Alcohol and the associated risk of cancer | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
alcohol intake - cancer - ethanol - acetaldehyde - smoking - public health - breast cancer
The more you drink, the higher the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Drinking alcohol may be temporarily fun, it can have permanent consequences. Just a few drinks a week are associated with an increased risk of cancer, such as breast cancer. Learn about alcohol and its relation to cancer.
The contribution of biorefineries to rural development: the case of employment in Hungary
Heijman, W.J.M. ; Szabo, Zoltan ; Veldhuizen, Esther - \ 2019
Studies in Agricultural Economics 121 (2019). - ISSN 1418-2106 - 12 p.
biofuels - biofuel policies - ethanol - rural development - input-output analysis - employment
Most recent research concerning biofuels focuses on their potential for mitigating climate change, while their rural development dimension is given less prominence. Ongoing policy debates, including EU and US biofuel policies, pay little attention to this feature of the industry. This paper explores the impact of biorefineries on rural development, and employment in particular. It shows that biorefineries can have a considerable economic impact on the regions in which they are located. Embedded in the local social and economic fabric, the paper demonstrates their influence on regional and national labour markets. The case of a bioethanol plant in Hungary and its effect on the rural labour market in two counties of the country is studied by way of an input-output model. The research has found that the operation of a biorefinery stimulates the creation and maintenance of jobs in both farming and service industries. Results suggest that biorefineries are an important driver of rural development and that this aspect of the industry should be given greater weight in formulating biofuel policies.
Schimmel kan efficiënt melkzuur maken: Vinding van Wageningen Universiteit Research (WUR)
Eggink, Gerrit ; Weusthuis, Ruud - \ 2017
biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biotechnology - ethanol - bioenergy - lactic acid
Nauwkeurige gasanalyse-systemen voor kwaliteitsbewaking tijdens fruitopslag : Effecten van ethyleen en ethanol tijdens bewaring van appelen en peren189953 / RAPPORT
Schaik, A.C.R. van; Reuler, H. van - \ 2015
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 39
fruitteelt - chemische bewaring - bewaarfysiologie - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteit na de oogst - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - ethyleen - ethanol - appels - peren - proeven op proefstations - sensors - fruit growing - chemical preservation - postharvest physiology - quality controls - postharvest quality - keeping quality - ethylene - ethanol - apples - pears - station tests - sensors
Met een consortium van bedrijven en kennisinstellingen is onderzoek uitgevoerd naar grenswaarden voor de gasvormige componenten ethyleen en ethanol welke geproduceerd worden voor en tijdens de opslag van hardfruit. De ethyleen productie na de oogst kan mogelijk gebruikt worden als een rijpingsindicator voor partijen of cellen fruit. Deze componenten kunnen zich ook ophopen in de CA (controlled atmosphere) bewaring van appelen en peren en hebben ook tijdens de bewaring ook een duidelijke relatie met de kwaliteit van het product. Tevens is voor ethyleen een prototype ethyleen meter ontwikkeld.
Meer ethanol uit suikerbieten halen
Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
Boerderij 100 (2015)25. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 70 - 70.
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - ethanol - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rentabiliteit - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - arable farming - sugarbeet - ethanol - sustainability - profitability - biobased chemistry
Wageningen UR en adviesbureau DSD testen in proeffabriek Chembeet in Lelystad hoe meer ethanol uit suikerbieten is te halen. Het doel van het onderzoek is na te gaan of uit suikerbieten op een rendabele manier grondstoffen kunnen worden gehaald voor de chemische industrie.
Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst
Bosma, E.F. ; Weijer, A.H.P. van de; Daas, M.J.A. ; Oost, J. van der; Vos, W.M. de; Kranenburg, R. van - \ 2015
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81 (2015)5. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 1874 - 1883.
genetic tool development - lactic-acid - simultaneous saccharification - clostridium-thermocellum - industrial platform - ethanol - lignocellulose - coagulans - bacteria - licheniformis
Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per µg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals
Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: Differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment
Pol, E.C. van der; Bakker, R. ; Zeeland, A.N.T. van; Sanchez Garcia, D. ; Punt, A.M. ; Eggink, G. - \ 2015
Bioresource Technology 181 (2015). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 114 - 123.
saccharomyces-cerevisiae - degradation-products - wet oxidation - hydrolysis - ethanol - fermentations - cellulose - glucose - biomass
Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss.
The policy and practice of sustainable biofuels: Between global frameworks and local heterogeneity. The case of food security in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Florin, M.J. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 72 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 123 - 135.
bio-energy - governance - ethanol - certification - countries - markets - trade
This study explores the relationship between different biofuel production systems, the context in which they operate, and the extent to which various types of frameworks and schemes are able to monitor and promote their sustainability. The paper refers to the European Union Renewable Energy Directive and two international certification schemes (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels and NTA 8080/81) that can provide a ‘licence to sell’ biofuels on the EU market, and to the Mozambican policy framework for sustainable biofuels that provides a ‘licence to produce’ biomass for biofuels in Mozambique. Food security is used as a case study, and the food security impacts of two agro-industrial and two smallholder biofuel projects in Mozambique are described and analysed. The sustainability frameworks and schemes used in this study are able to address some, but not all, of the heterogeneity between and within different biofuel production systems. The emphasis is on monitoring agro-industrial projects while smallholder projects tend to slip through the net even when their negative impacts are evident. We conclude that globally applicable sustainability principles are useful, however, they should be operationalised at local or production system levels. This approach will support balancing between global frameworks and local heterogeneity.
Model collaboration for the improved assessment of biomass supply, demand, and impacts
Wicke, B. ; Hilst, F. van der; Daioglou, V. ; Banse, M. ; Beringer, T. ; Gerssen-Gondelach, S. ; Heijnen, S. ; Karssenberg, D. ; Laborde, D. ; Lippe, M. ; Meijl, H. van; Nassar, A. ; Powell, J.P. ; Prins, A.G. ; Rose, S.N.K. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Stehfest, E. ; Tyner, W.E. ; Verstegen, J.A. ; Valin, H. ; Vuuren, D.P. van; Yeh, S. ; Faaij, A.P.C. - \ 2015
Global change biology Bioenergy 7 (2015)3. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 422 - 437.
land-use change - global agricultural markets - greenhouse-gas emissions - eu biofuel policies - bioenergy production - united-states - energy crops - trade-offs - bio-energy - ethanol
Existing assessments of biomass supply and demand and their impacts face various types of limitations and uncertainties, partly due to the type of tools and methods applied (e.g., partial representation of sectors, lack of geographical details, and aggregated representation of technologies involved). Improved collaboration between existing modeling approaches may provide new, more comprehensive insights, especially into issues that involve multiple economic sectors, different temporal and spatial scales, or various impact categories. Model collaboration consists of aligning and harmonizing input data and scenarios, model comparison and/or model linkage. Improved collaboration between existing modeling approaches can help assess (i) the causes of differences and similarities in model output, which is important for interpreting the results for policy-making and (ii) the linkages, feedbacks, and trade-offs between different systems and impacts (e.g., economic and natural), which is key to a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of biomass supply and demand. But, full consistency or integration in assumptions, structure, solution algorithms, dynamics and feedbacks can be difficult to achieve. And, if it is done, it frequently implies a trade-off in terms of resolution (spatial, temporal, and structural) and/or computation. Three key research areas are selected to illustrate how model collaboration can provide additional ways for tackling some of the shortcomings and uncertainties in the assessment of biomass supply and demand and their impacts. These research areas are livestock production, agricultural residues, and greenhouse gas emissions from land-use change. Describing how model collaboration might look like in these examples, we show how improved model collaboration can strengthen our ability to project biomass supply, demand, and impacts. This in turn can aid in improving the information for policy-makers and in taking better-informed decisions.
Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterization of isolated fractions
Boeriu, C.G. ; Fitigau, F. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Frissen, A.E. ; Stoutjesdijk, J.H. ; Peter, F. - \ 2014
Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 481 - 490.
antioxidant activities - structural features - alcell(r) lignin - molecular-weight - kraft lignin - solubility - spectroscopy - prediction - ethanol - wood
Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins was made in terms of extraction yield, lignin solubility factor, molecular weight distribution and functional group composition. Low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fractions with narrow dispersity are obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate and acetone–water solution containing 30% acetone, with yields depending on the type and the functional group content of lignins. A significant amount (56%) of the organosolv hardwood lignin with low molecular weight (Mw = 1868 g/mol) and low dispersity was isolated from ethyl acetate. Insoluble fractions with very high molecular weight (Mw between 10 and 17 kg/mol) are obtained in low yield from acetone–water solutions with 50, 70 and 90% acetone. LMW lignins are in general less condensed and have lower aliphatic hydroxyl content than parent lignins while the HMW fractions have a higher content of condensed hydroxyls. Principal component analysis on the chemical composition of lignins and isolated fractions determined from 31P NMR data showed the high heterogeneity of the technical lignins. Partial least squares models based on FT-IR spectral data were developed to predict the functional group content determined by quantitative 31P NMR analysis of technical lignins and lignin fractions. This approach can be used to develop simple, rapid and accurate analytical tools to monitor and control the selective fractionation of lignin.
Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives
Stattman, S.L. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2014
Geoforum 54 (2014). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 282 - 294.
biofuels - ethanol - policy
Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels". Brazil a frontrunner in production and use of biofuels - aimed to combine biodiesel production with rural development. The biodiesel policy implemented in 2004 had two main objectives: to advance biodiesel as a transportation fuel and to foster the social inclusion of family farmers through participation in the biodiesel chain. Although participation of family farmers was low in the beginning, it increased substantially after a 2009 policy change that gave cooperatives a more prominent role. We analyze how, why and to what extent cooperatives are involved in integrating family farmers into the biodiesel chain and what this means for the social sustainability of biodiesel, taking the northeast state of Bahia as a case study area. The findings show that through the biodiesel policy, cooperatives until then a marginal phenomenon in northern Brazil increased their membership, were empowered and contributed to the economic development of a significant group of family farmers. However, these family farmers have not been substantially included in the biodiesel production chain itself. The biodiesel policy functions as a catalyst for rural (economic) development in which the cooperatives seem to achieve what governments were unable to achieve: the integration of specific categories of family farmers into agrarian development. Subsistence family farmers, in particular, have not been able to profit from this policy-driven, "market-oriented," rural development model. Hence, it can be questioned whether this policy has made biodiesel more socially sustainable. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Side by Side Comparison of Chemical Compounds Generated by Aqueous Pretreatments of Maize Stover, Miscanthus and Sugarcane Bagasse
Gomez, L.D. ; Vanholme, R. ; Bird, S. ; Goeminne, G. ; Trindade, L.M. ; Polikarpov, I. ; Simister, R. ; Morreel, K. ; Boerjan, W. ; McQueen-Mason, S.J. - \ 2014
Bio Energy Research 7 (2014)4. - ISSN 1939-1234 - p. 1466 - 1480.
cell-walls - bioethanol production - ferulic acid - wheat-straw - energy crop - lignin - saccharification - ethanol - delignification - technologies
In order to examine the potential for coproduct generation, we have characterised chemical compounds released by a range of alkaline and acidic aqueous pretreatments as well as the effect of these pretreatments on the saccharification ability of the lignocellulosic material. Comparative experiments were performed using three biomass types chosen for their potential as second-generation biofuel feedstocks: maize stover, miscanthus and sugarcane bagasse. The release of lignin from the feedstock correlated with the residual biomass saccharification potential, which was consistently higher after alkaline pretreament for all three feedstock types. Alkaline pretreatment released more complex mixtures of pentose and hexose sugars into the pretreatment liquor than did acid pretreatment. In addition, complex mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic compounds were released into pretreatment liquors under alkaline conditions, in a temperature-dependent manner, but far less so under acidic conditions. We show that the three feedstocks characterised interact with the pretreatment conditions in a specific manner to generate different ranges of products, highlighting the need to tailor pretreatments to both the starting feedstock and desired outcomes.
Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by acetaldehyde in human intestinal LS174T goblet-like cells
Elamin, E. ; Masclee, A. ; Troost, F. ; Dekker, J. ; Jonkers, D. - \ 2014
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 307 (2014)3. - ISSN 0193-1857 - p. G286 - G294.
mediated endothelial permeability - inflammatory-bowel-disease - in-vitro - epithelial barrier - liver-disease - oral-mucosa - aldehyde dehydrogenases - plasma endotoxin - tight junctions - ethanol
There is compelling evidence indicating that ethanol and its oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde can disrupt intestinal barrier function. Apart from the tight junctions, mucins secreted by goblet cells provide an effective barrier. Ethanol has been shown to induce goblet cell injury associated with alterations in mucin glycosylation. However, effects of its most injurious metabolite acetaldehyde remain largely unknown. This study aimed to assess short-term effects of acetaldehyde (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 mu M) on functional characteristics of intestinal goblet-like cells (LS174T). Oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, ATP, and intramitochondrial calcium (Ca2+) were assessed by dichlorofluorescein, methyltetrazolium, and bioluminescence, MitoTracker green and rhod-2 double-labeling. Membrane integrity and apoptosis were evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), caspase 3/7, and cleavage of cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) was determined by cell-based ELISA. Acetaldehyde significantly increased reactive oxygen species generation and decreased mitochondrial function compared with negative controls (P <0.05). In addition, acetaldehyde dose-dependently decreased ATP levels and induced intramitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation compared with negative controls (P <0.05). Furthermore, acetaldehyde induced LDH release and increased caspase3/7 activity and percentage of cells expressing cleaved CK18 and increased MUC2 protein expression compared with negative controls (P <0.0001). ATP depletion and LDH release could be largely prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting a pivotal role for oxidative stress. Our data demonstrate that acetaldehyde has distinct oxidant-dependent metabolic and cytotoxic effects on LS174T cells that can lead to induction of cellular apoptosis. These effects may contribute to acetaldehyde-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and subsequently to liver injury.
Voorkomen wateroverlast Teelt de grond uit bloembollen
Slootweg, G. ; Gude, H. - \ 2014
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving BBF - 17
bloembollen - lelies - substraten - waterverzadiging - plant-water relaties - effecten - beluchting - ethanol - anaërobie - proeven op proefstations - ornamental bulbs - lilies - substrates - waterlogging - plant water relations - effects - aeration - ethanol - anaerobiosis - station tests
1 Samenvatting Wateroverlast in een Teelt de grond uit-systeem kan grote schade geven aan lelies. Drie dagen wateroverlast in augustus leidde in dit onderzoek tot grote opbrengstderving. Eén dag wateroverlast in september of in oktober veroorzaakte nauwelijks uitval of een lager bolgewicht bij de oogst. Wateroverlast leidt tot ethanolvorming in de bollen. De ethanolvorming vertoonde dit jaar geen mooi verband met de tijd: drie dagen wateroverlast gaf meer ethanol dan één of twee dagen, maar twee dagen niet meer dan één. In 2013 vertoonde de concentratie ethanol een rechtlijnig verband met de duur van de wateroverlast. De voorspellende waarde van een ethanolmeting blijkt na de experimenten in 2014 minder zeker. Het beluchten van het natte substraat door het doorblazen van perslucht leidde bij de behandeling in augustus tot minder ethanolvorming, maar juist tot meer opbrengstderving. Het systeem van beluchting via een slang onderin het substraat had een iets gunstiger effect op de ethanolvorming dan beluchting via slangetjes, die in het substraat gestoken waren. De grotere opbrengstderving door beluchting tijdens de periode van wateroverlast is mogelijk een gevolg van mechanische beschadiging van de (haar)wortels door de beweging, of van structuurbederf die optreedt als het doorborrelde substraat weer droogvalt. Dit onderzoek bevestigt de conclusie uit 2013 dat lelies bestand zijn tegen maximaal 1 dag wateroverlast (anaerobie). Een periode van anaerobie leidt tot ethanolvorming in de bollen, maar de correlatie tussen duur van de anaerobie is te zwak om het ethanolgehalte als indicator toe te passen. Het beluchten van grond tijdens periodes van wateroverlast is geen oplossing voor het anaerobieprobleem.
Stable isotape ratios of H, C, N an O in Italian citrus juices
Bontempo, L. ; Caruso, R. ; Fiorillo, M. ; Gambino, G.L. ; Perini, M. ; Simoni, M. ; Traulo, P. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. ; Gagliano, G. ; Camin, F. - \ 2014
Journal of Mass Spectrometry 49 (2014)9. - ISSN 1076-5174 - p. 785 - 791.
fruit juices - mass-spectrometry - orange juice - sugar addition - snif-nmr - water - ethanol - irms - fructose - origin
Stable isotope ratios (SIRs) of C, N, H and O have been exensively used in fruit juices quality control (ENV and AOAC methods) to detect added sugar and the watering down of concentrated juice, practices prohibited by European legislation (EU Directive 2012/12). The European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) set some reference guidelines in order to allow the judging of the genuiness of a juice. Moreover, various studies have been carried out to determine the natural variability of SIRs in fruit juices, but none of these has investigated SIRs extensively in authentic citrus juices from Italy. In this work, about 500 citrus juice samples were officially collected in Italy by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies from 1998 onwards. (D/H)I and (D/H)II in ethanol and d13Cethanol, d13Cpulp, d13Csugars, d18Ovegetalwater, d15Npulp, and d18Opulp were determined using Site-Specific Natural Isotope Fractionation-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, respectively. The characteristic ranges of variability in SIRs in genuine Italian citrus juice samples are here presented as well as their relationships and compliance with the limits indicated by the AIJN and others proposed in the literature. In particular, the Italian range of values was found to be not completely in agreement with AIJN guidelines, with the risk that genuine juices could be judged as not genuine. Variety seems not to influence SIRs, whereas harvest year and region of origin have some influence on the different ratios, although their data distribution shows overlapping when principal component analysis is applied.
Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides
Neumüller, K.G. ; Streekstra, H. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 60 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 88 - 97.
talaromyces-emersonii - wheat-straw - hydrolysis - pretreatment - ethanol - plant - lignocellulose - fermentation - efficiency - conversion
Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan substitution for WUS, ErCS and AFR, being most pronounced regarding acetic acid, glucuronic acid- and arabinose content. By screening for enzymatic degradation of WUS, ErCS and AFR, enzyme preparations exhibiting high conversion rates were identified. Furthermore significant synergistic effects were detected by blending Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii culture filtrates with various enzymes. These findings clearly highlight a necessity for a combinatorial use of enzyme preparations towards substrates with high recalcitrance characteristics to reach high degrees of degradation. Enzyme blends were identified, outperforming the individual commercial preparations. These enzyme preparations provide a basis for new, designed enzyme mixtures for corn polysaccharide degradation as a source of necessary, accessory enzyme activities.
Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level-A combined approach for the Netherlands
Hoefnagels, R. ; Banse, M.A.H. ; Dornburg, V. ; Faaij, A. - \ 2013
Energy Policy 59 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 727 - 744.
biofuel mandates - land-use - emissions - bioenergy - ethanol - balance - europe - costs
Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital importance to understand the economic benefits, uncertainties and risks of this transition. This article presents a quantification of the economic impacts on value added, employment shares and the trade balance as well as required biomass and avoided primary energy and greenhouse gases related to large scale biomass deployment on a country level (the Netherlands) for different future scenarios to 2030. This is done by using the macro-economic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model LEITAP, capable of quantifying direct and indirect effects of a bio-based economy combined with a spread sheet tool to address underlying technological details. Although the combined approach has limitations, the results of the projections show that substitution of fossil energy carriers by biomass, could have positive economic effects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and fossil energy requirement. Key factors to achieve these targets are enhanced technological development and the import of sustainable biomass resources to the Netherlands. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Early-Stage Comparative Sustainability Assessment of New Bio-based Processes
Patel, A.D. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Uil, H. den; Jong, E. de; Worrell, E. ; Patel, M.K. - \ 2013
ChemSusChem 6 (2013)9. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 1724 - 1736.
life-cycle assessment - transportation fuels - fast pyrolysis - energy use - gasification - performance - efficiency - biofuels - ethanol
Our increasing demand for materials and energy has put critical roadblocks on our path towards a sustainable society. To remove these roadblocks, it is important to engage in smart research and development (R&D). We present an early-stage sustainability assessment framework that is used to analyze eight new bio-based process alternatives developed within the CatchBio research consortium in the Netherlands. This assessment relies on a multi-criteria approach, integrating the performance of chemical conversions based on five indicators into an index value. These indicators encompass economics, environmental impact, hazards and risks thereby incorporating elements of green chemistry principles, and techno-economic and life cycle assessments. The analyzed bio-based options target the production of fuels and chemicals through chemical catalysis. For each bio-based process, two R&D stages (current laboratory and expected future) are assessed against a comparable conventional process. The multi-criteria assessment in combination with the uncertainty and scenario analysis shows that the chemical production processes using biomass as feedstock can provide potential sustainability benefits over conventional alternatives. However, further development is necessary to realize the potential benefits from biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes for fuel production. This early stage assessment is intended as an input for R&D decision making to support optimal allocation and utilization of resources to further develop promising bio-based processes.
The cellulose resource matrix
Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Yilmaz, G. ; Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2013
Carbohydrate Polymers 93 (2013)1. - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 9 - 21.
plant fibers - biofuels - biorefinery - feedstocks - chemistry - ethanol - biomass - systems
The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the feedstock and the performance in the end-application. The cellulose resource matrix should become a practical tool for stakeholders to make choices regarding raw materials, process or market. Although there is a vast amount of scientific and economic information available on cellulose and lignocellulosic resources, the accessibility for the interested layman or entrepreneur is very difficult and the relevance of the numerous details in the larger context is limited. Translation of science to practical accessible information with modern data management and data integration tools is a challenge. Therefore, a detailed matrix structure was composed in which the different elements or entries of the matrix were identified and a tentative rough set up was made. The inventory includes current commodities and new cellulose containing and raw materials as well as exotic sources and specialties. Important chemical and physical properties of the different raw materials were identified for the use in processes and products. When available, the market data such as price and availability were recorded. Established and innovative cellulose extraction and refining processes were reviewed. The demands on the raw material for suitable processing were collected. Processing parameters known to affect the cellulose properties were listed. Current and expected emerging markets were surveyed as well as their different demands on cellulose raw materials and processes. The setting up of the cellulose matrix as a practical tool requires two steps Firstly, the reduction of the needed data by clustering of the characteristics of raw materials, processes and markets and secondly, the building of a database that can provide the answers to the questions from stakeholders with an indicative character. This paper describes the steps taken to achieve the defined clusters of most relevant and characteristic properties. These data can be expanded where required. More detailed specification can be obtained from the background literature and handbooks. Where gaps of information are identified, the research questions can be defined that will require further investigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw
Panagiotopoulos, I.A. ; Bakker, R.R.C. ; Vrije, G.J. de; Claassen, P.A.M. ; Koukios, E.G. - \ 2013
Bioresource Technology 128 (2013). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 345 - 350.
thermophiles caldicellulosiruptor-saccharolyticus - dilute-acid pretreatment - thermotoga-neapolitana - extreme thermophiles - bioethanol production - biomass - inhibition - conversion - ethanol - pulp
Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of 93.4 g/L, while dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw led to a hydrolysate with sugar concentration 23.0 g/L. Wheat grain hydrolysate was not suitable for hydrogen production by the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus at glucose concentrations of 10 g/L or higher, and wheat straw hydrolysate showed good fermentability at total sugar concentrations of up to 10 g/L. The mixed hydrolysates showed good fermentability at the highest tested sugar concentration of 20 g/L, with a hydrogen production of 82–97% of that of the control with pure sugars. Mixing wheat grain hydrolysate with wheat straw hydrolysate would be beneficial for fermentative hydrogen production in a biorefinery.