Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Firms’ willingness to invest in a water fund to improve water-related ecosystem services in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya
    Mulatu, D.W. ; Oel, P.R. van; Veen, A. van der - \ 2015
    Water International 40 (2015)3. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 463 - 482.
    tropical forestry projects - environmental services - market actors - payments - management - behavior - private - choice - impact
    A valuation scenario was designed using a contingent-valuation approach and presented to decision makers in business firms in Kenya’s Lake Naivasha basin to test how applicable a water fund might be as a potential financing mechanism for a payment for water-related ecosystem services scheme. The findings indicate that measuring a firm’s willingness to invest in ecosystem services could help determine whether a firm would invest and engage with other stakeholders to pool their investments in ecosystem services. Linking the institutional decision-making behaviour of a firm and its willingness to invest in a water fund is the novelty of this article.
    Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project
    Matthews, R.B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Lambin, E. ; Meyfroidt, P. ; Gupta, J. ; Verschot, L. ; Hergoualc'h, K. ; Veldkamp, E. - \ 2014
    Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 907 - 925.
    land-use - agricultural intensification - environmental services - avoided deforestation - shifting cultivation - developing-world - food security - carbon - payments - costs
    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help change the behaviour of land users while minimising adverse repercussions on their livelihoods. Findings showed that some developing tropical countries have recently been through a forest transition, thus shifting from declining to expanding forests at a national scale. However, in most of these (e.g. Vietnam), a significant part of the recent increase in national forest cover is associated with an increase in importation of food and timber products from abroad, representing leakage of carbon stocks across international borders. Avoiding deforestation and restoring forests will require a mixture of regulatory approaches, emerging market-based instruments, suasive options, and hybrid management measures. Policy analysis and modelling work showed the high degree of complexity at local levels and highlighted the need to take this heterogeneity into account—it is unlikely that there will be a one size fits all approach to make Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) work. Significant progress was made in the quantification of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes following land-use change in the tropics, contributing to narrower confidence intervals on peat-based emissions and their reporting standards. There are indications that there is only a short and relatively small window of opportunity of making REDD+ work—these included the fact that forest-related emissions as a fraction of total global GHG emissions have been decreasing over time due to the increase in fossil fuel emissions, and that the cost efficiency of REDD+ may be much less than originally thought due to the need to factor in safeguard costs, transaction costs and monitoring costs. Nevertheless, REDD+ has raised global awareness of the world’s forests and the factors affecting them, and future developments should contribute to the emergence of new landscape-based approaches to protecting a wider range of ecosystem services. Keywords Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation . REDD+ . Indonesia . Vietnam. Cameroon . Peru . Peatlands . Carbon stocks .Greenhouse gases . GHGs
    Biodiversity in rubber agroforests, carbon emissions, and rural livelihoods: An agent-based model of land-use dynamics in lowland Sumatra
    Villamor, G.B. ; Le, Q.B. ; Djanibekov, U. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Vlek, P.L.G. - \ 2014
    Environmental Modelling & Software 61 (2014). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 151 - 165.
    ecosystem services - environmental services - designing payments - feedback loops - coupled human - indonesia - simulation - management - deforestation - conservation
    Rubber agroforests in the mostly deforested lowlands of Sumatra, Indonesia are threatened by conversion into monoculture rubber or oil palm plantations. We applied an agent-based model to explore the potential effectiveness of a payment for ecosystem services (PES) design through a biodiversity rich rubber eco-certification scheme. We integrated conditionality, where compliance with biodiversity performance indicators is prerequisite for awarding incentives. We compared a PES policy scenario to ‘business-as-usual’ and ‘subsidized land use change’ scenarios to explore potential trade-offs between ecosystem services delivery and rural income. Results indicated that a rubber agroforest eco-certification scheme could reduce carbon emissions and species loss better than alternative scenarios. However, the suggested premiums were too low to compete with income from other land uses. Nevertheless, integrating our understanding of household agent behavior through a spatially explicit and agent-specific assessment of the trade-offs can help refine the design of conservation initiatives such as PES.
    Co-investment paradigms as alternatives to payments for tree-based ecosystem services in Africa
    Namirembe, S. ; Leimona, B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Bernard, F. ; Bacwayo, K.E. - \ 2014
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 89 - 97.
    environmental services - conservation - challenges - tanzania - design
    Multiple paradigms have emerged within the broad payments for ecosystem services (ES) domain for internalizing externalities of local land-use change decisions. These range from reward of ready-made ES delivery (commoditised) to reward of processes of ES generation (co-investment). Evidence from tree-based projects in Africa suggests that currently, only carbon sequestration and emission reduction are ‘commoditised’, however in an artificial way where payments are not matched to ES delivery, but adjusted or supplemented with co-benefits. Co-investment in stewardship alongside rights is more widespread and versatile for a variety of ES. Efficiency concerns of co-investment schemes can be addressed when commoditised ES or profitable enterprises with positive ES externalities evolve from these.
    Minimizing the ecological footprint of food: closing yield and efficiency gaps simultaneously?
    Noordwijk, M. van; Brussaard, L. - \ 2014
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 62 - 70.
    multifunctional landscapes - environmental services - ecosystem services - crop production - soil fertility - arable crops - systems - agriculture - management - intensification
    Agriculture as a source of food has a substantial spillover that affects the Earth's ecosystems. This results in an ‘ecological footprint’ of food: negative environmental impacts per capita. The footprint depends on the dietary choice of types and amounts of food, on the non-consumed part of product flows and its fate (‘waste’ or ‘reused’), on transport and processing along the value chain, on the environmental impacts of production per unit area, and on the area needed per unit product. Yield gaps indicate inefficiency in this last aspect: resource-use efficiency gaps for water and nutrients indicate that environmental impacts per unit area are higher than desirable. Ecological intensification aimed at simultaneously closing these two gaps requires process-level understanding and system-level quantification of current efficiency of the use of land and other production factors at multiple scales (field, farm, landscape, regional and global economy). Contrary to common opinion, yield and efficiency gaps are partially independent in the empirical evidence. Synergy in gap closure is possible in many contexts where efforts are made but are not automatic. With Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), enforceable in world trade to control hidden subsidies, there is scope for incremental improvement towards food systems that are efficient at global, yet sustainable at local, scales.
    Options for a national framework for benefit distribution and their relation to community-based and national REDD+ monitoring
    Skutsch, M. ; Turnhout, E. ; Vijge, M.J. ; Herold, M. ; Wits, T. ; Besten, J.W. den; Balderas Torres, A. - \ 2014
    Forests 5 (2014)7. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1596 - 1617.
    environmental services - brazilian amazon - payments - deforestation - conservation - carbon - challenges - poverty - mexico - biodiversity
    Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerations, and the kind of data that would be needed for the different options. We contrast output-based distribution systems, in which rewards are distributed according to performance measured in terms of carbon impacts, with input-based systems in which performance is measured in term of compliance with prescribed REDD+ activities. Output-based systems, which would require regular community carbon inventories to produce Tier 3 data locally, face various challenges particularly for the case of assessing avoided deforestation, and they may not be perceived as equitable. Input-based systems would require data on activities undertaken rather than change in stocks; this information could come from community-acquired data. We also consider how community monitored data could support national forest monitoring systems and the further development of national REDD+
    Payments for ecosystem services and the financing of global biodiversity conservation
    Hein, L.G. ; Miller, D.C. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2013
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5 (2013)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 87 - 93.
    environmental services - protected areas - tropical biodiversity - developing-countries - efficiency - parks - pay
    It is generally recognized that addressing the ongoing loss of global biodiversity requires a substantial increase in funding for conservation activities, particularly in developing countries. An increasing interest in Payment Mechanisms for Ecosystem Services (PES) begs the question of whether a focus on developing payment mechanisms will also reduce the ongoing loss of global biodiversity. We review, firstly, current flows of funds for biodiversity conservation, including PES and other market mechanisms, and secondly, the opportunities and constraints of PES to contribute to biodiversity protection globally. We argue that PES can and should make an important contribution, but that it will not be sufficient to rely on PES alone to finance the actions necessary to substantially reduce biodiversity loss. In response to the identified constraints, we believe there is a need to develop additional funding mechanisms specifically targeted at biodiversity conservation.
    Unravelling property relations around forest carbon
    Mahanty, S. ; Dressler, W.H. ; Milne, S. ; Filer, C. - \ 2013
    Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 34 (2013)2. - ISSN 0129-7619 - p. 188 - 205.
    papua-new-guinea - environmental services - cambodia - deforestation - payments - offsets - access
    Market-based interventions to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) enable the carbon stored in land and forests to be traded as a new and intangible form of property. Using examples from Cambodia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea, we examine the property negotiations underpinning this new forest carbon economy. We show that the institutions and land use negotiations needed to ‘produce’ forest carbon interact recursively with existing property claims over land and forests. Even where customary rights are formally recognized (PNG, Philippines), claims to forest carbon are still complicated by ambiguities and complexities surrounding rights to forested land. Meanwhile the new value attached to forest carbon can stimulate efforts to appropriate land and forest resources associated with it, creating new power relations and property dynamics. This interplay between forest carbon and underlying contested property claims in rural forest settings creates an unstable basis for forest carbon markets and raises questions about future access to forested land.
    Accounting for multi-functionality of sheep farming in the carbon footprint of lamb: A comparison of three contrasting Mediterranean systems.
    Ripoll-Bosch, R. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bernues, A. ; Vellinga, Th.V. - \ 2013
    Agricultural Systems 116 (2013). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 60 - 68.
    organic milk-production - life-cycle assessment - south-central spain - environmental services - ecosystem services - beef-production - land-use - livestock - intensification - conservation
    Intensifying animal production is generally advocated to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions associated with production of animal-source food. Sheep farming systems (SFSs) in Spain are generally considered to be pasture-based and extensive, but large differences in input utilization, land use and intensification level exist. Their environmental impacts, therefore, are expected to differ also. We used life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions of three contrasting meat-sheep farming systems in Spain, which differed in their degree of intensification (reproduction rate, land use and grazing management). The GHGs emissions of these systems varied from 19.5 to 25.9 kg CO2-eq per kg of lamb live weight, or 39.0–51.7 kg CO2-eq per kg of lamb meat, with highest values referring to the pasture-based livestock system. In addition to meat, however, these SFSs also provide other services to society (e.g. public goods such as biodiversity and landscape conservation). We valued these services for each SFSs based on agri-environmental subsidies of the EU and used farm economic values to allocate GHGs emissions of SFSs between meat and cultural ecosystem services. When accounting for multifunctionality, GHGs emission per kg of lamb live weight among the SFSs was reversed: with lowest values for the pasture-based system (13.9 kg CO2-eq per kg of lamb live weight) and highest for zero-grazing system (19.5 kg CO2-eq per kg of lamb live weight). A comparison of GHGs emissions among SFSs should account for the multifunctionality of pasture-based livestock systems.
    Political Modernization in China's Forest Governance? Payment Schemes for Forest Ecological Services in Liaoning
    Liang, D. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2013
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 65 - 88.
    environmental services - program - participation
    Payment for environmental services (PES) schemes are increasingly being introduced in developed and developing countries for the ecological conservation of forests also. Such payment schemes resemble a new mode of forest governance labelled political modernization, in which centralized and state-based command-and-control policies make room for market dynamics, non-state actors, and decentralization. In entering the new Millennium, China has massively started using payment schemes to conserve its forests. An analysis of the implementation of the Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation Fund Programme in Liaoning Province is used to investigate whether China’s PES schemes resemble notions of political modernization. It is concluded that Liaoning Province introduced market dynamics and farmer participation in the implementation of its PES scheme, but in a way different from that theorized by political modernization scholars. Hence, it should rather be seen as a ‘Chinese style’ political modernization process.
    Forests and trees for social adaptation to climate variability and change
    Pramova, E. ; Locatelli, B. ; Djoudi, H. ; Somorin, O.A. - \ 2012
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 3 (2012)6. - ISSN 1757-7780 - p. 581 - 596.
    ecosystem-based adaptation - environmental services - adaptive capacity - tropical forests - mangrove forests - agricultural intensification - coastal vegetation - natural insurance - coping strategies - food security
    Ecosystems provide important services that can help people adapt to climate variability and change. Recognizing this role of ecosystems, several international and nongovernmental organizations have promoted an ecosystem-based approach to adaptation. We review the scientific literature related to ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) with forests and trees, and highlight five cases in which forests and trees can support adaptation: (1) forests and trees providing goods to local communities facing climatic threats; (2) trees in agricultural fields regulating water, soil, and microclimate for more resilient production; (3) forested watersheds regulating water and protecting soils for reduced climate impacts; (4) forests protecting coastal areas from climate-related threats; and (5) urban forests and trees regulating temperature and water for resilient cities. The literature provides evidence that EBA with forests and trees can reduce social vulnerability to climate hazards; however, uncertainties and knowledge gaps remain, particularly for regulating services in watersheds and coastal areas. Few studies have been undertaken on EBA specifically, but the abundant literature on ecosystem services can be used to fill knowledge gaps. Many studies assess the multiple benefits of ecosystems for human adaptation or well-being, but also recognize trade-offs between ecosystem services. Better understanding is needed of the efficiency, costs, and benefits, and trade-offs of EBA with forests and trees. Pilot projects under implementation could serve as learning sites and existing information could be systematized and revisited with a climate change adaptation lens.
    REDD+ in the context of ecosystem management
    Hein, L.G. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2012
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 604 - 611.
    greenhouse-gas emissions - environmental services - developing-countries - forest degradation - tropical forest - deforestation - implementation - indonesia - payments - biodiversity
    The design and implementation of REDD+ projects requires understanding the local ecological, economic and social context. This paper analyzes how REDD+ influences the context of ecosystem management, from both a conceptual and an ecosystem-scale perspective. We analyze how REDD+ changes the economic interests in ecosystem management for different stakeholders, and present a case study demonstrating the economic benefits of sustainable forest use versus oil palm plantation in Indonesia. We also analyze the economic costs of carbon emissions from land use conversion, and show that in Kalimantan, Indonesia, net revenues from REDD+ need to be US$ 3/ton CO2 to allow sustainable forest use to compete with oil palm on peat, and US$ 7/ton CO2 for mineral soil. Subsequently we present four insights from our ecosystem analysis relevant for REDD+.
    Social-ecological and regional adaption of agrobiodiversity management across a global set of research regions
    Jackson, L.E. ; Pulleman, M.M. ; Brussaard, L. ; Bawa, K. ; Brown, G.G. ; Cardoso, I.M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Garcia-Barrios, L.E. ; Hollander, A.D. ; Lavelle, P. ; Ouedraogo, E. ; Pascual, U. ; Setty, S. ; Smukler, S.M. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2012
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 22 (2012)3. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 623 - 639.
    atlantic rain-forest - agricultural intensification - biodiversity conservation - ecosystem services - environmental services - commodity production - production systems - central plateau - burkina-faso - landscape
    To examine management options for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, eight research regions were classified into social-ecological domains, using a dataset of indicators of livelihood resources, i.e., capital assets. Potential interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture were then compared among landscapes and domains. The approach combined literature review with expert judgment by researchers working in each landscape. Each landscape was described for land use, rural livelihoods and attitudes of social actors toward biodiversity and intensification of agriculture. Principal components analysis of 40 indicators of natural, human, social, financial and physical capital for the eight landscapes showed a loss of biodiversity associated with high-input agricultural intensification. High levels of natural capital (e.g. indicators of wildland biodiversity conservation and agrobiodiversity for human needs) were positively associated with indicators of human capital, including knowledge of the flora and fauna and knowledge sharing among farmers. Three social-ecological domains were identified across the eight landscapes (Tropical Agriculture-Forest Matrix, Tropical Degrading Agroecosystem, and Temperate High-Input Commodity Agriculture) using hierarchical clustering of the indicator values. Each domain shared a set of interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture and ecological intensification that could also increase food security in the impoverished landscapes. Implementation of interventions differed greatly among the landscapes, e.g. financial capital for new farming practices in the Intensive Agriculture domain vs. developing market value chains in the other domains. This exploratory study suggests that indicators of knowledge systems should receive greater emphasis in the monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and that inventories of assets at the landscape level can inform adaptive management of agrobiodiversity-based interventions
    The Prospects for Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) in Vietnam: A Look at three payment schemes
    Phuc Xuan, To; Dressler, W.H. ; Mahanty, S. ; Pham Thu Thuy, ; Zingerli, C. - \ 2012
    Human Ecology 40 (2012)2. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 237 - 249.
    environmental services - central highlands - conservation - philippines - devolution - poverty - issues
    Global conservation discourses and practices increasingly rely on market-based solutions to fulfill the dual objective of forest conservation and economic development. Although varied, these interventions are premised on the assumption that natural resources are most effectively managed and preserved while benefiting livelihoods if the market-incentives of a liberalised economy are correctly in place. By examining three nationally supported payment for ecosystem service (PES) schemes in Vietnam we show how insecure land tenure, high transaction costs and high opportunity costs can undermine the long-term benefits of PES programmes for local households and, hence, potentially threaten their livelihood viability. In many cases, the income from PES programmes does not reach the poor because of political and economic constraints. Local elite capture of PES benefits through the monopolization of access to forestland and existing state forestry management are identified as key problems. We argue that as PES schemes create a market for ecosystem services, such markets must be understood not simply as bald economic exchanges between ‘rational actors’ but rather as exchanges embedded in particular socio-political and historical contexts to support the sustainable use of forest resources and local livelihoods in Vietnam.
    Strategies and economics of farming systems with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest Biome
    Nonato de Souza, H. ; Graaff, J. de; Pulleman, M.M. - \ 2012
    Agroforestry Systems 84 (2012)2. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 227 - 242.
    biodiversity conservation - agroforestry systems - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - environmental services - agroecosystems
    In the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, family farmers are adjusting to agroecological principles to reconcile sustainable agriculture, livelihood improvements and biodiversity conservation. Starting in 1993, experimentation with coffee agroforestry was gradually initiated on an increasing number of farms (37 in total), resulting in the simultaneous management of sun coffee (SC) and agroforestry coffee (AF) plots. We aimed (1) to identify factors that determine the farmers’ selection of trees used in AF; (2) to describe the agroecological farms in transition; and (3) to perform an economic comparison between AF and SC. These objectives were addressed by combining data from botanical surveys in 1993/1994 and 2007, by interviews with farmers and by detailed data on the production value and costs of labour and material inputs. The results showed considerable diversity in farming strategies and management among the farmers. Early adopters of AF had diversified towards production of different marketable products. The use of native trees in AF for this purpose, and for restoration of soil fertility (e.g., leguminous trees), had increased since the start of the experiments, while exotic tree species were eliminated. Over a period of 12 years AF was more profitable than SC due to the production of a diversity of agricultural goods, despite somewhat higher establishment costs. Other ecosystem services delivered by AF, such as biodiversity and cultural services are currently not valorized. Payment schemes for environmental services could further improve the economic benefits of AF for family farmers and alleviate establishment and learning costs
    Institutional perceptions of opportunities and challenges of REDD+ in the Congo Basin
    Brown, H.C.P. ; Smit, B. ; Sonwa, D.J. ; Somorin, O.A. ; Nkem, J. - \ 2011
    The Journal of Environment & Development 20 (2011)4. - ISSN 1070-4965 - p. 381 - 404.
    climate-change - adaptive capacity - environmental services - central-africa - forests - deforestation - adaptation - resilience - management - benefits
    Tropical forests have a central role to play in a new mechanism designed to mitigate climate change, known as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions From Deforestation and Forest Degradation). Through semistructured interviews and content analysis of relevant documents, the perceptions of the opportunities and challenges of REDD+ of institutions, who may be directly implicated in or affected by its implementation are investigated. Research takes place in three Central African countries, Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Democratic Republic of Congo, which contain the Congo Basin forest. Perception of opportunities include economic development and poverty reduction, biodiversity conservation, network building, and governance reform. Challenges identified include REDD+’s complexity, lack of technical capacity for implementation, opportunities for participation, benefit sharing, and the traditional system of shifting cultivation. Those involved in designing REDD+ internationally need to understand developing-country perspectives, and institutions at all levels need to work together to develop concrete strategies to improve overall outcomes
    Economic benefits generated by protected areas: the case of the Hoge Veluwe forest, the Netherlands
    Hein, L.G. - \ 2011
    Ecology and Society 16 (2011)2. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. Art. 13 - Art. 13.
    ecosystem services - environmental services - air-pollution - land-use - conservation - biodiversity - europe - information - valuation - mortality
    Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spite of the large share of forests in the protected area system in most countries. An economic valuation of the ecosystem services supplied by the Hoge Veluwe forest in the Netherlands is presented. The Hoge Veluwe forest is one of the largest and most well-known protected areas in the country. The services included in the study are wood production, supply of game, groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, air filtration, recreation, and nature conservation. A conservative estimate of the total economic benefits generated by the forest is around 2000 Euro/ha/year, which is more than three times higher than the per hectare-value generated by nearby agricultural land. The study provides an analysis of the economic value of eight ecosystem services, discusses the uncertainties of the value estimates, and examines the implications for financing protected area management.
    Economic Governance to Expand Commercial Wetlands: Within- and Cross-Scale Challenges
    Blaeij, A.T. de; Polman, N.B.P. ; Reinhard, A.J. - \ 2011
    Ecology and Society 16 (2011)1. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 13 p.
    ecosystem services - environmental services - distance-decay - valuation - payments - conservation - netherlands - information - management - benefits
    Commercial wetlands are defined as wetlands directed by an entrepreneur with the intention of making a profit. The combination of ecosystem services that commercial wetlands can provide seems to be an attractive societal perspective. Nevertheless, these wetlands are not developed on a large scale in the Netherlands. This paper discusses different types of economic governance that could facilitate the development of new commercial wetlands and addresses challenges that have to be overcome. We conclude that developing governance solutions that address ecosystem services with different scales is crucial for the introduction of commercial wetlands. Also, distinct and autonomous property rights of entrepreneurs need to be addressed.
    Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?
    Ring, I. ; Drechsler, M. ; Teeffelen, A.J.A. van; Irawan, S. ; Venter, O. - \ 2010
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 50 - 58.
    intergovernmental fiscal transfers - environmental services - species conservation - forest degradation - carbon payments - deforestation - emissions - habitat - restoration - incentives
    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation. Economic instruments should act as complements to rather than substitutes for conventional land-use planning, given that their applicability is limited by the heterogeneity of biodiversity. Linking biodiversity policies with carbon mitigation policies may provide synergies and alleviate the chronic inadequacy of conservation budgets. Since the scope and scale of the two policy fields differ in some respects, it must be ensured that market-based climate mitigation policies will be implemented with the restrictions necessary for safeguarding Earth's biological diversity.
    The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: From early notions to markets and payment schemes
    Gómez-Baggethun, E. ; Groot, R.S. de; Lomas, P. ; Sotelo Montes, C. - \ 2010
    Ecological Economics 69 (2010)6. - ISSN 0921-8009 - p. 1209 - 1218.
    environmental services - ecological economics - sustainable development - designing payments - decision-making - resources - valuation - wildlife - values - cost
    This paper reviews the historic development of the conceptualization of ecosystem services and examines critical landmarks in economic theory and practice with regard to the incorporation of ecosystem services into markets and payment schemes. The review presented here suggests that the trend towards monetization and commodification of ecosystem services is partly the result of a slow move from the original economic conception of nature's benefits as use values in Classical economics to their conceptualization in terms of exchange values in Neoclassical economics. The theory and practice of current ecosystem services science are examined in the light of this historical development. From this review, we conclude that the focus on monetary valuation and payment schemes has contributed to attract political support for conservation, but also to commodify a growing number of ecosystem services and to reproduce the Neoclassical economics paradigm and the market logic to tackle environmental problems
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