Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Agricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of EthiopiaAgricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of Ethiopia
    Yihun, Y.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Schultz, co-promotor(en): T. Erkossa Jijo; A. Mehari Haile. - Leiden : CRC Press/Balkema - ISBN 9789462571709 - 82
    eragrostis tef - waterbeheer - watergebruik - water - watergebruiksrendement - optimalisatie - ethiopië - eragrostis tef - water management - water use - water - water use efficiency - optimization - ethiopia

    Title of the PhD Thesis:

    ‘Agricultural Water Productivity Optimization for Irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water Scarce Semi-Arid region of Ethiopia’

    Yenesew Mengiste Yihun

    In water stressed regions such as the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, increasing Crop Water Productivity (CWP) is imperative for sustainable food and water security. This PhD research presents CWP of Teff (Eragrostic Tef), a staple food in Ethiopia and an important export crop. Field experiments were conducted under irrigated agriculture during the dry seasons in the periods: 1) November 2010 to March 2011; and 2) December 2011 to April, 2012 at Melkassa Research Centre in Ethiopia. Teff crop was irrigated at four different water application depths ranging from 100% to 25% of the optimum Crop Water Evapotranspiration (ETc) during the four growing stages, the initial, development, mid season and late season. The effect of seeding rates at 25 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha on lodging and yield of the crop was also determined. Overall, the research has demonstrated the potential and the limitations of combining experimental fieldwork with modelling to optimize agricultural water productivity for Teff cultivation.

    Long Description of Book

    The prospects for the future are clear. Agriculture will have to respond to changing patterns of demand for food and combat food insecurity and poverty amongst marginalized communities. In so doing, agriculture will have to compete for scarce water with other users and reduce pressure on the water environment. Moreover, water managers have to unlock the potential of agricultural water management practices to raise productivity of water, spread equitable access to water, and conserve the natural productivity of the water resource base. This PhD thesis presents field tests combined with modelling work on the cultivation of irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in the Awash Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The field experiments were conducted during the dry season for two years. The results of these studies revealed that dealing with improvement of water productivity is closely related to the irrigation practice of regulated deficit irrigation and has a direct effect on yield, as the amount of water applied decreases intentionally the crop yield drops. Overall, this research has demonstrated the potential and the limitations of combining experimental fieldwork with modelling to optimize agricultural water productivity for Teff cultivation. Focusing on only experimental fieldwork is a single approach, and is hardly ever sufficient for achieving the best solutions to current water management problems. New guidelines on using the combined effort of experimental work in the field to produce field experimental data and using models are clearly needed. It is to these needs as well as to the required increase of Teff production under water scarce conditions that this research provides its main contribution.

    Short Description of the Book

    The research has demonstrated the potential and the limitations of combining experimental fieldwork with modelling to optimize agricultural water productivity for Teff cultivation. Focusing on only experimental fieldwork is a single approach, and is hardly ever sufficient for achieving the best solutions to the current water management problems. New guidelines on using the combined effort of experimental work in the field to produce field experimental data and using models are clearly needed. It is to these needs as well as to the required increase of Teff production under water scarce conditions that this research has provided its main contribution.

     

    Coping with drought for food security in Tigray, Ethiopia
    Berhe, A.A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859253 - 173
    landbouwklimatologie - droogte - waterstress - irrigatie - regen - gewassen - hordeum vulgare - gerst - eragrostis tef - mulches - opbrengsten - ethiopië - agroclimatology - drought - water stress - irrigation - rain - crops - hordeum vulgare - barley - eragrostis tef - mulches - yields - ethiopia

    Agricultural production in drylands suffers from drought and in sub-Saharan Africa, only about 15% of the terrestrial rainwater is used by plants for food, fodder and fiber. Drought was the major cause of crop failure and food insecurity for the last three decades in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia. Information from field experiments, farmers and FAO’s AquaCrop model were used to understand and evaluate characteristics of the local climate in relation to drought and its mitigation. Farmers often have a different perception of drought than scientists. This gap was solved with an improved analysis of rainfall data that focuses on drought. Drought in semi-arid north Ethiopia can be due to (1) a too short growing season due to late start and/or early cessation of rains, (2) a too long dry spell at critical growth stage or (3) due to total failure of rain. Different types of drought have different coping strategies. Coping strategies for drought are adaption of sowing date, in-situ water conservation and water harvesting for deficient irrigation. Physical water conservation structures need to account for extreme variations in rainfall typical for most drylands. Ridging is most promising while mulching is no longer promoted. Agronomic measures such as the use of quick maturing and drought resistant crops are often more attainable than adoption of water conservation practices. Crop failure is often more due to water scarcity than to lack of fertility. However, when agricultural production increases, water and nutrients often alternate as production limiting factors. The strong water-nutrient synergy in drylands requires precision fertilization and plant density adjustment. Farmers also have a different opinion about climate change; farmers’ climate change has more to do with desertification. Experimental results showed that drought alleviation strategies have the potential to reduce the risk of crop failure and drought in the semi-arid northern Ethiopia.

    On seed physiology, biomechanics and plant phenology in Eragrostis tef
    Delden, S.H. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik; Tjeerd-Jan Stomph, co-promotor(en): Jan Vos. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859444 - 185
    eragrostis - eragrostis tef - teelt - plantenfysiologie - biomechanica - zaadkieming - legering - oogsten - eragrostis - eragrostis tef - cultivation - plant physiology - biomechanics - seed germination - lodging - harvesting

    • Key words: Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter), germination, temperature, model, leaf appearance, phyllochron, development rate, lodging, biomechanics, safety factor, flowering, heading, day length, photoperiod.

    • Background Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter) is a C4 annual grass species (Poaceae) originating from Ethiopia. Teff cultivation in the Netherlands is thought to be economically feasible because teff grains and flour do not contain gluten and are rich in iron. These two characteristics make teff a desirable ingredient in health products, particularly for celiac disease patients. At the start of this project Dutch teff yields were modest (1.0 - 1.5 Mg•ha-1). The sowing and harvest dates were (too) late in the season and the crop was sensitive to lodging. Here, lodging is defined as the permanent displacement of shoots from their vertical due to root or shoot failure.

    • The objective of this research is to detail some processes that underlie the sensitivity to lodging and the late harvest. Therefore we studied seed germination, lodging resistance, day length response, pace of leaf appearance.

    • Germination of teff can be described by assuming a normally distributed rate of germination within the seed population. Minimal and maximal temperatures required for germination depend on water availability (water potential). Conversely, the minimal required water potential for germination depends on temperature.

    • Lodging was inevitable for teff grown on a Dutch sandy soil. We identified that not only the shoots of teff are prone to lodging, but that the roots are also a major factor in the lodging process. Furthermore, water adhering to the shoots alone, without wind action, could induce lodging in the studied cultivars.

    • Flowering in teff is significantly delayed by exposure to long days. Teff is therefore a short day plant; not only panicle initiation, but also development and outgrowth of the panicle were influenced by photoperiod.

    • Phyllochron, defined as the time required between the appearance of two successive teff leaves, increased abruptly for the last few leaves on the main stem of teff. After re-evaluation of literature data this abrupt increase in phyllochron seemed to be also present in both wheat and rice. The delay is most likely independent of temperature, but might be related to the moment of panicle initiation.

    • In conclusion, the study on teff identified clear targets for breeding towards a high-yielding cultivar in the Netherlands.


    Verkenning haalbaarheid glutenvrije keten : focus op graansoorten amaranth, quinoa en teff
    Janssens, S.R.M. ; Berg, I. van den; Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Jukema, N.J. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens 2008-034) - ISBN 9789086152452 - 74
    agrarische economie - consumentenvoorkeuren - markten - amaranthus - chenopodium quinoa - eragrostis tef - biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - glutenvrije diëten - glutenvrij brood - haalbaarheidsstudies - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - nederland - landbouwplantenteelt - akkerbouw - voedergewassen - ketenmanagement - tendensen - voedselconsumptie - agricultural economics - consumer preferences - markets - amaranthus - chenopodium quinoa - eragrostis tef - organic farming - organic foods - gluten free diets - gluten free bread - feasibility studies - food marketing - netherlands - crop husbandry - arable farming - fodder crops - supply chain management - trends - food consumption
    This report covers an exploratory study into the feasibility of gluten%free chains. This study focuses on amaranth, quinoa and teff grains. Besides the possibilities for the cultivation of these ancient grain varieties in the Netherlands, the con% secutive links of the chain are also described in this report. The organic produc% tion of these gluten%free grains is briefly covered. On the basis of consumer trends, the prospects are outlined for gluten%free raw materials and products. The prospects have been elaborated further on the basis of a SWOT analysis and the results of a workshop with chain representatives
    Succes- en faalfactoren voor vermarkten van biologische allergeenvrije producten : deelonderzoek 1 van het project 'Verwaarding productkwaliteit betreffende gezondheid en allergie'
    Jukema, N.J. ; Leeuwen, M.A.E. van - \ 2008
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport /PPO-AGV 3250090400) - 38
    biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - allergenen - gluten - glutenvrije diëten - appels - consumentengedrag - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - landbouwplantenteelt - akkerbouw - voeding en gezondheid - keuzegedrag - eragrostis tef - organic farming - organic foods - allergens - gluten - gluten free diets - apples - consumer behaviour - food marketing - crop husbandry - arable farming - nutrition and health - choice behaviour - eragrostis tef
    In dit onderzoek is achterhaald wat de perspectieven voor de biologische sector zijn om in te spelen op de markt van allergeenvrije producten. Het doel van het onderzoek is het bepalen van succes- en faalfactoren van het vermarkten van biologische allergeenvrije dieetproducten op basis van een gezondheidsvoordeel. Het onderzoek is tot stand gekomen op basis van de bevindingen van literatuuronderzoek over de bruikbaarheid van claims rond de positieve effecten van gezondheidsbevorderende inhoudstoffen van biologische producten als marketingtool. Door telefonische interviews zijn in samenwerking met de sector voorbeelden van marktintroducties van allergeenvrije producten verder uitgediept. In dit onderzoek zijn twee praktijkvoorbeelden nader onder de loep genomen: de (biologische) allergeenvrije Santana-appel en de glutenvrije Teff. Aan de hand van deze praktijkvoorbeelden en de theorie over keuzegedrag van consumenten rondom voeding, zijn de belangrijkste geleerde lessen met betrekking tot de afzet en marketing van biologische dieetvoeding richting consument gedestilleerd.
    Teeltonderzoek Teff (Eragrostis tef) 2003
    Mheen, H.J.C.J. van der - \ 2004
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente - 22
    eragrostis tef - graansoorten - teelt - zaaitijd - bemesting - stikstof - landbouwkundig onderzoek - veldproeven - proefvelden - eragrostis tef - cereals - cultivation - sowing date - fertilizer application - nitrogen - agricultural research - field tests - experimental plots
    Vanwege de late(over-)zaai, in combinatie met het warme, droge weer tijdens de pluimvorming, bloei en zaadzetting zijn de Teff teeltproeven in het seizoen 2003 weinig succesvol verlopen. Drie van de zes proeven zijn in het geheel niet geoogst, en de gegevens van de twee bemestingsproeven die wel (of deels) geoogst zijn geven niet de informatie waarvoor ze opgezet waren. Met het verhaal er omheen zijn de resultaten echter goed verklaarbaar. De zaaitijdenproef in Kooijenburg illustreert in extreme mate het belang van een tijdige inzaai, en de mogelijkheden van het gewas Teff om een matige opkomst (dunne stand) in gewasgroei en zaadopbrengst te kunnen compenseren. Het maakt duidelijk dat een wat te dunne en onregelmatige stand niet altijd aanleiding hoeft te zijn om over te zaaien. Ook zijn er interessante rasverschillen, voor wat betreft vroegheid en opbrengstzekerheid, zichtbaar.
    Stikstofbemesting van Teff (Eragrostis tef) : resultaten 2004
    Mheen, H.J.C.J. van der - \ 2004
    Kennisakker.nl 2004 (2004)15 april.
    graangewassen - graansoorten - eragrostis tef - stikstofmeststoffen - stikstofgehalte - zaadproductie - leemgronden - proeven op proefstations - akkerbouw - grain crops - cereals - eragrostis tef - nitrogen fertilizers - nitrogen content - seed production - loam soils - station tests - arable farming
    Over de juiste stikstofbemesting van het, in Nederland nieuwe, graangewas Teff is nog weinig bekend. Vanaf 2002 heeft er een aantal proeven plaatsgevonden. In 2004 is daarbij gekeken naar deling van de stikstofgiften. Teff was in 2004 in staat om met slechts zéér weinig stikstof (30 kg N/ha, verstrekt bij de pluimvorming!) een goede opbrengst te geven. Bij een verdere toename van de gift (tot 60 en 90 kg N/ha) liet de zaadopbrengst nog wel een verhoging zien (met name op de zavelgrond).
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