Fungal endopolygalacturonases are recognized as MAMPs by the Arabidopsis Receptor-Like Protein RBPG1
Zhang, L. ; Kars, I. ; Essenstam, B. ; Liebrand, T.W.H. ; Wagemakers, L. ; Elberse, J. ; Tagkalaki, P. ; Tjoitang, D. ; Ackerveken, G. van den; Kan, J.A.L. van - \ 2014
Plant Physiology 164 (2014)1. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 352 - 364.
ethylene-inducing xylanase - agrobacterium-mediated transformation - innate immunity - nicotiana-benthamiana - necrotizing activity - enzymatic-activity - aspergillus-niger - plasma-membrane - plant immunity - active-site
Plants perceive microbial invaders using pattern recognition receptors that recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns. In this study, we identified RESPONSIVENESS TO BOTRYTIS POLYGALACTURONASES1 (RBPG1), an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein, AtRLP42, that recognizes fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) and acts as a novel microbe-associated molecular pattern receptor. RBPG1 recognizes several PGs from the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea as well as one from the saprotroph Aspergillus niger. Infiltration of B. cinerea PGs into Arabidopsis accession Columbia induced a necrotic response, whereas accession Brno (Br-0) showed no symptoms. A map-based cloning strategy, combined with comparative and functional genomics, led to the identification of the Columbia RBPG1 gene and showed that this gene is essential for the responsiveness of Arabidopsis to the PGs. Transformation of RBPG1 into accession Br-0 resulted in a gain of PG responsiveness. Transgenic Br-0 plants expressing RBPG1 were equally susceptible as the recipient Br-0 to the necrotroph B. cinerea and to the biotroph Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Pretreating leaves of the transgenic plants with a PG resulted in increased resistance to H. arabidopsidis. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that RBPG1 and PG form a complex in Nicotiana benthamiana, which also involves the Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein SOBIR1 (for SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1). sobir1 mutant plants did not induce necrosis in response to PGs and were compromised in PG-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis.
Two for all: receptor-associated kinases SOBIR1 and BAK1
Liebrand, T.W.H. ; Burg, H.A. van den; Joosten, M.H.A.J. - \ 2014
Trends in Plant Science 19 (2014)2. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 123 - 132.
plant innate immunity - pattern-recognition receptors - ethylene-inducing xylanase - arabidopsis-thaliana - cladosporium-fulvum - defense responses - cell-death - signaling pathways - plasma-membrane - protein-kinase
Leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) are ubiquitous cell surface receptors lacking a cytoplasmic signalling domain. For most of these LRR-RLPs, it remained enigmatic how they activate cellular responses upon ligand perception. Recently, the LRR-receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1 (SOBIR1) was shown to be essential for triggering defence responses by certain LRR-RLPs that act as immune receptors. In addition to SOBIR1, the regulatory LRR-RLK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE-1 (BAK1) is also required for LRR-RLP function. Here, we compare the roles of SOBIR1 and BAK1 as regulatory LRR-RLKs in immunity and development. BAK1 has a general regulatory role in plasma membrane-associated receptor complexes comprising LRR-RLPs and/or LRR-RLKs. By contrast, SOBIR1 appears to be specifically required for the function of receptor complexes containing LRR-RLPs.
Ve1-mediated resistance against Verticillium does not involve a hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis
Zhang, Z. ; Esse, H.P. van; Damme, M. van; Fradin, E.F. ; Liu, Chun-Ming ; Thomma, B.P.H.J. - \ 2013
Molecular Plant Pathology 14 (2013)7. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 719 - 727.
ethylene-inducing xylanase - receptor-like proteins - gated ion-channel - disease resistance - rhynchosporium-secalis - functional-analysis - defense responses - gene family - tomato ve1 - cell-death
The recognition of pathogen effectors by plant immune receptors leads to the activation of immune responses that often include a hypersensitive response (HR): rapid and localized host cell death surrounding the site of attempted pathogen ingress. We have demonstrated previously that the recognition of the Verticillium dahliae effector protein Ave1 by the tomato immune receptor Ve1 triggers an HR in tomato and tobacco. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that tomato Ve1 provides Verticillium resistance in Arabidopsis upon Ave1 recognition. In this study, we investigated whether the co-expression of Ve1 and Ave1 in Arabidopsis results in an HR, which could facilitate a forward genetics screen. Surprisingly, we found that the co-expression of Ve1 and Ave1 does not induce an HR in Arabidopsis. These results suggest that an HR may occur as a consequence of Ve1/Ave1-induced immune signalling in tomato and tobacco, but is not absolutely required for Verticillium resistance.
Receptor-like proteins involved in plant disease resistance
Kruijt, M. ; Kock, M.J.D. de; Wit, P.J.G.M. de - \ 2005
Molecular Plant Pathology 6 (2005)1. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 85 - 97.
cladosporium-fulvum resistance - membrane-associated complex - ethylene-inducing xylanase - terminal dilysine motif - leucine-rich repeats - apple scab disease - for-gene concept - verticillium wilt - short arm - hypersensitive response
Race-specific resistance in plants against microbial pathogens is governed by several distinct classes of resistance (R) genes. This review focuses on the class that consists of the plasma membrane-bound leucine-rich repeat proteins known as receptor-like proteins (RLPs). The first isolated resistance genes of the RLP class are the tomato Cf genes, which confer resistance to the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. To date, several other RLP genes are known to be implicated in resistance in other plant¿pathogen interactions. These include HcrVf2 from apple, Ve1 and Ve2 from tomato, and RPP27 from Arabidopsis, which are involved in resistance to Venturia, Verticillium and Peronospora, respectively. Furthermore, the tomato RLP gene LeEix initiates defence responses upon elicitation with a fungal ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX) of non-pathogenic Trichoderma. The tomato Cf genes, which are the most intensively studied RLP resistance genes, are usually found in clusters of several homologues. Whereas some of these homologues are functional Cf resistance genes, others have no known function in resistance. Different evolutionary processes contribute to variation in functional Cf genes, and functional as well as non-functional homologues may provide a source for the generation of novel Cf resistance genes. To date, little is known of the proteins that interact with Cf proteins to initiate defence responses. In contrast to the LeEix protein and the corresponding EIX elicitor, for which a direct interaction was found, no direct interaction between Cf proteins and the corresponding C. fulvum elicitors has been demonstrated. Analogous to the CLAVATA signalling complex, which comprises an RLP, a receptor-like kinase (RLK) and a small proteineous ligand, Cf proteins may form a complex with RLKs and thus initiate signalling upon recognition of the corresponding elicitors. The presence of RLP resistance genes in diverse plant species suggests that these genes play an important role in the extracellular recognition of plant pathogens