Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vtiman D
Ruiz-Nunez, B. ; Hurk, Y.A.C. van den; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1466 - 1476.
cardiovascular-disease risk - low-grade inflammation - heart-disease - fatty-acids - eicosapentaenoic acid - gut microbiota - brain-function - life-style - metaanalysis - consumption
CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80 % men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84 % men, median age 69 years; range 46–84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18–36) kg/m2. The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0–433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0–303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9–45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0·14 g/d; range 0·01–1·06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4·9 µg/d; range 1·9–11·2 µg/d), saturated fat (median 13·1 % of energy (E%); range 9–23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6·3 E%; range 1·9–11·3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62 % (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150–200 g/d), 73 % (dietary fibre; recommendation 30–45 g/d), 91 % (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0·45 g/d), 98 % (vitamin D; recommendation 10–20 µg/d) and 13 % (LA; recommendation 5–10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95 % (saturated fat; recommendation <10 E%) and 7 % (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.
Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation
Chen, J.C. ; Gross, J.J. ; Dorland, H.A. van; Remmelink, G.J. ; Bruckmaier, R.M. ; Kemp, B. ; Knegsel, A.T.M. van - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1033 - 1045.
organic nutrient metabolism - messenger-rna - transition period - somatotropic axis - milk-production - fatty-acids - liver - balance - system - performance
In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were assigned randomly to 3 × 2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n = 56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n = 84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10 d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36 mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08 µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had an improved metabolic status in early lactation, indicated by lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, greater plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin, and lower mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase in the liver, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Independent of dry period length, the glucogenic diet also improved the metabolic status compared with the lipogenic diet.
Inhibition of COX-2-mediated eicosanoid production plays a major role in the anti-inflammatory effects of the endocannabinoid N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA) in macrophages
Meijerink, J. ; Poland, M.C.R. ; Balvers, M.G.J. ; Plastina, P. ; Lute, C. ; Dwarkasing, J.T. ; Norren, K. van; Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2015
British Journal of Pharmacology 172 (2015)1. - ISSN 0007-1188 - p. 24 - 37.
nitric-oxide synthase - cannabinoid receptor - concise guide - fatty-acids - kappa-b - arrive guidelines - prostaglandin e-2 - fish-oil - anandamide - pharmacology
Background and Purpose N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA) is the ethanolamine conjugate of the long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22: 6n-3). Its concentration in animal tissues and human plasma increases when diets rich in fish or krill oil are consumed. DHEA displays anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and was found to be released during an inflammatory response in mice. Here, we further examine possible targets involved in the immune-modulating effects of DHEA. Experimental Approach Antagonists for cannabinoid (CB)1 and CB2 receptors and PPAR¿ were used to explore effects of DHEA on NO release by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The possible involvement of CB2 receptors was studied by comparing effects in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from CB2-/- and CB2+/+ mice. Effects on NF-¿B activation were determined using a reporter cell line. To study DHEA effects on COX-2 and lipoxygenase activity, 21 different eicosanoids produced by LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were quantified by LC-MS/MS. Finally, effects on mRNA expression profiles were analysed using gene arrays followed by Ingenuity® Pathways Analysis. Key Results CB1 and CB2 receptors or PPARs were not involved in the effects of DHEA on NO release. NF-¿B and IFN-ß, key elements of the myeloid differentiation primary response protein D88 (MyD88)-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways were not decreased. By contrast, DHEA significantly reduced levels of several COX-2-derived eicosanoids. Gene expression analysis provided support for an effect on COX–2-mediated pathways. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of DHEA in macrophages predominantly take place via inhibition of eicosanoids produced through COX-2.
Selecting microalgae with high lipid productivity and photosynthetic activity under nitrogen starvation
Benvenuti, G. ; Bosma, R. ; Cuaresma Franco, M. ; Janssen, M.G.J. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2015
Journal of Applied Phycology 27 (2015)4. - ISSN 0921-8971 - p. 1425 - 1431.
neochloris-oleoabundans - parietochloris-incisa - marine-phytoplankton - biodiesel production - nutrient stress - fatty-acids - light - accumulation - efficiency - biofuels
An economically feasible microalgal lipid industry heavily relies on the selection of suitable strains. Because microalgae lipid content increases under a range of adverse conditions (e.g. nutrient deprivation, high light intensity), photosynthetic activity is usually strongly reduced. As a consequence, lipid productivity rapidly declines overtime, after reaching a maximum within the first days of cultivation. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorococcum littorale, Nannochloropsis oculata, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleoabundans, Stichococcus bacillaris and Tetraselmis suecica were compared on fatty acid content and productivity, and also on photosynthetic activity under nitrogen (N) starvation. Cultures in N-replete conditions were used as reference. Photosystem II (PSII) maximumefficiency was followed during the experiment, as proxy for the change in photosynthetic activity of the cells. Strains with a high capacity for both lipid accumulation as well as high photosynthetic activity under N starvation exhibited a high lipid productivity over time. Among the tested strains, Nannochloropsis sp. showed highest fatty acid content (45%w/w) and productivity (238 mg L-1 day-1) aswell as PSII maximum efficiency, demonstrating to be the most suitable strain, of those tested, for lipid production. This study highlights that for microalgae, maintaining a high photosynthetic efficiency during stress is the key to maintain high fatty acid productivities overtime and should be considered when selecting strains for microalgal lipid production.
Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation by beta 2 -> 1-Fructans Protects Barrier Function of T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner
Vogt, L.M. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Faas, M.M. ; Venema, K. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1002 - 1008.
cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury - kinase-c isoforms - dietary fiber - bronchial-asthma - tyrosine kinase - dendritic cells - gut microbiota - celiac-disease - fatty-acids - pkc-alpha
Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that beta 2 -> 1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether beta 2 -> 1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 beta 2 -> 1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by beta 2 -> 1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 +/- 5.2%, P <0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 8.8%, P <0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with beta 2 -> 1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that beta 2 -> 1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, beta 2 -> 1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of beta 2 -> 1-fructan-mediated health effects.
Circulating angiopoietin-like 4 links proteinuria with hypertriglyceridemia in nephrotic syndrome
Clement, L.C. ; Mace, C. ; Avila-Casado, C. ; Joles, J.A. ; Kersten, A.H. ; Chugh, S.S. - \ 2014
Nature Medicine 20 (2014)1. - ISSN 1078-8956 - p. 37 - 46.
lipoprotein-lipase - fatty-acids - gene-expression - adipose-tissue - angptl4 - disease - serum - rats - mice - glomeruli
The molecular link between proteinuria and hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome is not known. We show in the present study that plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) links proteinuria with hypertriglyceridemia through two negative feedback loops. In previous studies in a rat model that mimics human minimal change disease, we observed localized secretion by podocytes of hyposialylated Angptl4, a pro-proteinuric form of the protein. But in this study we noted high serum levels of Angptl4 (presumably normosialylated based on a neutral isoelectric point) in other glomerular diseases as well. Circulating Angptl4 was secreted by extrarenal organs in response to an elevated plasma ratio of free fatty acids (FFAs) to albumin when proteinuria reached nephrotic range. In a systemic feedback loop, these circulating pools of Angptl4 reduced proteinuria by interacting with glomerular endothelial alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. Blocking the Angptl4-beta(5) integrin interaction or global knockout of Angptl4 or beta(5) integrin delayed recovery from peak proteinuria in animal models. But at the same time, in a local feedback loop, the elevated extrarenal pools of Angptl4 reduced tissue FFA uptake in skeletal muscle, heart and adipose tissue, subsequently resulting in hypertriglyceridemia, by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides to FFAs. Injecting recombinant human ANGPTL4 modified at a key LPL interacting site into nephrotic Buffalo Mna and Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats reduced proteinuria through the systemic loop but, by bypassing the local loop, without increasing plasma triglyceride levels. These data show that increases in circulating Angptl4 in response to nephrotic-range proteinuria reduces the degree of this pathology, but at the cost of inducing hypertriglyceridemia, while also suggesting a possible therapy to treat these linked pathologies.
Assessing the susceptibility of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes to amylase by the use of iodine
Ahmadi-Abhari, S. ; Woortman, A.J.J. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Loos, K. - \ 2014
Starch-Stärke 66 (2014)5-6. - ISSN 0038-9056 - p. 576 - 581.
wheat-starch - chain-length - inclusion complexes - fatty-acids - in-vivo - digestion - binding - digestibility - microscopy - property
The formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) inclusion complexes renders amylose less susceptible to amylase digestion. In order to better understand this phenomenon on a structural level, the complexation of 9% wheat starch suspensions with 0, 2, 3, and 5% exogenous LPC was developed in RVA. Amylose-LPC inclusion complexes were isolated after 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240min in vitro digestion of the wheat starch suspensions to quantify the amount of non-complexed amylose by spectrophotometry. The samples were dissolved in DMSO containing 0.5% LiBr and exposed to iodine. In addition, parts of the digesta were defatted and subjected to the same procedure to elucidate the total amount of amylose that remained undigested. In this way, more insight was obtained into the protective effect of amylose-LPC complex formation on digestion of starch. This study confirms that the amylose susceptibility to amylolysis decreases in the presence of LPC. Higher LPC concentrations not only induced the formation of more amylose inclusion complexes but also resulted in more stable complexes which remained undigested as well as longer amylose chains after enzyme hydrolysis, due to the presence of LPC inside the amylose helix. In addition, a higher melting enthalpy of the amylose-LPC complexes in the digesta demonstrates the protective effect of LPC during enzyme hydrolysis.
Steviol glycoside rebaudioside A induces glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY release in a porcine ex vivo intestinal model
Ripken, D. ; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)33. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8365 - 8370.
enteroendocrine cell-line - nutrient-driven satiety - hormone-release - taste receptor - glp-1 release - fatty-acids - food-intake - secretion - gut - sweeteners
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are hormones important for satiation and are involved in the process called "ileal brake". The aim of this study was to investigate the GLP-1- and PYY-stimulating efficacy of rebaudioside A, casein, and sucrose. This was studied using tissue segments collected from various regions of the pig small intestine. GLP-1 release was strongest from the distal ileum. There, control release was 0.06 ± 0.01 (GLP-1) and 0.07 ± 0.01 (PYY) pmol/cm(2) of tissue. Rebaudioside A (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mM) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.14 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.13 ± 0.02 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.19 ± 0.02, 0.42 ± 0.06, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001). Sucrose stimulated GLP-1 release (0.08 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.05) only at 10 mM. Casein (0.5%, 1%, and 2.5%, w/v) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.15 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, and 0.14 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.13 ± 0.02, 0.20 ± 0.03, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.01). These findings may help in developing dietary approaches for weight management.
Hydrothermal Deoxygenation of Triglycerides over Pd/C aided by In Situ Hydrogen Production from Glycerol Reforming
Hollak, S.A.W. ; Jong, K.P. de; Es, D.S. van; Ariëns, M.A. - \ 2014
ChemSusChem 7 (2014)4. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 1057 - 1062.
catalytic deoxygenation - fatty-acids - supercritical water - reaction pathways - oil - carbon - hydrodeoxygenation - hydrocarbons - derivatives - selectivity
A one-pot catalytic hydrolysis–deoxygenation reaction for the conversion of unsaturated triglycerides and free fatty acids to linear paraffins and olefins is reported. The hydrothermal deoxygenation reactions are performed in hot compressed water at 250¿°C over a Pd/C catalyst in the absence of external H2. We show that aqueous–phase reforming (APR) of glycerol and subsequent water–gas-shift reaction result in the in situ formation of H2. While this has a significant positive effect on the deoxygenation activity, the product selectivity towards high-value, long-chain olefins remains high.
Synthesis of bio-based methacrylic acid by decarboxylation of itaconic acid and citric acid catalyzed by solid transition-metal catalysts
Notre, J.E.L. le; Witte-van Dijk, S.C.M. ; Haveren, J. van; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2014
ChemSusChem 7 (2014)9. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 2712 - 2720.
renewable resources - supercritical water - reaction pathways - fatty-acids - chemicals - biomass - decarbonylation - deoxygenation - conversion - plastics
Methacrylic acid, an important monomer for the plastics industry, was obtained in high selectivity (up to 84%) by the decarboxylation of itaconic acid using heterogeneous catalysts based on Pd, Pt and Ru. The reaction takes place in water at 200–2508C without any external added pressure, conditions significantly milder than those described previously for the same conversion with better yield and selectivity. A comprehensive study of the reaction parameters has been performed, and the isolation of methacrylic acid was achieved in 50% yield. The decarboxylation procedure is also applicable to citric acid, a more widely available bio-based feedstock, and leads to the production of methacrylic acid in one pot in 41% selectivity. Aconitic acid, the intermediate compound in the pathway from citric acid to itaconic acid was also used successfully as a substrate.
Chain elongation in anaerobic reactor microbiomes to recover resources from waste
Spirito, C.M. ; Richter, H. ; Rabaey, K. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Angenent, L.T. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Biotechnology 27 (2014). - ISSN 0958-1669 - p. 115 - 122.
upgrading dilute ethanol - fatty-acids - actinobacillus-succinogenes - syngas fermentation - mixed cultures - succinic acid - megasphaera-elsdenii - acetate production - carbon-dioxide - acetic-acid
Different microbial pathways can elongate the carbon chains of molecules in open cultures of microbial populations (i.e. reactor microbiomes) under anaerobic conditions. Here, we discuss three such pathways: 1. homoacetogenesis to combine two carbon dioxide molecules into acetate; 2. succinate formation to elongate glycerol with one carbon from carbon dioxide; and 3. reverse ß oxidation to elongate short-chain carboxylates with two carbons into medium-chain carboxylates, leading to more energy-dense and insoluble products (e.g. easier to separate from solution). The ability to use reactor microbiomes to treat complex substrates can simultaneously address two pressing issues: 1. providing proper waste management; and 2. producing renewable chemicals and fuels.
Effects of ß-Lactam Antibiotics and Fluoroquinolones on Human Gut Microbiota in Relation to Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea
Knecht, H. ; Neulinger, S.C. ; Heinsen, F.A. ; Knecht, C. ; Schilhabel, A. ; Schmitz, R.A. ; Zimmermann, A. ; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P. ; Ferrer, R. ; Rosenstiel, P.C. ; Schreiber, S. ; Friedrichs, A.K. ; Ott, S.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
irritable-bowel-syndrome - ribosomal-rna - colonization resistance - intestinal microbiota - fecal microbiota - fatty-acids - disease - diversity - differs - risk
Clostridium difficile infections are an emerging health problem in the modern hospital environment. Severe alterations of the gut microbiome with loss of resistance to colonization against C. difficile are thought to be the major trigger, but there is no clear concept of how C. difficile infection evolves and which microbiological factors are involved. We sequenced 16S rRNA amplicons generated from DNA and RNA/cDNA of fecal samples from three groups of individuals by FLX technology: (i) healthy controls (no antibiotic therapy); (ii) individuals receiving antibiotic therapy (Ampicillin/Sulbactam, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones with subsequent development of C. difficile infection or (iii) individuals receiving antibiotic therapy without C. difficile infection. We compared the effects of the three different antibiotic classes on the intestinal microbiome and the effects of alterations of the gut microbiome on C. difficile infection at the DNA (total microbiota) and rRNA (potentially active) levels. A comparison of antibiotic classes showed significant differences at DNA level, but not at RNA level. Among individuals that developed or did not develop a C. difficile infection under antibiotics we found no significant differences. We identified single species that were up- or down regulated in individuals receiving antibiotics who developed the infection compared to non-infected individuals. We found no significant differences in the global composition of the transcriptionally active gut microbiome associated with C. difficile infections. We suggest that up- and down regulation of specific bacterial species may be involved in colonization resistance against C. difficile providing a potential therapeutic approach through specific manipulation of the intestinal microbiome.
Barrier properties and storage stability of edible coatings prepared with electrospraying
Khan, M.K.I. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. ; Boom, R.M. - \ 2014
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 23 (2014). - ISSN 1466-8564 - p. 182 - 187.
fatty-acids - films - powder
Electrospraying is a novel technique for the application of coating to foods. In this study, thin lipid-based coatings were prepared by electrospraying on model surface and evaluated for their moisture barrier functionality. Sunflower oil and chocolate based coating materials were electrosprayed at elevated temperature (60 °C) using a multiple nozzle system. Sunflower oil coated the sides and top surface of the target surfaces, while chocolate based material deposited primarily on the top surface. In chocolate based coatings, larger droplet size and related lower charge to mass ratio explained the limited “wrap-around effect”. Sunflower oil based coating penetrated into the target surfaces, which could be reduced by the addition of stearic acid (up to 0.15 g/g). However, this addition resulted in crystallization and crack formation during storage, and ultimately reduced barrier functionality. Conversely, chocolate-based material produced thicker coatings (up to 0.3 mm), which were more stable during storage and exhibited enhanced barrier properties.
Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study
Kröger, J. ; Schulze, M.B. ; Romaguera, D. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
Diabetologia 57 (2014)2. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 321 - 333.
chronic disease - fatty-acids - mediterranean diet - insulin-resistance - physical-activity - quality index - risk-factors - dash diet - nutrition - cancer
Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in European populations. Methods - From among a case-cohort of 12,403 incident diabetes cases and 16,154 subcohort members nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used data on 9,682 cases and 12,595 subcohort participants from seven countries. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline with country-specific dietary questionnaires. Two diet-quality scores (alternative Healthy Eating Index [aHEI], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] score) and three reduced rank regression (RRR)-derived dietary-pattern scores were constructed. Country-specific HRs were calculated and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results - After multivariable adjustment, including body size, the aHEI and DASH scores were not significantly associated with diabetes, although for the aHEI there was a tendency towards an inverse association in countries with higher mean age. We observed inverse associations of the three RRR-derived dietary-pattern scores with diabetes: HRs (95% CIs) for a 1-SD difference were 0.91 (0.86, 0.96), 0.92 (0.84, 1.01) and 0.87 (0.82, 0.92). Random-effects meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between countries that was explainable by differences in the age of participants or the distribution of dietary intake. Conclusions/interpretation - Adherence to specific RRR-derived dietary patterns, commonly characterised by high intake of fruits or vegetables and low intake of processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and refined grains, may lower type 2 diabetes risk.
Insect lipid profile: aqueous versus organic solvent-based extraction methods
Tzompa Sosa, D.A. ; Yi, L. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van; Lakemond, C.M.M. - \ 2014
Food Research International 62 (2014). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 1087 - 1094.
edible insects - fatty-acids - nutrient composition - food - invertebrates - meat - seed - oils
In view of future expected industrial bio-fractionation of insects, we investigated the influence of extraction methods on chemical characteristics of insect lipids. Lipids from Tenebrio molitor, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia, reared in the Netherlands, were extracted by two industrial extraction processes (aqueous and Soxhlet) and one laboratory method (Folch extraction). Chemical characterization in terms of fatty acid composition (GC-FID), triacylglycerol profile (GC) and lipid classes (TLC) was performed on all the extracted lipids. The major findings on lipid chemical characterization were the following: (1) T. molitor had the highest lipid content around 13%; (2) the highest yield was obtained using Folch extraction, and the lowest yield using the aqueous method (from 19 to 60% related to the lipid recovery of Folch extraction); (3) ¿-3 fatty acids,which are related to health benefits, weremost abundant in lipids fromaqueous extraction,while¿-6 fatty acids were most abundant in Folch extractions, except for B. dubia; (4) lipids from Folch and Soxhlet extractions contained free fatty acids and partial glycerides, which were absent in aqueous extractions; (5) triacylglycerol distribution is similar among insect species, with high levels of ECN 50–54 and low amounts of ECN 36–38. In conclusion, aqueous extraction gave the lowest lipid yield, but provided a lipid extract low in ¿-6/¿-3 ratio and with less polar lipids than Soxhlet and Folch extractions. These characteristics are desirable in edible lipids. This is the first time that the triacylglycerol profile of insect lipids is reported. It is also the first time that C18:1 and C18:2 are reported as separated isomers and that trans isomers of C16:1 and C18:1 are reported in insect lipids.
Reprint of: A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: Design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study
Berendsen, A.M. ; Santoro, A. ; Pini, E. ; Cevenini, E. ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, B. ; Rolf, K. ; Cano, N. ; Caille, A. ; Lyon-Belgy, N. ; Fairweather-Tait, S. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Franceschi, C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 136-137 (2014). - ISSN 0047-6374 - p. 14 - 21.
cardiovascular risk-factors - mediterranean diet - vitamin-d - metabolic syndrome - older-adults - nutritional-status - blood-pressure - fatty-acids - weight-loss - life-style
Background The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary components. This paper describes the design of a healthful diet intervention on inflammageing and its consequences in the elderly. Methods The NU-AGE study is a parallel randomized one-year trial in 1250 apparently healthy, independently living European participants aged 65–80 years. Participants are randomised into either the diet group or control group. Participants in the diet group received dietary advice aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements of the ageing population. Special attention was paid to nutrients that may be inadequate or limiting in diets of elderly, such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium. C-reactive protein is measured as primary outcome. Discussion The NU-AGE study is the first dietary intervention investigating the effect of a healthful diet providing targeted nutritional recommendations for optimal health and quality of life in apparently healthy European elderly. Results of this intervention will provide evidence on the effect of a healthful diet on the prevention of age related decline.
Model Steatogenic Compounds (Amiodarone, Valproic Acid, and Tetracycline) Alter Lipid Metabolism by Different Mechanisms in Mouse Liver Slices
Szalowska, E. ; Burg, B. van der; Man, H.Y. ; Hendriksen, P.J.M. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 15 p.
gene-expression - rat-liver - hepatic steatosis - heparg cells - mitochondrial dysfunction - therapeutic targets - induced cholestasis - oxidative stress - fatty-acids - drug
Although drug induced steatosis represents a mild type of hepatotoxicity it can progress into more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Current models used for safety assessment in drug development and chemical risk assessment do not accurately predict steatosis in humans. Therefore, new models need to be developed to screen compounds for steatogenic properties. We have studied the usefulness of mouse precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an alternative to animal testing to gain more insight into the mechanisms involved in the steatogenesis. To this end, PCLS were incubated 24 h with the model steatogenic compounds: amiodarone (AMI), valproic acid (VA), and tetracycline (TET). Transcriptome analysis using DNA microarrays was used to identify genes and processes affected by these compounds. AMI and VA upregulated lipid metabolism, whereas processes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation were downregulated. TET downregulated mitochondrial functions, lipid metabolism, and fibrosis. Furthermore, on the basis of the transcriptomics data it was hypothesized that all three compounds affect peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR) signaling. Application of PPAR reporter assays classified AMI and VA as PPAR¿ and triple PPARa/(ß/d)/¿ agonist, respectively, whereas TET had no effect on any of the PPARs. Some of the differentially expressed genes were considered as potential candidate biomarkers to identify PPAR agonists (i.e. AMI and VA) or compounds impairing mitochondrial functions (i.e. TET). Finally, comparison of our findings with publicly available transcriptomics data showed that a number of processes altered in the mouse PCLS was also affected in mouse livers and human primary hepatocytes exposed to known PPAR agonists. Thus mouse PCLS are a valuable model to identify early mechanisms of action of compounds altering lipid metabolism
Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows
Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Remmelink, G.J. ; Jorjong, S. ; Fievez, V. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)3. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 1499 - 1512.
subsequent lactation - bovine somatotropin - metabolic status - transition cows - holstein cows - fatty-acids - performance - reproduction - management - profiles
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period lengths (0, 30, or 60 d) and early lactation ration (glucogenic or lipogenic), resulting in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Rations were isocaloric and equal in intestinal digestible protein. The experimental period lasted from 8 wk prepartum to 14 wk postpartum and cows were monitored for milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and milk fat composition. Prepartum average milk yield for 60 d precalving was 13.8 and 7.7 ± 0.5 kg/d for cows with a 0- and 30-d dry period, respectively. Prepartum DMI and energy intake were greater for cows without a dry period and 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Prepartum EB was greater for cows with a 60-d dry period. Postpartum average milk yield until wk 14 was lower for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period (32.7, 38.7, and 43.3 ± 0.7 kg/d for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively). Postpartum DMI did not differ among treatments. Postpartum EB was greater for cows without a dry period and a 30-d dry period, compared with cows with a 60-d dry period. Young cows (parity 2) showed a stronger effect of omission of the dry period, compared with a 60-d dry period, on additional milk precalving (young cows: 15.1 kg/d; older cows: 12.0 kg/d), reduction in milk yield postcalving (young cows: 28.6 vs. 34.8 kg/d; older cows: 41.8 vs. 44.1 kg/d), and improvement of the EB postcalving (young cows: 120 vs. -93 kJ/kg0.75·d; older cows: -2 vs. -150 kJ/kg0.75·d. Ration did not affect milk yield and DMI, but a glucogenic ration tended to reduce milk fat content and increased EB, compared with a more lipogenic ration. Reduced dry period length (0 and 30 d) increased the proportion of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in milk fat and omitting the dry period decreased the proportion of long-chain fatty acids in milk fat. In conclusion, shortening and omitting the dry period shifts milk yield from the postpartum to the prepartum period; this results in an improvement of the EB in early lactation. An increased energy status after a short dry period can be further improved by feeding a more glucogenic ration in early lactation.
Phytanic and pristanic acid content in Dutch farm milk and implications for the verification of the farming management system
Capuano, E. ; Elgersma, A. ; Tres, A. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2014
International Dairy Journal 35 (2014)1. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 21 - 24.
Bovine milk samples were collected from 30 Dutch farms and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for phytanic acid (PHY), pristanic acid (PA) and SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio of PHY. The samples differed in the percentage of fresh grass in the cows' daily ration (0–94%) fed either indoors or via grazing (daytime grazing or continuous grazing). Six samples were from organic/biodynamic farms. PHY and PA concentrations were not significantly higher in organic/biodynamic compared with conventional milk, nor were they correlated with the amount of fresh grass in the diet. The SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio was correlated with the percentage of fresh grass in the diet and was lower in organic milk than in conventional milk, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.057). These results indicate that PHY and PA contents are not suitable indicators of pasture grazing or organic/biodynamic farming, whereas the SRR/RRR-diastereomers ratio may be useful for indicating fresh grass feeding and organic farming.
Self-assemblies of lecithin and a-tocopherol as gelators of lipid material
Nikiforidis, C.V. ; Scholten, E. - \ 2014
RSC Advances : An international journal to further the chemical sciences 4 (2014)5. - ISSN 2046-2069 - p. 2466 - 2473.
edible oils - rheological properties - reverse micelles - drug-delivery - fatty-acids - organogels - gels - mixtures - agents
Amongst the different mechanisms that have been proposed and used to structure organogels, self-assembly of the gelators into supramolecular structures linked through non-covalent bonds is the most interesting. The gelator activity of LMGOs is often found most effective when micellar or lamellar phases are obtained, which is dependent on the gelator geometry and the specific packing parameter. Gelation can therefore be induced by altering the packing parameter of different gelators, but due to the law restrictions there are only a few edible gelators that can be used to structure edible lipids. Here, we show that a combination of a-tocopherol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be used to alter the packing geometry to provide supramolecular structures needed for the organogelation. We have observed that when the gelators were combined at 1:1 ratio in sunflower oil, edible organogels were obtained. The firmness of the solid-like material was enhanced when 1.0 wt% of water was added. The proposed mechanism for this assembly is that most likely cylindrical micellar structures are formed, due to combined assembly of the a-tocopherol and phosphatidylcholine, stabilized through physical interactions. Since these interactions, and the accompanied packing geometry, depends on temperature and application of external stresses, the formation of the organogels showed reversibility when the organogels were subjected to shear or when the temperature was increased to values above 35 oC. Polarized microscopy along with small angle X-ray scattering were used to provide a hypothesis for the mechanism behind the gelation.