Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site
Eilmann, B. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Wegner, L. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Arx, G. von; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
Tree Physiology 34 (2014)8. - ISSN 0829-318X - p. 882 - 893.
fagus-sylvatica l. - climate-change - european beech - scots pine - phenotypic plasticity - forest trees - drought tolerance - quercus-petraea - pubescent oak - norway spruce
Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial growth. Altogether, we conclude that the similarity in ring-width variation among provenances points to environmental control of this trait, whereas the differences encountered in wood-anatomical traits between the well-performing Bulgarian provenance and the other three provenances, as well as the consistent differences in flushing pattern over 3 years under various environmental conditions, support the hypothesis of genetic control of these features.
Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure?
Piotti, A. ; Leonardi, S. ; Heuertz, M. ; Buiteveld, J. ; Geburek, T. ; Gerber, S. ; Kramer, K. ; Vettori, C. ; Vendramin, G.G. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
european beech - populus-trichocarpa - natural-populations - plant-populations - pollen dispersal - estimating seed - f-statistics - null alleles - douglas-fir - white-pine
The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs). Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot hST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124). The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (FCluPlot = 0.067) was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (FPlotTot = 0.045). Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i) genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii) indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts in forest genetic modelling: population- and individually-based approaches
Kramer, K. ; Werf, D.C. van der - \ 2010
Forest Systems 19 (2010). - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 100 - 112.
ecological paradigms - european beech - diversity - dynamics - climate - differentiation - subpopulations - biogeography - management - impact
The environment is changing and so are forests, in their functioning, in species composition, and in the species’ genetic composition. Many empirical and process-based models exist to support forest management. However, most of these models do not consider the impact of environmental changes and forest management on genetic diversity nor on the rate of adaptation of critical plant processes. How genetic diversity and rates of adaptation depend on management actions is a crucial next step in model development. Modelling approaches of genetic and demographic processes that operate in forests are categorized here in two classes. One approach assumes equilibrium conditions in phenotype and tree density, and analyses the characteristics of the demography and the genetic system of the species that determine the rate at which that equilibrium is attained. The other modelling approach does not assume equilibrium conditions and describes both the ecological —and genetic processes to analyse how environmental changes result in selection pressures on functional traits of trees and the consequences of that selection for tree— and ecosystem functioning. The equilibrium approach allows analysing the recovery rate after a perturbation in stable environments, i.e. towards the same pre-perturbation stable state. The nonequilibrium approach allows, in addition to the equilibrium approach, analysing consequences of ongoing environmental changes and forest management, i.e. non-stationary environments, on tree functioning, species composition, and genetic composition of the trees in forest ecosystem. In this paper we describe these two modelling approaches and discuss advantages and disadvantages of them and current knowledge gaps.
Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis
Reyer, C. ; Lasch, P. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Sterck, F.J. - \ 2010
Annals of Forest Science 67 (2010)8. - ISSN 1286-4560 - p. 805 - 805.
interspecific competition - european beech - volume growth - norway spruce - root biomass - stands - management - l. - netherlands - simulation
Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest model 4C with published fine root biomass distributions of Douglas-fir/beech stands and a stand composition originating from yield tables to simulate forest growth under regional climate change scenarios for a Dutch and a German site. • The number of days when the tree water demand exceeded the soil water supply was higher for Douglas-fir than for beech. After 45 simulation years the proportion of basal area covered by beech increased from one to seven percent. Beech’s competitive strength is mainly explained by the fine root biomass distributions and is highest under the historic climate and the driest climate change scenarios. Higher net primary production (NPP) under warmer/wetter climate but decreased NPP under warmer/drier conditions confirms Douglas-fir’s high sensitivity to limited water supply. • Simulated climate change does not substantially alter the interaction of the two species but the drought-stressed trees are more susceptible to insects or pathogens. The concept of complementary water use highlights the importance of mixed forest for climate change adaptation.