Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates
Grün, C.H. ; Sanders, P. ; Burg, M. van der; Schuurbiers, E. ; Adrichem, L. van; Velzen, E.J.J. van; Roo, N. de; Brunt, K. ; Westphal, Y. ; Schols, H.A. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 166 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 42 - 49.
locust bean gum - polymerase-chain-reaction - guar gum - capillary-electrophoresis - enzymatic determination - starch industry - raw-materials - xanthan gum - identification - additives
A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening tool in intact gelled food concentrates. An efficient isolation procedure is described removing components that may interfere with subsequent analyses. NMR spectroscopy enabled the direct identification of xanthan gum and the discrimination between different galactomannans in the isolated polysaccharide fraction. An enzymatic fingerprinting method using endo-ß-mannanase, in addition to being used to differentiate between galactomannans, was developed into a selective, quantitative method for LBG, whereas monosaccharide analysis was used to quantify xanthan gum. Recoveries for xanthan gum and LBG were 87% and 70%, respectively, with in-between day relative standard deviations below 20% for xanthan gum and below 10% for LBG.
Heart rate-corrected QT interval prolongation predicts risk of coronary heart disease in black and white middle-aged men and women: the ARIC study.
Dekker, J.M. ; Crow, R.S. ; Hannan, P.J. ; Schouten, E.G. ; Folsom, A.R. - \ 2004
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004)4. - ISSN 0735-1097 - p. 565 - 571.
improved lipolytic efficiency - all-cause mortality - cardiovascular mortality - enzymatic determination - atherosclerosis risk - prognostic value - elderly-men - insulin - communities - dispersion
OBJECTIVES We aimed to study the predictive value of heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the black and white general population, and to validate various QT measurements. BACKGROUND QTc prolongation is associated with higher risk of mortality in cardiac patients and in the general population. Little is known about the association with incident CHD. No previous studies included black populations. METHODS We studied the predictive value of QTc prolongation in a prospective population study of 14,548 black and white men and women, age 45 to 64 year. QT was determined by the NOVACODE program in the digital electrocardiogram recorded at baseline. RESULTS In quintiles of QTc, cardiovascular risk profile deteriorated with longer QTc, and risk of CHD and CVD mortality increased. The high risk in the upper quintile was mostly explained by the 10% with the longest QTc. The age-, gender-, and race-adjusted hazard ratios for CVD mortality and CHD in subjects with the longest 10% relative to the other 90% of the gender-specific QTc distribution were 5.13 (95% confidence interval 3.80 to 6.94) and 2.14 (95% confidence interval 1.71 to 2.69), respectively. The increased risk was partly, but not completely, attributable to other risk factors or the presence of chronic disease. The association was stronger in black than in white subjects. Manual- and machine-coded QT intervals were highly correlated, and the method of rate correction did not affect the observed associations. CONCLUSIONS Long QTc is associated with increased risk of CHD and CVD mortality in black and white healthy men and women. (C) 2004 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.