Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Op zoek naar oplossingen: Verminderen voedselverspilling
Verkleij, T.J. ; Stroosnijder, Sanne ; Leede, H. - \ 2019
Voedingsindustrie : vakblad (2019)februari. - ISSN 2213-5758 - p. 38 - 39.
entrepreneurship - businesses - food wastage
Voedselverspilling. Overal starten initiatieven om het te voorkomen, maar de praktijk is weerbarstig.Stichting ‘Samen Tegen Voedselverspilling’ heeft als doel om voedselverspilling in Nederland tehalveren en wil het bedrijfsleven ondersteunen om positieve businesscases inzichtelijk te maken ente implementeren.
Unruly entrepreneurs–investigating value creation by microfinance clients in rural Burundi
Cieslik, Katarzyna ; Hudon, Marek ; Verwimp, Philip - \ 2019
Oxford Development Studies 47 (2019)4. - ISSN 1360-0818 - p. 373 - 390.
Burundi - entrepreneurship - Microfinance - rule-breaking - subsistence communities

This study explores the entrepreneurial potential of the rule-breaking practices of microfinance programs’ beneficiaries. Using the storyboard methodology, we examine the strategies employed by the poor in Burundi to bypass institutional rules. Based on 66 short interviews conducted in seven rural provinces of Burundi, our exploratory study analyzes the entrepreneurial potential in four instances of rule-evasion: consumption spending, illegitimate investment, loan juggling and loan arrogation. We argue that some of the unruly practices are in fact entrepreneurial, as they create tangible and intangible value for the rural poor at both household and community levels. These include strengthening social ties through gift exchange and ceremonies, which then help poor households to self-insure against shocks through social networks. By analyzing the push and pull factors for unruly behavior, we show that rule-breaking practices are often necessitated by the microfinance industry itself and call for increased flexibility and adaptability of microfinance products.

Fashioning ethical subjectivity : The embodied ethics of entrepreneurial self-formation
Poldner, Kim ; Branzei, Oana ; Steyaert, Chris - \ 2019
Organization 26 (2019)2. - ISSN 1350-5084 - p. 151 - 174.
Embodiment - entrepreneurship - ethics - process model - sustainable fashion

Organizational ethics has attracted increasing attention, but how individuals make sense of themselves as ethical subjects is a yet to be explored domain. The few empirical articles on ethical subjectivity have focused on how people within organizations seek to find a balance between a sense of ethical selfhood and dominant organizational discourse. We are interested in the role of the body and embodied experiences in constructing the entrepreneurial self and how this process unfolds over time. Viewing entrepreneuring as an ethical practice, we rely on a larger study of 58 entrepreneurs and a smaller multi-modal ethnography of three entrepreneurs in the ethical fashion industry. Drawing on the Deleuzian four folds of subjectivity that we employ as an analytical device, the data analysis reveals how our protagonists use the body as sensor, source, and processor in constructing themselves as ethical subjects. Our study complements rational perspectives on ethical decision making in entrepreneurship and establishes the body as a primary mechanism for one’s formation as an ethical subject. Through connecting the body with ethics, we aim to disclose the continuous subtle interaction between morality and materiality in the process of entrepreneuring. Our abductive framework discloses how one’s body prompts and informs the development of moral actions and material artifacts.

Groensector staat voor diverse grote uitdagingen
Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2018
entrepreneurship - climate - greening - plantations - innovations
Understanding entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid in developing countries : insights from small-scale vegetable farmers in Benin
Yessoufou, Ahoudou Waliou - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): V. Blok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438216 - 196
entrepreneurship - farmers - vegetables - small businesses - farm management - management science - benin - west africa - ondernemerschap - boeren - groenten - kleine bedrijven - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfswetenschap - benin - west-afrika

Local small-scale entrepreneurship has recently become an important field of study and a tool for policymakers. However, there are some practical and theoretical issues regarding the promotion of local entrepreneurship. First, the dynamics of entrepreneurship are considered to be universal, whereas the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) context from Developing and Emerging (D&E) countries is different in terms of resource availability and institutional environment supporting production and transaction activities. Next, the prevailing conceptualization focuses on an individualistic and goal-oriented process which is determined by competencies related to alertness, recognition, and resource mobilization for the exploitation of opportunities, followed by business growth, whereas a multi-layered conceptualisation which transcends individual agent and structural-level analyses of entrepreneurship is required. This thesis brought the model of the entrepreneurial action of small businesses to light and revealed that three subprocesses are driving the development of entrepreneurship in BoP. It inductively examined the behavioural patterns of agropreneurs. The thesis also provided new insights to the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) of small firms operating within the BoP, by showing that three traditional dimensions – innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk taking - are necessary but not sufficient to capture the manifestation of EO. Two new context-specific dimensions - resource-acquisition capability and collaborative orientation - emerged as part of the entrepreneurial orientation strategy. The thesis developped clear measurement of the EO, and a proper measurement model of the construct. Finally, the thesis demonstrated an inverted U-shaped relationship between EO and business performance. The findings suggested that increasing levels of EO appear beneficial up to a point, after which positive returns cease, and business performance begins to decline. Furthermore, increasing EO in tandem with networking promotes the success of BoP entrepreneurial process. These results have important theroretical and practical implications for the growth of small businesses in Benin and other developing countries with similar contextual characteristics.

Key factors for loan repayment of micro entrepreneurs in Ghana
Agbeko, Daniel - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta, co-promotor(en): V. Blok; G. van der Velde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437943 - 97
corporate social responsibility - bank loans - loans - debt - repayment - entrepreneurship - small businesses - ghana - west africa - developing countries - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - bankleningen - leningen - schuld - aflossing - ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - ghana - west-afrika - ontwikkelingslanden

This thesis examines the extent to what corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies, entrepreneurial and business skills and programmes for training and monitoring improve microbusiness performance and loan repayment rates:

‘To what extent do corporate social responsibility strategies, entrepreneurial and business skills and programmes for training and monitoring improve loan repayment rates of microfinance debtors in developing countries?’

MFIs that adopt CSR strategies provide for both financial and social empowerment services. Social empowerment services may include primary health care services, occupational skills training for microfinance debtors and debtor monitoring programmes. The 2008 credit crunch led many MFIs to abandon their CSR strategies. We analyse the case of uniCredit Ghana MFI and argue that CSR strategies contribute to public support for the MFI. This helps raise deposits and improves funding opportunities. Social empowerment investment improve microbusiness performance and loan repayment rates. We expect those MFIs that adopt CSR strategies to improve their sustainability, more than do MFIs that specialize in providing financial services only.

We establish that those microfinance debtors who consider themselves endowed with entrepreneurial and business skills do not repay loans better than those microfinance debtors lacking these skills. Highly educated entrepreneurs do not repay their loans any better relative to those with primary or secondary education only. We establish that business experience is the only constituent of human capital that matters for business performance and loan repayment rates. Experienced microfinance debtors systematically repay their loans better than do those entrepreneurs lacking business experience.

We observe that microfinance debtors do not agree on what skills they think are important for loan repayment probabilities. This result implies that every single microfinance debtor needs to acquire specific skills. Training programmes cannot be standardized and should be tailored towards the needs of the individual microfinance debtor. We establish that MFI loan officers neither agree on the ranking of specific skills they think are important for microfinance debtors to repay their loans promptly. This result suggests that MFI loan officers should be trained to better understand the relevance of specific entrepreneurial and business skills for microfinance entrepreneurs.

We empirically establish that training programmes fail to improve loan repayment rates. Programmes for intensive microfinance debtor monitoring significantly improve loan repayment rates. Intensive monitoring is equally effective for highly and poorly educated, experienced and unexperienced, female and male microfinance debtors: MFIs may significantly improve repayment rates should they consistently monitor their microfinance debtors intensively.

Revisited: van burger naar boer : Wordt vervolgd: Bedrijfscontinuïteit in de biologische landbouw
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 28 - 29.
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - agrarische bedrijfsplanning - biologische landbouw - financieren - farm management - entrepreneurship - farm planning - organic farming - financing
Je familie heeft geen agrarisch bedrijf en je wilt toch boer worden. Ekoland schreef al eerder over deze nieuwe intreders (Ekoland 6-2011). Twaalf ondernemers die nog steeds een agrarisch bedrijf hebben, zijn door student Marisa de Later opnieuw geïnterviewd. Hoe gaat het met deze intreders? Hoe heeft hun bedrijf zich ontwikkeld, welk netwerk hebben ze gevormd? Met wie werken ze samen? En hoe zijn ze gefinancierd?
Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries
Babah Daouda, Falylath - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.T.M. Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436298 - 225
marketing - developing countries - entrepreneurship - small businesses - medium sized businesses - economic development - economic situation - gender relations - gender - marketing - ontwikkelingslanden - ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - economische ontwikkeling - economische situatie - man-vrouwrelaties - geslacht (gender)

In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging countries, micro-entrepreneurs, can potentially lift themselves out of poverty by seizing the opportunities provided by the new upcoming middle-class (UMC) customers. To exploit these opportunities micro-entrepreneurs have to make a step-change away from their current customers in subsistence marketplaces to create higher value propositions for UMC customers. As a strategic marketing decision, the step-change inherently comes with challenges in developing resources and capabilities required to cater to UMC customers. It hosts potential conflicts between informal- and formal-sector stakeholders as it requires both new resources and continued access to existing resources. The findings suggest that step-change is a three-step process consisting of three market entries, into, “passing-by customers”, UMC, and business markets. The value propositions associated with these markets are also hierarchical in terms of quality, quantity, consistency, and complexity. Although the processes within the steps (motivations, opportunity recognition, assessing the need of resources, resource accumulation and (re-)integration, value proposition, and market entry) have a similar structure, their content differs between steps. The findings also indicate that gender issues vary by step. Whereas, in step 1 and 3 gender differences are less remarkable, they are more pronounced in step 2, where women mainly use their relationships with individuals to access resources whereas men use both individuals and groups to access resources. The thesis suggests that to initiate and sustain step-changes, both female and male entrepreneurs have to invest in capability-building.

10 voorwaarden voor een kansrijke start als sociaal ondernemer in de (stads)landbouw
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)9. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 12 - 13.
ondernemerschap - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - stadslandbouw - entrepreneurship - farm management - urban agriculture
De financiële doelstelling van sociale ondernemingen staat ten dienste van het primaire maatschappelijke doel. In de (stads)landbouw zie je steeds meer sociale ondernemingen. Interesse om ook zo’n onderneming te starten? Wageningen University & Research formuleerde tien voorwaarden voor een kansrijke start.
Verbindend ondernemen : Betekenisvolle biologische sector, vandaag en (over)morgen
Dagevos, Hans ; Wijnands, Frank ; Meeusen, Marieke - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 29
biologische landbouw - ondernemerschap - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - organic farming - entrepreneurship - corporate social responsibility
In dit ‘inspiratieboekje’ Verbindend ondernemen ligt de nadruk op conceptueel-theoretische noties en redeneerlijnen die de bedoeling hebben de sociale dimensie van duurzaamheid – de P van people – perspectief en inhoud te geven.
Van informeren naar doorvertellen : Praktische tips voor het vinden en binden van gasten
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)7-8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 32 - 33.
vakanties op de boerderij - recreatie op het platteland - multifunctionele landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - farm holidays - rural recreation - multifunctional agriculture - farm management - entrepreneurship
Steeds meer mensen hebben belangstelling voor een vakantie op het platteland. Daar liggen kansen voor agrarische ondernemers. Maar hoe vind je mensen die op jouw bedrijf willen verblijven en misschien nog wel belangrijker: hoe zorg je ervoor dat ze terugkomen? Wageningen University & Research heeft hier onderzoek naar gedaan en komt met een aantal praktische handvatten.
Sociaal ondernemerschap in de zorglandbouw : voorwaarden voor een kansrijke start
Elings, Marjolein ; Vijn, Marcel ; Kruit, Jeroen - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 335) - ISBN 9789463431446 - 54
multifunctionele landbouw - zorgboerderijen - stadslandbouw - ondernemerschap - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - biologische landbouw - multifunctional agriculture - social care farms - urban agriculture - entrepreneurship - farm management - organic farming
Het rapport ‘sociaal ondernemerschap in de zorglandbouw’ is voort gekomen uit de vraag van twee sociale ondernemingen: Stichting BREM en Stichting 4PK. Beide initiatiefnemers hebben de ambitie mensen met een grote afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt te helpen re-integreren. Zij doen dat door de inzet van mensen bij het verbouwen van gewassen in stadslandbouwprojecten. De afgelopen jaren is het aantal sociale ondernemingen in de (stads)landbouw toegenomen. Sociale ondernemingen zijn zelfstandige ondernemingen die een product of dienst leveren en daarmee primair of expliciet een maatschappelijk doel nastreven (SER, 2015). De financiële doelstelling van deze ondernemingen staat ten dienste van het primaire maatschappelijke doel.
Energie uit planten : milieutechnologen richtten bedrijf op
Strik, David - \ 2017
bioenergy - electricity generation - knowledge exploitation - applied research - entrepreneurship

Het Wageningse bedrijf Plant-e haalt elektriciteit uit levende planten. Milieutechnologen David Strik en Marjolein Helder richtten het bedrijf in 2009 op. Inmiddels leidt Helder de groeiende onderneming; Strik is universitair docent en houdt zich bezig met optimaal gebruik van afvalstromen.

Opportunity identification competence : explaining individual and exploring team opportunity identification by employees
Baggen, Yvette - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; Thomas Lans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579682 - 182
entrepreneurship - professional competence - competences - education - businesses - small businesses - medium sized businesses - employment opportunities - netherlands - portugal - europe - ondernemerschap - vakbekwaamheid - bevoegdheden - onderwijs - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - kansen op werk - nederland - portugal - europa

Opportunities and their identification are of significant importance for competitiveness in today’s complex and turbulent business environment because they serve as a key influencing factor for new value-creation. Opportunity identification (OI) is interesting not only from the perspective of new business start-ups, but also from the perspective of employees in existing organisations. Each entrepreneurial process starts with an imagined, rudimentary idea in the mind of an individual. The further exploration and development of such opportunities by employees can lead to the realisation of all kinds of corporate entrepreneurship outcomes, such as innovation, strategic renewal, and internal or external venturing.

This dissertation reports on the capability of employees to identify opportunities, referred to as opportunity identification competence (OIC). The importance of OI by employees is widely recognised in practice, and scholars have contributed significantly to understanding what opportunities are, how opportunities come into being, and how OIC can be measured. Nevertheless, substantial research challenges still need to be addressed. More specifically, based on both entrepreneurship literature and literature on organisational learning and entrepreneurship education, three overarching research issues have been identified:

The OI process has not been fully mapped out, including the role of individuals and teams.

Defining and explaining OIC is problematic because scholars tend not to agree whether opportunities are discovered in the economic environment or created by individuals.

Existing measurements of OIC have been criticised, because most of them include self-perceptions or the recall of earlier identified opportunities.

The main goal of this thesis was to contribute to the literature by addressing these three overarching research issues. Accordingly, the central research question was: What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?

In the dissertation, OIC is both conceptually mapped and empirically explored. A performance instrument to measure OIC is developed and tested in higher education. As well, 12 businesses, including 234 employees in 51 teams, participated in this research project. Most companies were in the category known as small and medium-sized enterprise (SME). The participating companies have in common that they felt an urgent need for entrepreneurship as a driver of competitiveness. Furthermore, they aimed to commit and stimulate their employees to contribute to the entrepreneurial process, without having formal mechanisms or structures for doing so.

Main conclusions

In light of the central research question of this dissertation, What characterises opportunity identification by employees on the individual and team level?, the results suggest that OI deserves attention in existing businesses, both as a meaningful process leading towards new value-creation and as a relevant capability of employees. OIC is a multi-phased phenomenon consisting of two main competencies, namely business idea generation and business idea evaluation. In business idea generation, individuals generate all kinds of (business) ideas that may have the potential to become a real opportunity. In business idea evaluation, those ideas are selected that actually have potential success. Employees can have one of the competencies (business idea generation or business idea evaluation) to a greater extent, or both of them. Organisations need employees that are able to generate business ideas and employees that are able to evaluate the potential success of business ideas. The results of this thesis suggest that, just like independent entrepreneurs, employees mainly acquire such competencies by a process of learning by doing; this means that employees should become involved in entrepreneurial activities on the shop floor. Creating teams can be a solution, bringing together the competencies needed for the successful identification of opportunities. Moreover, the results suggest that the commitment of teams in the early stages of the entrepreneurial process is highly relevant, because the team cognitive framework for identifying opportunities seems more effective than the individual cognitive framework.

Taken together, at the defining, initial stage of the entrepreneurial process opportunities are identified by individuals or, preferably, by teams – in a process by which business ideas are generated and evaluated for their potential success. When studying opportunities and their identification, scholars should take into account the differences in OIC between SMEs, employees, and even within OIC itself (i.e., between business idea generation and business idea evaluation). In practice as well, these differences should be considered in the selection and management of employees, in assessing OIC and in composing teams, because teams need both business idea generators and business idea evaluators.

Outside vs. Inside Entrepreneurs: When Institutions Bind and Favors Blind
Dolfsma, Wilfred ; Lanoy, Francis de - \ 2016
Journal of Economic Issues 50 (2016)2. - ISSN 0021-3624 - p. 382 - 389.
entrepreneurship - gift-giving - inside entrepreneurs - institutions - outside entrepreneurs

Abstract: In some societies, entrepreneurs coming from outside of a community (i.e., outside entrepreneurs) are more active than entrepreneurs from within the community (i.e., inside entrepreneurs). Institutions and relationships that entrepreneurs entertain may hamper insiders from starting or succeeding. Institutional economics and anthropology suggest that, rather than outside entrepreneurs having more resources, the case may be that inside entrepreneurs could be hampered by existing institutions that blind and social relations that bind. Outsiders, however, may be less inclined to generate societal value in a community.

Inspelen op veranderingen in de zorg : genoegzaam achterover leunen zou verkeerd zijn
Hassink, J. ; Bruin, Simone R. de; Verbeek, H. - \ 2016
Ekoland (2016)7/8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 8 - 10.
social care farms - multifunctional agriculture - organic farming - care - entrepreneurship - farm management - zorgboerderijen - multifunctionele landbouw - biologische landbouw - zorg - ondernemerschap - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
De veranderingen in de zorg kunnen het voor zorgboeren ingewikkelder maken dan voorheen en creëren ook wel onzekerheden. Toch moeten zorgboeren zich vooral richten op de kansen die er liggen. De zorg en ondersteuning die zij leveren sluit goed aan bij de nieuwe beleidsdoelstellingen, zoals het bevorderen van zelfredzaamheid, het activeren van mensen en hen laten deelnemen aan de maatschappij. Treed daarmee naar buiten, laat zien wat je te bieden hebt, bepleiten Jan Hassink, Simone de Bruin en Hilde Verbeek.
Het stimuleren van ondernemen met natuur: handelingsopties voor de overheid
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 83) - 90
natuur - ondernemingen - regering - overheidsbeleid - ondernemerschap - milieueconomie - nature - enterprises - government - government policy - entrepreneurship - environmental economics
De Rijksnatuurvisie wil ondernemers meer betrekken bij natuur. De ambitie is dat natuur altijd meegenomen wordt inhandelingen en beslissingen, ook van ondernemers. Dit wordt ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ genoemd. De vraag diecentraal staat in dit rapport is welke beleidsmaatregelen genomen kunnen worden om natuurinclusief ondernemen(verder) te stimuleren. Het antwoord op deze vraag wordt mede bepaald door de wisselwerking tussen publieke enprivate taken en verantwoordelijkheden voor natuur. Een tweede vraag is: in welke mate worden de kosten vannatuurinclusief ondernemen gedragen door de private sector en in welke mate door de publieke sector? Op basis vanvijftien interviews met personen uit het veld kwamen een aantal aandachtspunten en behoeften naar voren die vanbelang blijken voor het verder uitrollen van het concept ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’. Zo is er behoefte aan duidelijkafgebakende experimenteerruimte om ondernemers het belang en de toepassing van natuurinclusief ondernemen telaten ervaren. Er leeft een gevoel van willekeur door verschillen in (lengte van) procedures tussen gemeenten enprovincies. Verder wordt een intermediair zoals voorheen de Dienst Landelijk Gebied wordt gemist voorgrondaanwerving, inrichting en voorfinanciering. Daarnaast is behoefte aan (ecologische) kennis bij ondernemers enaan ‘oplossingen’ voor de hoge grondprijs die natuurinclusieve landbouw belemmeren, en er werd gewezen op hetbelang van een gebiedsgerichte aanpak. En tot slot: natuurinclusief ondernemen impliceert vaak multifunctioneelgrondgebruik, maar dit stuit nogal eens op wetgeving gericht op bescherming van natuur. Hoewel aan de term‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ het private belang ten grondslag ligt, blijkt een overheidsrol nog altijd onontbeerlijkhierbij. Zo wordt natuurinclusief ondernemen deels betaald met publiek geld, bijvoorbeeld via subsidies en fiscalevrijstelling. Ook al blijkt uit dit onderzoek de behoefte aan een overheidsrol, tegelijkertijd is duidelijkheid vereist.Wanneer kan natuur privaat opgepakt worden, en wanneer moet het publiek ondersteund worden? Een nieuwevenwicht tussen publieke en private inbreng bij beheer en behoud van natuur is nog niet gevonden---In its policy vision on nature, ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014), the government calls on entrepreneurs to take agreater interest in nature. The government’s ambition is for nature to be taken into account in all actions and decisions,including those by entrepreneurs. This is called ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’. The key research question in this report iswhich policy measures can be introduced to stimulate nature-inclusive enterprise. The answer to this question isdetermined in part by the interplay between public and private tasks and responsibilities for nature. A second questionis how the costs of nature-inclusive enterprise should be divided between the private and public sectors. Interviews with15 stakeholders revealed a number of issues and requirements that would help to roll out the concept of ‘natureinclusiveenterprise’ further. For example, there is a need for room to experiment, within clearly defined limits, to allowentrepreneurs to experience the value of nature-inclusive enterprise and how it can be put into practice. There is afeeling that the situation is somewhat arbitrary at the moment because of differences in the procedures, particularlytheir length, between municipalities and provinces. For land acquisition, landscape works and prefinancing, therespondents felt the need for an intermediary organisation like the former Government Service for Land and WaterManagement (DLG). In addition, entrepreneurs are in need of ecological expertise as well as ‘solutions’ to the high priceof land, which frustrates nature-inclusive farming. The importance of an area-based approach was also raised. Finally,nature-inclusive enterprise often implies multifunctional land use, but this tends to conflict with the nature conservationlegislation, which is geared more to protection. Although the term ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’ reflects the underlyingprivate sector interest, government still has an essential role to play. For one thing, nature-inclusive enterprise is stillpartly financed with public money, for example via grants and tax exemptions. The study also indicates that while thisgovernment intervention is welcomed, there is also a desire for certainty. When can nature be integrated into thebusiness case and when should it be supported by the public sector? A new balance between public and privateinvolvement in nature conservation has not yet been found.
Women’s participation in tourism in Zanzibar : an enactment perspective
Maliva, Nelly Samson - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579231 - 206
tourism - zanzibar - participation - women - emancipation of women - labour - income - entrepreneurship - women workers - family life - society - tourist industry - swahili - standards - social values - gender relations - toerisme - zanzibar - participatie - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - ondernemerschap - vrouwelijke werknemers - gezinsleven - samenleving - toeristenindustrie - swahili - normen - sociale waarden - man-vrouwrelaties

To shed more light on the position of women in tourism, in this thesis I examined the ways women in Zanzibar have incorporated working in tourism in their daily lives by comparing those who work in tourism as entrepreneurs with employees, working in hotels and restaurants. Conceptually my thesis is framed within Weick’s theory of enactment, with special focus on the concept of sensemaking. I used this particular framework to understand how women either reinforce or resist gendered identities by constantly ‘enacting’ their environments. My research showed that the position of women in Zanzibar is highly influenced by religion, marital status and level of education. However, since women make sense of the environment in different ways, perceive different opportunities and constraints, and on the basis of these make different choices, I recommended that programmes customised according to the differences among women should be developed. Second, I argued that these tailor-made programmes should focus on four interventions: education and training, working conditions, self-organisation and microcredit.

Programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia : 2015 Annual report
Walsh, Stephen ; Thijssen, M.H. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-012 ) - 45
seeds - seed production - agroindustrial sector - entrepreneurship - businesses - development - ethiopia - zaden - zaadproductie - agro-industriële sector - ondernemerschap - bedrijven - ontwikkeling - ethiopië
The programme on Integrated Seed Sector Development in Ethiopia aims to strengthen the development of a vibrant, market-oriented and pluralistic seed sector in the country, where quality seed of superior varieties is available and affordable for a larger number of farmers, thereby contributing to food security and economic development in Ethiopia. The programme is a joint effort of Bahir Dar University, Haramaya University, Hawassa University, Mekelle University, Oromia Seed Enterprise, the Ethiopian Seed Association and Centre for Development Innovation of Wageningen UR. Partners include governmental organizations at federal, regional and local level, non-governmental organizations, development organizations, and seed businesses operating at different scales. The programme is funded by the Directorate General for International Cooperation through the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Addis Ababa.
Farmers’ perception of opportunities for farm development
Methorst, Ron - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Dirk Roep; Jos Verstegen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579439 - 192
farm development - perception - agriculture - entrepreneurship - case studies - sociology - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - perceptie - landbouw - ondernemerschap - gevalsanalyse - sociologie

Differences in the perception of opportunities for farm development is researched in this thesis in relation to differences in the embedding of the farm in the socio-material context. This study contributes to a Sociology of Entrepreneurship in focusing on the decision-maker specific aspects using the concepts Opportunity Identification, Strategic Decision-Making and Embeddedness. In a case study of family dairy farmers operating in a highly comparable socio-material context at the level of the case study, a mix of quantitative and qualitative data were used to analyse differences at the level of the decision-makers on the family farm. Based on the perceived viability of 15 opportunities for farm development to contribute to farm income, four clusters of opportunities were found that represent different farm development strategies: 1) maximising production; 2) optimising the use of own resources; 3) diversifying production; and 4) ending dairy farming. Personal views and preferences showed to be the most influential driver, mediating the influence of the combined set of seven drivers on the perception of opportunities. Taking the perspective of embeddedness, every farm development strategy appeared to have different sets of relations for three dimensions of the socio-material context: the socio-cultural context, the dairy value chain and the use of resources for production. These sets of relations differ on a scale ranging from more ‘close’ to more ‘stretched’ set of relations, resembling a mixing paned of three sliders on which the family farmer positions itself, a positioning that is related to personal views and preference. The socio-material characteristics of a farm, thus, result from, and reflect how it is embedded in a set of heterogeneous relations. This finding supports the relevance of a relational perspective on farm development where strategic decision-making is the reiterative process of embedding farm practices in the different sets of relations of the farm with the socio-material context. The farmer’s interpretation of the complex and dynamic relations in the socio-material context affects the identification of opportunities for farm development. Approaching strategic decision-making as the positioning in sets of relations offers a non-normative approach to family farm development in relation to the socio-material context. Awareness of the influence of personal views and preferences combined with a non-normative approach is of relevance for effective policies and support programmes to support the development of vital farms in vital rural areas.

Keywords: family farm, farm development, strategy, opportunity identification, strategic decision-making, embeddedness

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