Inventarisatie potentiële locaties Tijdelijke Natuur in Nederland
Gies, T.J.A. ; Agricola, H.J. ; Beun, N.J. - \ 2015
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk (Rapport / InnovatieNetwerk nr. 15.2.335) - ISBN 9789050595254
natuurbeheer - braak - verlaten grond - bestemmingsplannen - inventarisaties - landgebruiksplanning - natuurontwikkeling - natuurgebieden - nature management - fallow - abandoned land - zoning plans - inventories - land use planning - nature development - natural areas
InnovatieNetwerk heeft in samenwerking met partijen uit de samenleving het concept ‘Tijdelijke Natuur’ ontwikkeld. Dit heeft ertoe geleid dat tot op heden dertig grondeigenaren op 2.000 ha tijdelijke natuur hebben laten ontstaan. Het concept houdt in dat op gronden die wachten op realisatie van bestemmingen zoals bedrijvigheid of wonen, natuur voor een beperkt aantal jaren een kans krijgt zich te ontwikkelen. Dit levert winst op voor mens én natuur. Het doel van het project is om inzichtelijk te maken wat de aard en omvang zijn van de locaties die potentieel geschikt zijn voor het concept ‘Tijdelijke Natuur’ in Nederland. Deze inventarisatie geeft een zo goed mogelijk landsdekkend beeld (gespecificeerd naar provincies en gemeenten) van potentiële locaties Tijdelijke Natuur.
Tijdelijk gebruik als antwoord op braakligging
Kruit, J. ; Jagt, P.D. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 310) - ISBN 9789461738813 - 48
stedelijke terreinen - braak - tijdigheid - buurtactie - stedelijke samenleving - urban sites - fallow - timeliness - community action - urban society
Een tijdelijke vrije ruimte midden in de wijk is een schatkamer voor een buurt. Met dit beeld voor ogen gingen actieve buurtbewoners en ouders van een aangrenzende school in 2012 aan de slag met plannen en ideeën om iets te doen met een tijdelijk braakliggend terrein. Doel van dit rapport: achterhalen hoe de buurt het tijdelijk gebruik heeft ervaren, met als achterliggend idee anderen onderbouwd te kunnen ondersteunen ook zoiets te doen. Een aanvullende vraag is wat tijdelijk gebruik nu interessant maakt en voor wie.
Biowisselkas: bredere vruchtwisseling voor een gezondere bodem
Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Janmaat, L. - \ 2012
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 2012-007 LbP) - 42 p.
glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - rotaties - biologische landbouw - plantenparasitaire nematoden - meloidogyne incognita - nematodenbestrijding - braak - teeltsystemen - paprika's - tomaten - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - rotations - organic farming - plant parasitic nematodes - meloidogyne incognita - nematode control - fallow - cropping systems - sweet peppers - tomatoes
In 2009 and 2010 a field experiment was conducted with an alternative cultivation system in organic greenhouse production. The aim of the alternative system is to improve soil health, by broadening crop rotation. A precondition is the economic viability of the alternative system. In the so-called Köver system, planting beds are below-ground divided in compartments by means of a plastic sheet. On one half of the planting bed, greenhouse crops are grown, while on the other half antagonistic crops can be grown or the soil can be left fallow. Sweet pepper suffered from the antagonistic crops, which capture a lot of light. The rich soil stimulated the abundant growth of antagonistic crops (Tagetes patula c.v. Single Gold (Ground Control) and Capsicum annuum c.v. Snooker). This resulted in a production loss of 25% in sweet pepper. Although we didn’t measure a decline of production in combination with fallow, many stems of sweet pepper wilted. Future investigation should point out if the combination sweet pepper and fallow is viable. When cultivated in the alternative system, tomato reaches the same level of production as normal. The number of pathogenic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) drops sharply during fallow. Two years of fallow had no additional effect on the decline of the nematode population. At the end of the tomato crop, the number of nematodes had increased again, independent from the previous conditions (sweet pepper or fallow). Tomato roots were a little healthier after the fallow period. However, the improvement of plant health was too small to result in higher production levels. The system needs a different fertilization approach.
Host-parasite dynamics of Sorghum bicolor and Striga hermonthica - The influence of soil organic matter amendments of different C:N ratio
Ayongwa, G.C. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2011
Crop Protection 30 (2011)12. - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 1613 - 1622.
fertility management - western kenya - burkina-faso - infestation - fallow - maize - sahel - dissemination - decomposition - systems
The effect of organic amendments on the interactions between Striga hermonthica and a sorghum host was studied in a field experiment during three cropping seasons, following a three-factorial design with (i) bare fallow versus continuous cropping, (ii) two Strigahermonthica infection levels and (iii) five organic matter levels, a single inorganic fertiliser treatment of 120 kg N ha-1 and a control. The effects of two different cotton by-products and their mixtures on sorghum yield were well described by their N-mineralisation pattern. The impact of organic amendments in the sorghum production system was directly related to N-mineralisation in the three cropping seasons. There was an increasing negative effect of organic matter on S. hermonthica as the quality of the applied material increased. The emerged numbers of S. hermonthica were well described by N-release after one month, while S. hermonthica biomass and sorghum biomass were well described by N-release after three months. As a stand-alone measure, addition of low-quality organic matter is disadvantageous in cropping systems with high S. hermonthica seed densities, as it does not improve sorghum performance compared to no addition of organic matter, while S. hermonthica numbers increase. Implications for integrated soil fertility and S. hermonthica management under different infection levels of S. hermonthica are discussed
Biologische grondontsmetting tegen chitwoodi
Gastel-Topper, A.W.W. van; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2007
Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 3 (2007)20. - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 10 - 11.
tuinbouwbedrijven - groenteteelt - grondsterilisatie - meloidogyne chitwoodi - braak - teeltsystemen - bodembescherming - raphanus sativus - nematiciden bevattende planten - nematodenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - biologische grondontsmetting - zomerteelt - market gardens - vegetable growing - soil sterilization - meloidogyne chitwoodi - fallow - cropping systems - soil conservation - raphanus sativus - nematicidal plants - nematode control - plant protection - biological soil sterilization - summer cultivation
Het maïswortelknobbelaaltje (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) veroorzaakt veel opbrengst- en kwaliteitsschade aan diverse gewassen zoals aardappelen, suikerbieten, erwten, peen en schorseneer. Uit onderzoek van Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO) blijkt dat biologische grondontsmetting in combinatie met een rustjaar het beste resultaat geeft om het maïswortelknobbelaaltje te reduceren. In het rustjaar is de grond braak gehouden in combinatie met een zomerteelt bladrammenas
Evaluating sustainable and profitable cropping sequences with cassave and four legume crops: Effects on soil fertility and maize yields in the forest/savannah transitional agro-ecological zone of Ghana
Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Abekoe, M.K. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2007
Field Crops Research 103 (2007)2. - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 87 - 97.
west-africa - management - nitrogen - farmers - savanna - fallow - cultivation - matter
Rotations are important practices for managing soil fertility on smallholder farms. Six cropping sequences (cassava, pigeonpea, mucuna-maize-mucuna, cowpea-maize-cowpea, maize-maize-maize, and speargrass fallow) were evaluated during 2003-2004 in Wenchi district of Ghana for their effects on the profitability of the different rotations and the productivity of subsequent maize. Soil chemical properties were not significantly affected by cropping sequence. On the researcher-managed and farmer-managed plots maize grain yields were significantly influenced by cropping sequence. On the researcher-managed plots maize grain yield ranged from 1.0 t ha(-1) after speargrass fallow to 3.0 t ha(-1) with cassava cropping when N fertiliser was not applied to maize and from 2.1 t ha(-1) with continuous maize to 4.2 t ha(-1) with mucuna-maize-mucuna when 60 kg N ha(-1) was applied to maize. On the farmer-in an aged plots where N fertiliser was not applied to maize, maize grain yields ranged from 0.4 t ha(-1) on speargrass fallow to 2.2 t ha(-1) on plots previously cropped to pigeonpea. High maize grain yields associated with the cropping sequences involving cassava, mucuna and pigeompea were related to the faster decomposition and N release of the biomass compared with the slower release of N by the poorer quality materials like maize stover and speargrass. Return on investment of the different rotational sequences ranged from -22% with speargrass/maize to 235% with cassava/maize when no N application was made to maize, and from 29% with continuous maize to 196% with cassava/maize when N fertiliser was applied to maize. Cassava/maize rotation was ranked by native farmers as the most preferred rotation whereas migrant farmers ranked cowpea-maize-cowpea-maize as the most preferred rotation. Among natives, male farmers ranked rotation involving cowpea as the next most preferred rotation after cassava/maize. In contrast, female farmers ranked pigeonpea/maize rotation as the second most preferred rotation, due to low labour and external input requirements of pigeonpea compared with cowpea. The choice of a particular rotational sequence is related to access to resources and the needs of the farmer. The study therefore suggests that, in a heterogeneous farming community like Wenchi, technology development should be targeted to suit the needs and resources available to each particular group of farmers. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Analysis of the effects of rotational woodlots on the nutrition and yield of maize following trees in western Tanzania
Nyadzi, G.I. ; Janssen, B.H. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2006
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 93 - 103.
shifting cultivation - soil fertility - nitrogen - fallow - agroforestry - management - vegetation - nutrients - africa - quefts
Farmers in western Tanzania are establishing rotations of trees and crops in an attempt to overcome the shortage of wood, reverse deforestation of natural forests and improve soil fertility for food security enhancement. We compared fallows of Acacia crassicarpa, A. julifera, A. leptocarpa, Leucaena pallida and Senna siamea, with traditional bush fallow and continuous sole maize (Zea mays L.). The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of fallow types in terms of N, P and K use by maize. Trees were intercropped with maize for the first 3 years. After 5 years, trees were harvested, wood components were removed, and leaves, twigs and grasses were incorporated into the soil. Factorial N, P, K trials were carried out with maize grown after the fallow types. Parameters studied were grain yield, uptake of N, P and K, and nutrient use efficiency. The effects of fertiliser were much stronger than the effects of fallow types. There was no clear effect of tree fallows on nutrient use efficiency of the following maize. Non-fertilized maize yielded more after acacia than after the other trees and natural fallow. Upon fertiliser application the influences of fallow types became weaker. Fertiliser N improved maize yields more than fertiliser P, and there was a positive NP interaction. Fertilizer K did not bring about clear effects. N recovery efficiency was improved by the application of P and vice versa. When fertilisers were applied, differences in average maize grain yields between tree fallows and natural fallow varied from 300 kg ha¿1 (for A. julifera) to minus 250 kg ha¿1 (for S. siamea). A yield increase of 300 kg maize grain could also be obtained by application of 10 kg fertiliser N or 8 kg fertiliser P. The best fallow type for soil fertility improvement was Acacia julifera suggesting that this acacia is mining the soil for P and K. In conclusion, benefits of rotational woodlots seem larger in terms of wood production than in terms of soil fertility restoration
|Scenario analysis of tillage, residue and fertilization management effects on soil organic carbon dynamics
Wang Xiaobin, ; Cai Diangxiong, ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Oenema, O. ; Perdok, U.D. - \ 2005
Pedosphere 15 (2005)4. - ISSN 1002-0160 - p. 473 - 483.
long-term experiments - simulating trends - matter dynamics - no-tillage - model - sequestration - systems - agriculture - grassland - fallow
Based on data from 10-year field experiments on residue/fertilizer management in the dryland farming region of northern China, Century model was used to simulate the site-specific ecosystem dynamics through adjustment of the model's parameters, and the applicability of the model to propose soil organic carbon (SOC) management temporally and spatially, in cases such as of tillage/residue/fertilization management options, was identified via scenario analysis.Results between simulations and actual measurements were in close agreement when appropriate applications of stover,manure and inorganic fertilizer were combined. Simulations of extreme C/N ratios with added organic materials tended to underestimate the measured effects. Scenarios of changed tillage methods, residue practices and fertilization options showed potential to maintain and enhance SOC in the long run, while increasing inorganic N slowed down the SOC turnover rate but did not create a net C sink without any organic C input. The Century model simulation showed a good relationship between annual C inputs to the soil and the rate of C sequestration in the top 20 cm layer and provided quantitative estimations of changes in parameters crucial for sustainable land use and management. Conservation tillage practices for sustainable land use should be integrated with residue management and appreciable organic and inorganic fertilizer application, adapted according to the local residue resource, soil fertility and production conditions. At least 50%residue return into the soil was needed annually for maintenance of SOC balance, and manure amendment was important for enhancement of SOC in small crop-livestock systems in which crop residue land application was limited
Nutrient and water dynamics in rotational woodlots : a case study in Western Tanzania
Nyadzi, G.I. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Bert Janssen; H.W.G. Booltink. - [s.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058089946 - 192
agroforestry - boomteelt - rotaties - hout - bodemvruchtbaarheid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tussenteelt - braak - voedingsstoffen - watergebruik - tanzania - overexploitatie - agroforestry - arboriculture - rotations - wood - soil fertility - sustainability - intercropping - fallow - nutrients - water use - tanzania - overexploitation
Keywords:Acacia, aboveground biomass, agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, C sequestration, decomposition, deforestation, fuel-wood, harvest index, immobilization, internal nutrient utilization efficiency, land degradation, Leucaena, nutrient content, recovery efficiency of fertilizers, Senna, soil fertility, transpiration, woody fallows, wood production.
Rotations of trees and crops on farms are considered as a potential technology to overcome the shortage of wood, reverse deforestation of natural forests and improve soil fertility for food security enhancement in western
Field trials were established with five-year rotational woodlots. Five tree species were compared with natural fallow and continuous maize. Inter-cropping of maize between trees was possible for the first two years of tree establishment without sacrificing maize yield. There was no evidence that trees were over-exploiting the water reserves after three years. Transpiration was greatest in A. crassicarpa and was related to stem diameter, size of the tree canopy and soil water availability. Trees depleted relatively more water than continuous maize and natural fallow, but were able to store more water after rains. Acacia trees had high litter fall but the leaves were low in P and N, which led to N and P immobilization during decomposition. Trees retrieved leached inorganic N and made better use of it than natural fallow and continuous maize. Wood production at the end of the five-year growing period ranged from 30 to 90 Mg ha -1 while C sequestered in the aboveground biomass during the same period ranged between 13 to 30 Mg ha -1 . The rate of biomass production was highest for Acacia species while the foliage nutrient accumulation was highest for Leucaena species. The wood component varied greatly among species, ranging from 32 to 85% of the total tree biomass.
Maize yields were higher after growing trees than after natural fallow and continuous maize when no fertilizers were applied. The benefits of tree fallows compared to natural fallows were modest, in terms of maize yield increases. The increase in crop yields after woodlots was attributed in part to higher soil inorganic N. Maize responded to fertiliser N and P. The agronomic efficiency was about 30 kg grain per kg N applied at a rate of 50 kg fertilizer N, and 15 kg kg -1 between 50 and 100 kg N applied. Application of more than 20 kg ha -1 of P or K did not significantly increase maize yields. The benefit of woodlots expressed in terms of maize yield was more pronounced at mid and lower slope positions than at upper slopes. The significance of rotational woodlots in improving soil fertility is limited by substantial accumulation of nutrients in wood. Nutrient mining by wood exportation is therefore a major threat for the sustainability of woodlots, when the exported nutrients are not supplemented via external sources. Medium-term rotational woodlots have the potential to meet the domestic and industrial wood needs and at the same time to reduce deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001
Elbers, A.R.W. ; Dekker, A. ; Dekkers, L.J.M. - \ 2003
Veterinary Record 153 (2003)22. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 678 - 681.
modeling control strategies - british deer - feral pigs - virus - surveillance - fallow - roe - red
Blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. They were all negative
Rotational woodlot technology in northwestern Tanzania. Tree species and crop performance
Nyadzi, G.I. ; Otsyina, R.M. ; Banzi, F.M. ; Bakengesa, S.S. ; Gama, B.M. ; Mbwambo, L. ; Asenga, D. - \ 2003
Agroforestry Systems 59 (2003). - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 253 - 263.
fallow - fertility - system - malawi - zone
Growing of trees as woodlots on farms for five to seven years in rotation with crops was considered as a potential technology to overcome the shortage of wood, which is a common problem to many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The paper summarizes the results of trials conducted at Tabora and Shinyanga in northwestern Tanzania on rotational woodlots, to evaluate tree species for wood production and yields of maize grown in association with and after harvest of trees. On acid sandy soils at Tabora, Acacia crassicarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. grew fast and produced 24 to 77 Mg ha(-1) of wood in four to five years. On alkaline Vertisols at Shinyanga, seven years old woodlots of Acacia polyacantha Willd. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit. produced 71 and 89 Mg ha(-1) of wood, respectively. Intercropping of maize between trees was possible for two years without sacrificing its yield. The first maize crop following A. crassicarpa woodlots gave 29 to 113% greater yield than the crop after natural fallow. Acacia polyacantha and L. leucocephala woodlots also increased the subsequent maize yields over a three-year period. The increase in crop yields after woodlots was attributed partly to accumulation of greater amounts of inorganic N in the topsoil compared to the traditional fallow, and partly to other effects. Thus medium-term rotational woodlots are likely to contribute to meet the wood requirements of rural people and thereby help protect the natural woodlands in sub-Saharan Africa.
Modelling global annual N2O and NO emissions from fertilized fields
Bouwman, A.F. ; Boumans, L.J.M. ; Batjes, N.H. - \ 2002
Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16 (2002)4. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 1080 - 1080.
nitrous-oxide emissions - agricultural soils - rice soil - inventory - fallow - budget - cycle
Information from 846 N2O emission measurements in agricultural fields and 99 measurements for NO emissions was used to describe the influence of various factors regulating emissions from mineral soils in models for calculating global N2O and NO emissions. Only those factors having a significant influence on N2O and NO emissions were included in the models. For N2O these were (1) environmental factors (climate, soil organic C content, soil texture, drainage and soil pH); (2) management-related factors (N application rate per fertilizer type, type of crop, with major differences between grass, legumes and other annual crops); and (3) factors related to the measurements (length of measurement period and frequency of measurements). The most important controls on NO emission include the N application rate per fertilizer type, soil organic-C content and soil drainage. Calculated global annual N2O-N and NO-N emissions from fertilized agricultural fields amount to 2.8 and 1.6 Mtonne, respectively. The global mean fertilizer-induced emissions for N2O and NO amount to 0.9% and 0.7%, respectively, of the N applied. These overall results account for the spatial variability of the main N2O and NO emission controls on the landscape scale
What are the prospects for intensifying soil fertility management in the Sahel? A case study from Sanmatenga, Burkina Faso
Elshout, S. van den; Sandwidi, B. ; Kabore, R. ; Taposba, G. - \ 2001
London : IIED-Drylands Programme (Managing Africa's soils 22) - 22
bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodembeheer - plattelandsontwikkeling - bedrijfssystemen - braak - burkina faso - organische meststoffen - soil fertility - soil management - rural development - farming systems - fallow - burkina faso - organic fertilizers
Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems : an agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast
Slaats, J. - \ 1995
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M. Wessel; B.H. Janssen. - Wageningen : Wageningen Agricultural University - ISBN 9789054854425 - 177
rotaties - braak - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - zea mays - maïs - voedingsstoffen - kunstmeststoffen - mest - ivoorkust - rotations - fallow - sustainability - farming systems - zea mays - maize - nutrients - fertilizers - manures - cote d'ivoire
In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. After crop harvest the C.odorata fallow vegetation established rapidly and effectively smothered herbaceous weeds. Experiments showed that the poor nutrient availability in this fallow system limited maize yields. During the cropping period C . odorata in maize was controlled by one weeding in the first month, whereas radical weeding practices set back its re-establishment after cropping. Shorter fallow periods and particularly extended cropping periods impaired both maize yield and C. odorata reestablishment. The C . odorata fallow system will be important for future food production because of the easy establishment and control of the species. To sustain intensive land use, farmers' cultivation practices can be improved by increasing nutrient availability, introducing suitable additional crops and developing practices that hardly check C . odorata re-establishment.
De waardplantgeschiktheid van groenbemestingsgewassen voor het noordelijk wortelknobbelaaltje
Lamers, J.G. ; Roosjen, J. - \ 1993
In: Jaarboek 1993-1996 : verslagen van afgesloten onderzoeksprojecten op de regionale onderzoekcentra en het PAGV. Akkerbouw Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond [etc.] (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra No. 70a-81A) - p. 197 - 199.
beta vulgaris - oogstschade - braak - groenbemesters - heteroderidae - parasieten - pratylenchus - suikerbieten - tylenchidae - beta vulgaris - crop damage - fallow - green manures - heteroderidae - parasites - pratylenchus - sugarbeet - tylenchidae
Bedrijfseconomische perspectieven voor akkerbouwbedrijven in de Veenkolonien = Financial perspectives of arable farms in the district Veenkolonien
Cuperus, S. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. - \ 1990
In: Jaarboek 1987-1992 : verslagen van in 1987-1992 afgesloten onderzoekprojecten op Regionale Onderzoek Centra en het PAGV Lelystad : Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond (Publikatie / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond, Regionale Onderzoekcentra no. 38-64) - p. 312 - 319.
akkerbouw - braak - boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - rekeningen van landbouwbedrijf - veldgewassen - groningen - arable farming - fallow - farm accounting - farm accounts - field crops - groningen
Bij de bedrijfseconomische berekeningen is braaklegging ook als teeltmogelijkheid opgevoerd
Regeneration of the nitrogen availability Fallow Lands of Oula, Burkina Faso
Leenaars, J.G.B. - \ 1990
Wageningen : Wageningen Agricultural University - 58
burkina faso - braak - stikstof - bosbouw - stikstofbalans - bodemvruchtbaarheid - burkina faso - fallow - nitrogen - forestry - nitrogen balance - soil fertility
Effect of legumes on soil mineral nitrogen and response of potatoes to nitrogen fertilizer
Neeteson, J.J. - \ 1989
In: Effects of crop rotation on potato production in the temperate zones : proceedings of the international conference on Effects of crop rotation on potato production in the temperate zones, held in August 14 - 19, 1988, Wageningen, The Netherlands / Vos, J., van Loon, C.D., Bollen, G.J., Kluwer (Developments in plant and soil sciences vol. 40) - ISBN 9780792304951 - p. 89 - 93.
braak - medicago - nitraten - nitrieten - stikstof - aardappelen - rotaties - bodem - solanum tuberosum - fallow - medicago - nitrates - nitrites - nitrogen - potatoes - rotations - soil - solanum tuberosum
Mogelijkheden en gevolgen van onttrekking van cultuurgrond in Haren
Bouma, F. - \ 1989
s'-Gravenhage : LEI (Interne nota / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut 373) - 51
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - natuurbescherming - ruimtelijke ordening - beleid - bescherming - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - samenleving - woeste grond - zonering - nederland - braak - groningen - natuur - farm management - land use - management - nature conservation - physical planning - policy - protection - rural development - rural planning - society - waste land - zoning - netherlands - fallow - groningen - nature
Schraallanden in Zuid-Limburg
Westeringh, W. van de - \ 1980
Natuurhistorisch Maandblad 69 (1980)11. - ISSN 0028-1107 - p. 218 - 221.
extensieve landbouw - braak - graslanden - heidegebieden - vlakten - plantengemeenschappen - woeste grond - zuid-limburg - extensive farming - fallow - grasslands - heathlands - plains - plant communities - waste land - zuid-limburg