Financial schemes for resilient flood recovery
Slavíková, Lenka ; Hartmann, Thomas ; Thaler, Thomas - \ 2020
Environmental Hazards 19 (2020)3. - ISSN 1747-7891 - p. 223 - 227.
efficiency - equity - flood recovery - Flood resilience - insurance - relief subsidies
Options for the increase of flood resilience during the recovery phase is, to a large extent, overlooked. The special issue Financial Schemes for Resilient Flood Recovery investigates how the implementation of financial schemes (government relief subsidies, insurance schemes, buy-outs, etc.) might increase flood resilience. Five papers address following questions: Shall government relief subsidies exist when there is flood insurance in place, and, if so, how might they both be coordinated? Where (or how) to decide about build back better incentives and where to go for planned relocation programs? What is the distributional equity of financial schemes for flood recovery, and has it been sufficiently treated?.
Evoking equity as a rationale for solar geoengineering research? Scrutinizing emerging expert visions of equity
Flegal, Jane A. ; Gupta, A. - \ 2018
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 45 - 61.
climate governance - equity - solar geoengineering - climate models - speculative ethics - climate engineering - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - Paris agreement
This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such “vanguard visions” are narrowly conceived as epistemic challenges, answerable by (more) scientific analysis. Major concerns about equity are treated as empirical matters, requiring scientific assessment of feasibility, risks, or “win–win” distributive outcomes and optimizations, with concurrent calls to delimit risk or reduce scientific uncertainties. We argue that such epistemic framings sidestep, inter alia, the inequality in resources available to diverse non-experts—including the “vulnerable” evoked in expert visions—to project their own equity perspectives onto imagined technological pathways of the future. These may include concerns relating to moral or historical responsibility and/or lack of agency in shaping the directions of innovation. We conclude that the performative power and political implications of specific expert visions of equity, evoked as a rationale to undertake solar geoengineering research, require continued scrutiny.
Comparative assessment of Japan's long-term carbon budget under different effort-sharing principles
Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Asuka, Jusen ; Fekete, Hanna ; Tamura, Kentaro ; Höhne, Niklas - \ 2016
Climate Policy 16 (2016)8. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 1029 - 1047.
carbon budget - effort sharing - equity - Japan - mitigation policy - mitigation scenarios
This article assesses Japan's carbon budgets up to 2100 in the global efforts to achieve the 2 °C target under different effort-sharing approaches based on long-term GHG mitigation scenarios published in 13 studies. The article also presents exemplary emission trajectories for Japan to stay within the calculated budget. The literature data allow for an in-depth analysis of four effort-sharing categories. For a 450 ppm CO2e stabilization level, the remaining carbon budgets for 2014–2100 were negative for the effort-sharing category that emphasizes historical responsibility and capability. For the other three, including the reference ‘Cost-effectiveness’ category, which showed the highest budget range among all categories, the calculated remaining budgets (20th and 80th percentile ranges) would run out in 21–29 years if the current emission levels were to continue. A 550 ppm CO2e stabilization level increases the budgets by 6–17 years-equivalent of the current emissions, depending on the effort-sharing category. Exemplary emissions trajectories staying within the calculated budgets were also analysed for ‘Equality’, ‘Staged’ and ‘Cost-effectiveness’ categories. For a 450 ppm CO2e stabilization level, Japan's GHG emissions would need to phase out sometime between 2045 and 2080, and the emission reductions in 2030 would be at least 16–29% below 1990 levels even for the most lenient ‘Cost-effectiveness’ category, and 29–36% for the ‘Equality’ category. The start year for accelerated emissions reductions and the emissions convergence level in the long term have major impact on the emissions reduction rates that need to be achieved, particularly in the case of smaller budgets. Policy relevance In previous climate mitigation target formulation processes for 2020 and 2030 in Japan, neither equity principles nor long-term management of cumulative GHG emissions was at the centre of discussion. This article quantitatively assesses how much more GHGs Japan can emit by 2100 to achieve the 2 °C target in light of different effort-sharing approaches, and how Japan's GHG emissions can be managed up to 2100. The long-term implications of recent energy policy developments following the Fukushima nuclear disaster for the calculated carbon budgets are also discussed.
Consumer liking, purchase intent, and willingness to pay for Lupinus mutabilis Sweet in relation to debittering treatments
Carvajal-Larenas, F.E. ; Koziol, M. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 40 (2015)part A. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 221 - 229.
quinolizidine alkaloids - satisfaction - quality - seed - perceptions - attributes - extraction - customers - equity
Interrelationships between food processing conditions, consumer liking, purchase intent and willingness to pay can be studied and modeled as exemplified by this paper on lupin (Lupinus mutabilis). Lupin was debittered by 12 different aqueous treatments and evaluated by 99 consumers. First they scored the products on the basis of liking. Next, they were informed about the price of the products and asked to rank their purchase intent in relation to their liking scores and product price. Treatments with more processing (i.e. longer agitation times and/or more frequent changes of water) increased the product price but diminished liking. Consumers did not choose between liking and price; the purchase intent was the combined effect of both variables. Willingness to pay was inferred from the purchase intent plot. For example, at a purchase intent of 2, consumers would accept an increase in price of 0.3 $/kg if liking increased from ‘‘like slightly’’ to ‘‘like moderately’’. In the studied range, the effect of processing on liking and expected price, as well as their effect on purchase intent, could be described by first order regression equations.
Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy
Zeitoun, M. ; Warner, J.F. ; Mirumachi, N. ; Matthews, N. ; McLaughlin, K. - \ 2014
Water Policy 16 (2014)S2. - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 174 - 193.
global environmental justice - hydro-hegemony - south-africa - nile basin - power - management - allocation - equity - law - hydrosolidarity
By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and diplomacy are grouped under themes of equitability, process/outcomes, and structural concerns. These include shortcomings of analysis and policy based on unfounded assumptions of equality, and options excluded from consideration by the legitimisation of particular concepts of justice over others. As power asymmetry is seen to enable or disable justice claims and conflict resolution efforts, the importance of ensuring equitable outcomes as a pre-condition for cooperation is asserted. Similarly, water conflict resolution is found to be more fair – procedurally – than is conflict management, and may be supported to a limited extent by international water law. A number of analytical tasks are suggested for future research and policy, including a call to scrutinise the source of legitimacy of strands of justice invoked. Given the very many perspectives on justice that exist in the network of relevant actors, potential bias in research and diplomacy could be reduced if all involved openly stated the morals underpinning their understanding of ‘justice’.
Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies
Ruijs, A.J.W. - \ 2009
Environmental and Resource Economics 43 (2009)2. - ISSN 0924-6460 - p. 161 - 182.
increasing block rates - consumers-surplus - demand-functions - united-states - efficiency - prices - equity
In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to compare, for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, alternative pricing policies on the basis of their demand, welfare and distribution effects of changing water prices. Results show that there is a trade off between average welfare and income distribution. A pro-poor price system may result in lower average welfare than a flat price system, but in higher individual welfare for the poor. Moreover, there is a trade off between revenues for the water company and income distribution. Even though pro-poor price systems may not be as good for average welfare as flat price systems, their direct effects on poverty are important. Introducing pro-poor price systems, however, may have financial consequences for the water companies
An empirical test of new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements
Finus, M. ; Sáiz Pérez, M.E. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. - \ 2009
Environment and Development Economics 14 (2009). - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 117 - 137.
climate agreements - externalities - cooperation - membership - stability - success - equity - costs
We consider new developments in coalition theory for the design of international environmental agreements (IEAs). Applying an empirical model on climate change that comprises benefit and cost estimates from abatement for 12 world regions, we analyze how the design of an agreement affects the success of self-enforcing IEAs. We analyze single versus multiple coalitions, open versus exclusive membership with majority and unanimity voting, and no transfers versus transfers with four different transfer schemes.