwereappliedtoasampleof214Braziliancattlefarmers.Resultsshowed that attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrolwereallpositivelyand significantlycorrelatedwithintention.Theintentionoffarmerstouseimprovednatural grassland wasthereforeinfluencedbyfarmers’ evaluationoftheuseofimprovednatural grassland (attitude),theirperceptionsaboutthesocialpressuretousethisinnovation (subjectivenorm),andtheirperceptionsabouttheirowncapability(perceivedbehavioral control). Sixbehavioralbeliefswerethedriversofattitude:increasecattleweightgains, increase numberofanimalsperhectare,havepasturethroughouttheyear,increase pastureresistance,preventsoilerosion,anddecreasefeedingcosts.Sevennormative beliefswerethedriversofsubjectivenorm:family,friends,neighborfarmers,cattle traders, workersintheplacewheretheybuytheirinputs,extensionagents,and government.Threecontrolbeliefswerethedriversofperceivedbehavioralcontrol: sufficientknowledge,sufficientskills,andavailabilityofqualifiedtechnicalassistance.The driversofattitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrolcanbeusedby policymakerstoincreasetheadoptionrateofimprovednaturalgrassland.Emphasis should begiventothesixperceivedbenefitsofadoptingimprovednaturalgrassland,the driversofattitude.Theindividualsandgroupswhowerefoundtoinfluencefarmers' decisionstouseit,thedriversofsubjectivenorm,canbeusedaschannelstodisseminate informationabouttheinnovation.Thedriversofperceivedbehavioralcontrolarefactors
    Van denken naar doen: ecosysteemdiensten in de praktijk
    Verburg, R.W. ; Selnes, T. ; Bogaardt, M.J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 4) - 89
    biodiversiteit - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurbeleid - vergelijkend onderzoek - nederland - vlaanderen - engeland - biodiversity - ecosystem services - nature conservation policy - comparative research - netherlands - flanders - england
    In dit rapport is de beleidsuitvoering van de ecosysteemdienstenbenadering onderzocht in vier gebieden in het Verenigd Koninkrijk, in één gebied in Vlaanderen. Verder is de toepassing van de benadering door Natuurmonumenten en de Dienst Landelijk Gebied in verschillende Nederlandse cases en gebieden onderzocht. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat het TEEB-raamwerk op een andere wijze wordt uitgevoerd dan wordt aanbevolen. Belanghebbenden in alle onderzochte gebieden vinden de technische taal te complex en passen alternatieven toe. De verwachting dat de waardering van diensten kan leiden naar een markt van vraag en aanbod wordt niet waargemaakt. In alle gevallen wordt gewerkt met overheidssubsidies en die gevallen waar wel een particuliere vraag is, volgen directe betalingen. Er is weinig kennis over de effecten van ecosysteemdiensten op de biodiversiteit. Het is niet helder of ecosysteemdiensten bijdragen aan de bescherming van biodiversiteit.
    Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health
    Bruijnis, M.R.N. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Garforth, C.J. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2013
    Livestock Science 155 (2013)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 103 - 113.
    animal-welfare - lameness control - control program - england - cattle - implementation - prevalence - management - disorders - behavior
    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In our study the objective was to gain insight into the attitude and intention of dairy farmers to take action to improve dairy cow foot health and determine drivers and barriers to take action, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Five hundred Dutch dairy farmers were selected randomly and were invited by email to fill in an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions about respondents' intentions, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control and was extended with questions about personal normative beliefs. With information from such a framework, solution strategies for the improvement of dairy cow foot health can be proposed. The results showed that almost 70% of the dairy farmers had an intention to take action to improve dairy cow foot health. Most important drivers seem to be the achievement of better foot health with cost-effective measures. Possible barriers to taking action were labor efficiency and a long interval between taking action and seeing an improvement in dairy cow foot health. The feed advisor and foot trimmer seemed to have most influence on intentions to take action to improve dairy cow foot health. Most farmers seemed to be satisfied with the foot health status at their farm, which probably weakens the intention for foot health improvement, especially compared to other issues which farmers experience as more urgent. Subclinical foot disorders (where cows are not visibly lame) were not valued as important with respect to animal welfare. Furthermore, 25% of the respondents did not believe cows could suffer pain. Animal welfare, especially the provision of good care for the cows, was valued as important but was not related to intention to improve dairy cow foot health. The cost-effectiveness of measures seemed to be more important. Providing more information on the effects of taking intervention measures might stimulate farmers to take action to achieve improvement in dairy cow foot health.
    Improving bovine udder health: A national mastitis control program in the Netherlands
    Lam, T.J.G.M. ; Borne, B.H.P. van den; Jansen, J. ; Huijps, K. ; Veersen, J.C.L. ; Schaick, G. van; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1301 - 1311.
    management-practices - dairy herds - milk quality - attitudes - communication - performance - farmers - associations - knowledge - england
    Because of increasing bulk milk somatic cell counts and continuous clinical mastitis problems in a substantial number of herds, a national mastitis control program was started in 2005 to improve udder health in the Netherlands. The program started with founding the Dutch Udder Health Centre (UGCN), which had the task to coordinate the program. The program consisted of 2 parts: a research part and a knowledge-transfer part, which were integrated as much as possible. The knowledge-transfer part comprised 2 communication strategies: a central and a peripheral approach. The central approach was based on educating farmers using comprehensive science-based and rational argumentation about mastitis prevention and included on-farm study group meetings. Comprehensive education materials were developed for farmers that were internally motivated to improve udder health. In the peripheral approach it was tried to motivate farmers to implement certain management measures using nontechnical arguments. Mass media campaigns were used that focused on one single aspect of mastitis prevention. These communication strategies, as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines were used to reach as many farmers as possible. It should be noted that, because this intervention took place at a national level, no control group was available, as it would be impossible to isolate farmers from all forms of communication for 5 years. Based on several studies executed during and after the program, however, the results suggest that udder health seemed to have improved on a national level during the course of the program from 2005 to 2010. Within a cohort of dairy herds monitored during the program, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis did not change significantly (23.0 in 2004 vs. 22.2 in 2009). The incidence rate of clinical mastitis, however, decreased significantly, from 33.5 to 28.1 quarter cases per 100 cow years at risk. The most important elements of the farmers' mindset toward mastitis control also changed favorably. The simulated costs of mastitis per farm were reduced compared with a situation in which the mastitis would not have changed, with € 400 per year. When this amount is extrapolated to all Dutch farms, the sector as a whole reduced the total costs of mastitis by € 8 million per year. It is difficult to assign the improved udder health completely to the efforts of the program due to the lack of a control group. Nevertheless, investing € 8 million by the Dutch dairy industry in a 5-yr national mastitis control program likely improved udder health and seemed to pay for itself financially.
    Crossing borders : review of concepts and approaches in research on greenspace, immigration and society in northwest European countries
    Kloek, M.E. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Boersema, J.J. ; Schouten, M.G.C. - \ 2013
    Landscape Research 38 (2013)1. - ISSN 0142-6397 - p. 117 - 140.
    outdoor recreation - urban parks - english countryside - mexican-americans - rural landscapes - england - race - acculturation - perspectives - perceptions
    Relations between greenspace, immigration and society are emerging issues in policy and science. However, up to now research has been fragmented and no overview of approaches exists. This review describes concepts and approaches in Northwest European research on immigrants’ recreational use and perceptions of nature, rural landscapes and urban parks and on societal aspects of migration and greenspace. We show that national research traditions vary considerably, reflecting national ‘contexts of reception’ and conceptualisations of immigrants. Links between outdoor recreation and perceptions of greenspace have not been properly researched and explanatory factors are only superficially touched upon. Borders seem difficult to cross: learning processes and cooperation of scholars across approaches and countries are scarce. Furthermore, current research often lacks an explicit theoretical framework. We argue that the concept of identity-in-context can form a good starting point to build an internationally relevant theoretical framework on the greenspace–immigration–society interface
    Beyond fragmentation and disconnect: Networks for knowledge exchange in the English land management advisory system
    Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Proctor, A. - \ 2013
    Land Use Policy 30 (2013)1. - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 13 - 24.
    agricultural extension - innovation systems - consulting firms - services - information - england - farmers - transformation - consultancies - capabilities
    The growing multifunctionality in agriculture, combined with privatisation of previously public agricultural extension services, has resulted in a pluralistic land management advisory system. Despite benefits in terms of increased client orientation and greater advisor diversity, it is argued that these changes have resulted in the fragmentation of the land management advisory system and a reduction of interaction within the advisory system and between the advisory system and science. Hence, concerns have been voiced as regards the capacity of the advisory system to be able to incorporate new knowledge, resulting in a growing interest in how advisors obtain and construct the knowledge necessary for offering adequate advisory services to their clients. In this article we explore how advisors within the English land management advisory system (land agents, applied ecologists and veterinarians) develop and optimise their knowledge by engaging in different kinds of networks (centralised, distributed and decentralised), each of which employs a different type of social capital. Key findings suggest that to obtain the knowledge needed to solve complex queries of clients, advisors use distributed networks and draw upon informal ‘communities of practice’ within their own advisory profession characterised by bonding social capital, but also draw upon broader ‘networks of practice’ involving multiple advisors from different advisory professions, which rely on bridging social capital. The employment of decentralised networks which rely on linking social capital, to solve complex queries or develop new services, for example through contacts with scientific institutes, appears to be less developed, despite brokering activities of the professional associations. Whereas fragmentation and disconnect due to competition and epistemological differences do play a role; they do not appear to prevent overall knowledge exchange among advisors within and across different professions. Assumptions of a collapse of interaction within the land management advisory system are not supported by the evidence, as there appears to be much bonding and bridging social capital. However, to optimise interactions between professions, and between advisors and the science system, either informal brokers or formal brokers in the form of professional associations or other organisations could play a bigger role.
    Developments in soil phosphorus status in a recently reclaimed polder in the Netherlands
    Reijneveld, J.A. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2012
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 94 (2012)1. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 33 - 45.
    agricultural land - fertilizer recommendations - trends - wales - management - england - europe - crops - forms
    Compliance with current phosphorus (P) fertilization recommendations would ultimately result in a soil P status of agricultural land in the agronomical optimal range. In practice though there are large variations in soil P status among farms and fields. Our study aimed at increasing the understanding of the cause-effect relationships for these spatial variations in soil P test values. The Northeast Polder in The Netherlands was chosen as study area, because of its characteristics. It was reclaimed from the sea in 1942, has one major soil type (calcareous loam), well-educated farmers, one dominant land use (arable farming) and little pressure to use animal manure. We tested the hypothesis that in this polder mean P status has developed towards the optimal range with a small standard deviation. We analysed available soil P analyses records (>30,000) from the period ~1950–2004, and conducted a questionnaire about fertilization practices among farmers. The soil P(w) values increased steadily and significantly from the agronomical range ‘low’ to ‘ample sufficient’ from 1971 to 2004. Variation within and between farms also increased. About 45 % of the farmers appear to aim at a soil P status above the agronomical optimal range, and >70 % of the farmers indicated that they are uncertain whether the obtained increase in soil P(w) status is actually plant available P. In conclusion, our hypothesis was rejected: for farmers in our study area, risk avoidance seems the decisive factor for pursuing a soil P status above the agronomical optimal range. If even well-educated farmers question the official fertilizer recommendations and aim at higher levels of soil P fertility, also other farmers worldwide may continue to aim such supra-optimal soil P status. This is undesirable given the diminishing P resources. Possible solutions could be to define more refined P fertilization recommendations and better and more intensified communication of those recommendations to farmers and their advisers.
    Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer
    Bruijnis, M.R.N. ; Beerda, B. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2012
    Animal Welfare 21 (2012)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 33 - 40.
    holstein cows - claw disorders - lameness control - milk-yield - prevalence - associations - mastitis - heifers - england - health
    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem with serious economic consequences. On average, foot disorders cost €53 per cow per year, of which indirect cost factors are the main cause. Subclinical foot disorders, which are the foot disorders not recognised by dairy farmers, account for 50% of the total welfare impact and 32% of the total costs. The consequences of foot disorders can be difficult to observe and more insight into these consequences is helpful in stimulating actions to improve dairy cow foot health. Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious foot disorder, is the most serious foot disorder from both an economic and welfare perspective. The correlation between economics and animal welfare impact suggests that reducing the problem of foot disorders from an economic perspective will positively influence the welfare of dairy cows. Insight into economic and welfare consequences of the different foot disorders, including the association between them, can help make dairy farmers more aware and help with decision-making regarding measures to improve dairy cow foot health. Keywords: animal welfare, dairy cattle, economics, foot disorders, modelling, welfare impact
    Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs of Different Ages in Portugal
    Berto, A. ; Mesquita, J.R. ; Hakze-van der Honing, R.W. van der; Nascimento, R.S. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
    Zoonoses and Public Health 59 (2012)7. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 477 - 481.
    united-kingdom - swine - infection - england - transmission - prevalence - antibodies - countries - wales - herds
    This study represents the primary hepatitis E virus (HEV) surveillance in domestic pigs in Portugal, five pig farms were investigated in 5 different Portuguese regions, ten faecal samples were collected at four different stages of the production. All faecal samples were tested for hepatitis E virus by real-time RT-PCR. At least one sample from each farms of all age groups tested positive for HEV. The prevalence in the pig herds varied from 10% to 30% and the mean prevalence was 32% in weaners, 20% in growers, 32% in fatteners and 4% in adult dry sows. Phylogenetic analysis of the detected HEV sequences indicated that the circulating virus strains belong under the genotype 3.
    Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics
    Asten, L. van; Siebenga, J. ; Wijngaard, C. van den; Verheij, R. ; Vliet, H. van; Kretzschmar, M. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Pelt, W. van; Koopmans, M. - \ 2011
    Epidemiology 22 (2011)3. - ISSN 1044-3983 - p. 336 - 343.
    hospital admissions - united-states - rotavirus infection - nursing-homes - outbreaks - netherlands - disease - england - europe - virus
    Background: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on morbidity and mortality is not clear because norovirus infection is rarely specifically registered. Methods: We studied trends of gastroenteritis with unspecified cause in medical registrations (ie, general practitioner [GP] visits, hospitalizations, and deaths) and their association with known temporal trends in norovirus outbreaks in the Netherlands. Using weekly counts in the elderly (aged 65+ years) from 1999 through 2006, we applied Poisson regression analyses adjusted for additional pathogens and seasonal trends (linear, sine, and cosine terms). Results: In the elderly, each notified norovirus outbreak was associated with an estimated 26 unspecified gastroenteritis GP visits (95% confidence interval = 17-34), 2.2 unspecified gastroenteritis hospitalizations (1.6-2.7), and 0.14 unspecified gastroenteritis deaths (0.08-0.21). For the heaviest norovirus season (2004-2005), these models attributed up to 3804 unspecified gastroenteritis GP visits, 318 unspecified gastroenteritis hospitalizations, and 21 unspecified gastroenteritis deaths to norovirus outbreaks among a total elderly population of 2.3 million. Discussion: The recent increase in norovirus outbreak activity is associated with increases of unspecified gastroenteritis morbidity and even deaths in the elderly. Norovirus should not be regarded as an infection with trivial health risks.
    Reviewing empirical explanations of policy change: Options for its analysis and future fields of research
    Giessen, L. - \ 2011
    Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 182 (2011)11-12. - ISSN 0002-5852 - p. 248 - 259.
    ideas - reform - politics - belgium - england - media - institutions - management - advocacy - opinion
    Scherp maar schadevrij
    Emous, R.A. van - \ 2011
    De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)16. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 35.
    pluimveehouderij - snavelkappen - dierenwelzijn - vleeskuikenouderdieren - verenpikken - polen - engeland - poultry farming - debeaking - animal welfare - broiler breeders - feather pecking - poland - england
    In Polen en Engeland blijven ouderdieren onbehandeld aan de snavel. Een Nederlandse delegatie is gaan kijken hoe dat uitpakt.
    Potential role of hares in the spread of liver fluke in the Netherlands
    Walker, S.M. ; Johnston, C. ; Hoey, E.M. ; Fairweather, I. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H. ; Prodohl, P.A. ; Trudgett, A. - \ 2011
    Veterinary Parasitology 177 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 179 - 181.
    fasciola-hepatica - climate-change - dairy herds - triclabendazole - england - france - wales - sheep
    Hares (Lepus europeanus) sharing pasture with cattle from six locations in the Netherlands were examined for the presence of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and shown to have prevalences of infection ranging from 0 to 41%. The mitochondrial haplotypes of liver flukes present in the hare populations were determined and compared with those found in cattle from a farm where triclabendazole resistance has been reported. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the flukes present in the hares belonged to the same clades as those present in the cattle. A consideration of the life cycle of the liver fluke and the seasonal breeding pattern and ecology of hares supports the suggestion that hares may act as a refugia for liver fluke and as a vector for the spread of drug-resistant genotypes.
    Regelmaat belangrijk door extra ogen. (Garford Robocrob)
    Bleeker, P.O. - \ 2011
    Landbouwmechanisatie (2011). - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 4 - 8.
    schoffelmachines - gebruikswaarde - engeland - steerage hoes - use value - england
    De droge omstandigheden maken schoffelen weer interessant. Herbiciden werken moeizaam, maar het onkruid groeit wel door. Suikerbieten, uien, cichorei en maïs zijn populaire gewassen om te schoffelen. Garford maakt schoffelmachines en rust ze uit met extra ogen.
    Sand in the salt marsh: Contribution of high-energy conditions to salt-marsh accretion
    Groot, A.V. de; Veeneklaas, R.M. ; Bakker, J.P. - \ 2011
    Marine Geology 282 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0025-3227 - p. 240 - 254.
    sea-level rise - southern north-sea - danish wadden sea - tidal marsh - storm deposits - vegetation - succession - england - morphodynamics - sedimentation
    The environmental dynamics at barrier-island salt marshes are reflected in lateral and vertical textural patterns of the marsh sediment. During normal conditions, fine-grained sediment is deposited, whereas during high-energy conditions also sand accretion can occur. This paper describes the occurrence and importance of sand deposits for the building of salt marshes. The study was carried out in the Wadden Sea on the islands of Schiermonnikoog (NL), Terschelling (NL) and the peninsula of Skallingen (DK). Firstly, we recorded the presence of sand in the sediment representing initial salt-marsh formation. The results indicate that part of the salt marsh developed under conditions that were dynamically enough for sand to be transported. The spatial distribution of these conditions depends on soil elevation and location on the marsh, modified by the presence of artificial sand dikes. Further we recorded the presence and thickness of sand layers within the salt-marsh sediment. Sand layers are found on twenty percent of the marsh area and are partly associated with the local sources of the sand, i.e. marsh creeks, the salt-marsh edge and washovers. In total, sand layers contribute less than ten percent to the volume of marsh deposits on Schiermonnikoog. We dated the layers using the thickness of the deposits and known marsh age. The ages of the layers indicate that for the decadal occurrence of storms capable of depositing sand in the salt marsh, the local hydrodynamics and availability of sand determine whether a site receives sand or not. © 2011
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