Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1¿3)-ß-D-glucan.
Smiderle, F.R. ; Baggio, C.H. ; Borato, D.G. ; Santana-Filho, A.P. ; Sassaki, G.L. ; Iacomini, M. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203
formalin test - in-vivo - fruiting bodies - beta-glucans - congo-red - polysaccharides - mice - macrophages - extract - complex
The Ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, an entomopathogenic fungus, is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines. Studies related to its pharmacological properties suggest that this mushroom can exert interesting biological activities. Aqueous (CW and HW) and alkaline (K5) extracts containing polysaccharides were prepared from this mushroom, and a ß-D-glucan was purified. This polymer was analysed by GC-MS and NMR spectrometry, showing a linear chain composed of ß-D-Glcp (1¿3)-linked. The six main signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum were assigned by comparison to reported data. The aqueous (CW, HW) extracts stimulated the expression of IL-1ß, TNF-a, and COX-2 by THP-1 macrophages, while the alkaline (K5) extract did not show any effect. However, when the extracts were added to the cells in the presence of LPS, K5 showed the highest inhibition of the pro-inflammatory genes expression. This inhibitory effect was also observed for the purified ß-(1¿3)-D-glucan, that seems to be the most potent anti-inflammatory compound present in the polysaccharide extracts of C. militaris. In vivo, ß-(1¿3)-D-glucan also inhibited significantly the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced nociceptive response, and, in addition, it reduced the migration of total leukocytes but not the neutrophils induced by LPS. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the anti-inflammatory effect of ß-(1¿3)-D-glucan.
Evaluation of a diagnostic ELISA for insect bite hypersensitivity in horses using recombinant Obsoletus complex allergens
Meide, N.M.A. van der; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Meulenbroeks, C. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Tijhaar, E.J. - \ 2014
The Veterinary Journal 200 (2014)1. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 31 - 37.
genome-wide association - culicoides-obsoletus - plasma-cells - equine ige - antibodies - responses - expression - extract - skin - ceratopogonidae
Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex belong to the most important species of midge, involved in causing insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses in The Netherlands. The aim of the current study was to evaluate seven different Obsoletus complex-derived recombinant allergens (Cul o 1–Cul o 7) and to compare these with Obsoletus complex whole body extract (WBE) in an IgE ELISA, using sera of 194 clinically-confirmed cases of IBH and 175 unaffected horses. The highest test accuracy was obtained with WBE, followed by Cul o 2, 3 and 5. Two ELISAs with a combination of recombinant allergens, Combi-1 (Cul o 3, 5 and 7) and Combi-2 (Cul o 1, 2, 5 and 7) were additionally performed and both resulted in high test accuracies close to that obtained with WBE. Combi-1 resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity, both 89%. Both Combi-1 and Combi-2 performed less well with samples collected in winter, but over 70% of the IBH-affected horses could still be identified. In conclusion, a combination of three Obsoletus complex recombinant allergens (Cul o 3, 5 and 7) could potentially replace Obsoletus complex WBE in an IgE ELISA for diagnosis of IBH in horses.
Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies
Schurink, A. ; Meide, N.M.A. van der; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Tijhaar, E.J. - \ 2014
The Veterinary Journal 201 (2014). - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 395 - 400.
insect bite hypersensitivity - equine ige - netherlands - antibodies - diagnosis - allergens - extract
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.
House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins
Verhoeckx, K. ; Broekhoven, S. van; Hartog-Jager, C.F. den; Gaspari, M. ; Jong, G.A.H. de; Wichers, H.J. ; Hoffen, E. van; Houben, G.F. ; Knulst, A.C. - \ 2014
Food and Chemical Toxicology 65 (2014). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 364 - 373.
invertebrate pan-allergen - dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus - immunological characterization - arginine kinase - shrimp allergen - major allergen - alpha-tubulin - tropomyosin - identification - extract
Scope. Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Methods and results. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Conclusion. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.
Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.
Toydemir, G. ; Capanoglu, E. ; Kamiloglu, S. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Vos, C.H. de; Hall, R.D. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Functional Foods 5 (2013)3. - ISSN 1756-4646 - p. 1402 - 1413.
phenolic-compounds - vitamin-c - anthocyanins - extract - tomato - degradation - metabolome - capacities - cultivars - stability
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale processing strategy. This was performed for 22 sampling points, with five independent repeats from a commercial cherry nectar production process. Anthocyanins contributed to >50% of the total antioxidant capacity of the samples. An in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion system was used to investigate serum availability of antioxidants. In this system anthocyanin bioavailability was much higher in the processed nectar than in the fresh fruit. Together these results indicate that processed sour cherry nectar is a rich source of stable antioxidants with high bioavailability, auguring well for the potential health-promoting capacity of sour cherry products.
Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses
Meide, N.M.A. van der; Roders, N. ; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. ; Schaap, P.J. ; Oers, M.M. van; Leibold, W. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Tijhaar, E. - \ 2013
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 153 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 227 - 239.
lepidoglyphus-destructor - intradermal challenge - escherichia-coli - skin - identification - extract - ige - immunotherapy - antibodies - responses
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in the Netherlands, by sequence homology searches on the C. obsoletus specific RNA database, with previously described allergens from C. nubeculosus and C. sonorensis. BLAST searches with these described allergens resulted in similarity hits with 7 genes coding for C. obsoletus allergens. These allergens were expressed as hexahistidine tagged recombinant proteins in E. coli. Allergens were termed Cul o 1–Cul o 7. A maltase (Cul o 1) plus Cul s 1 (maltase of C. sonorensis) were additionally expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system to compare homologous allergens from different species produced with different expression systems in diagnostic in vitro and in vivo tests. We demonstrate that IBH affected horses in the Netherlands show higher IgE levels to Cul o 1 than to Cul s 1, as determined by an IgE ELISA. Furthermore, we show that Cul o 1 produced in E. coli is at least as suitable for in vitro diagnosis of IBH affected horses as Cul o 1 produced in the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. The resulting proteins were evaluated for their ability to discriminate IBH affected and healthy horses by ELISA and intradermal testing. The frequency of positive test results by ELISA within IBH affected horses ranged from 38% to 67% for the different allergens. When results of IgE-binding to Cul o 1–Cul o 7 were combined the test had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 85%. The capability of the allergens to induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in IBH affected horses was demonstrated by an intradermal test. The results show that E. coli expressed recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus are valuable tools to determine the allergen specific sensitisation profile (component resolved diagnosis) in horses with IBH in countries were C. obsoletus is the most abundant species and may facilitate in the development of future immunotherapy
Inhibitory activity of plumbagin produced by Drosera intermedia on food spoilage fungi
Grevenstuk, T. ; Gonçalves, S. ; Domingos, T. ; Quintas, C. ; Hooft, J.J.J. van der; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Romano, A. - \ 2012
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 92 (2012)8. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1638 - 1642.
saccharomyces-cerevisiae - mycotoxin - toxicity - pathways - extract - plants - yeast
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the growth-inhibiting efficacy of Drosera intermedia extracts (water, methanol and n-hexane) against four food spoilage yeasts and five filamentous fungi strains responsible for food deterioration and associated with mycotoxin production, in order to identify potential antimycotic agents. RESULTS: The n-hexane extract showed a broad activity spectrum against all tested microorganisms, followed, in activity, by the methanol and water extracts. The major component of the n-hexane extract was purified using a solid-phase extraction column and identified as plumbagin. Results show that high-purity plumbagin can be produced from D. intermedia cultures following a simple and effective isolation procedure. A sample of purified plumbagin was tested against the same panel of microorganisms and high growth-inhibiting capacity was observed. Minimum inhibitory concentrations less than 2 mu g mL(-1) were obtained against the filamentous fungi. In the case of the species Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and A. flavus, activities comparable to miconazole were obtained. CONCLUSION: The results obtained provided evidence of the antimycotic activity of plumbagin, suggesting that D. intermedia could be the source of an interesting compound for the food industry as an alternative to preservatives. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry
Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds
Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Beekman, W. - \ 2010
Journal of Applied Phycology 22 (2010)4. - ISSN 0921-8971 - p. 503 - 510.
decomposing barley straw - microcystis-aeruginosa - water-purification - aqueous-solutions - activated carbon - surface-water - removal - extract - blooms - husks
Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (±0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L-1, growth rates were negative and on average -0.23 (±0.05) .day-1. Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (FPSII), while the FPSII was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L-1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of ~270 µg L-1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to =80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L-1, the FPSII dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance.
Efficient isolation of major procyanidin A-type dimers from peanut skins and B-type dimers from grape seeds
Appeldoorn, M.M. ; Sanders, M.B. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Cheynier, V. ; Guerneve, C. Le; Gruppen, H. - \ 2009
Food Chemistry 117 (2009)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 713 - 720.
performance liquid-chromatography - low-density-lipoprotein - reversed-phase hplc - antioxidant activity - proanthocyanidins - cocoa - polymerization - fractionation - separation - extract
In order to fully explore the biofunctional potential of proanthocyanidins (PA), isolated and well-characterised PA dimers are of great importance. Current methods to obtain pure A- and B-type dimers are laborious, because they comprise multiple chromatographic steps, often yielding only one or two specific dimers. In the current study, an efficient isolation procedure is described, to isolate a large variety of A-type dimers from peanut skins and B-type dimers from grape seeds. Yields increased 20-400 times for A-type dimers and about 10 times for B-type dimers compared to other methods with a lesser number of chromatographic steps. Dimers isolated from peanut skins were identified as; epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-catechin (A1), epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-epicatechin (A2), epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-6)-catechin, epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-entcatechin, isolated from peanut skins for the first time, and epicatechin-(4-6)-catechin (B7). Dimers from grape seeds were identified as; epicatechin-(4-8)-catechin (B1), epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin (B2), catechin-(4-8)-catechin (B3) and catechin-(4-8)-epicatechin (B4)
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba
Hernández, J. ; Volpato, G. - \ 2004
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90 (2004)2. - ISSN 0378-8741 - p. 293 - 316.
womens health conditions - antimicrobial activity - crescentia-cujete - us embargo - plants - ethnobotany - healers - extract - impact - mexico
Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed.