Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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      We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==feed safety
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    New feed ingredients : the insect opportunity
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Jong, J. de - \ 2017
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1384 - 1397.
    energy balance - energy conversion - environment - feed safety - fraud - Insect - label control - legislation - monitoring - novel protein source - traceability - WISE
    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of ‘yes, provided that’ its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle ‘no, unless’. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.
    IAG ring test feed composition 2016
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rhee, N. van de; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2016.014) - 23
    food analysis - feed composition tables - feed safety - ring test - voedselanalyse - voedertabellen - voederveiligheid - ringtest
    The analysis of composition in terms of ingredients is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Composition analysis and label control of feed is regulated in Regulation (EC) 767/2009. In a broader view, composition analysis in the entire food chain can improve the effect of monitoring actions. The new legislation on food labelling (Regulation (EC) 1169/2011), effective from December 13th 2014, obliges to provide more detailed information to customers on composition and related topics. A ring test was organized for the microscopic determination of botanic composition in animal feed in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the ring test was RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed. The sample was based on an artificially produced feed mimicking a ruminant feed, and distributed without label information. The participants were requested to produce a correct declaration of the ingredients of the sample. The results were analysed using the IAG model for uncertainty limits. Shares of ingredients in the feed formulation outside the limits of the model were indicated as underor over-estimations. A total of 25 sets of results was returned. The percentage of under- or over-estimations was 28.6% for the seven main ingredients. In the overview of results, the two declared wheat ingredients and the two declared corn products were pooled to one ingredient each. This was necessary since some participants declared a general ingredient (“wheat” and “corn”) and others a specific type (gluten or bran). The use of the original declarations would result in an extra number of non-matching estimations without precise justification. The share of the citrus pulp, in the presence of an equal amount of beet pulp, was underestimated or not detected in 44% of the results. Citrus pulp as such is recognisable as feed ingredient. Still almost three quarter of all estimations appeared to be correct in the ranges of the uncertainty model. This means that visual inspection of the composition of a sample can be used for label control and this method can support traceability of ingredients in case of an incidence. The current results indicate that specific formulations can influence the precision of the estimation of the composition of the feed. The current lack of a complementary system for (chemical) proximate analysis could be a drawback for the overall approach of supporting traceability, necessary for fighting food fraud and for supporting feed safety. Besides a proper method description and up-to-date descriptions of ingredients, well developed skills of technicians are vital for a good performance.
    Landkaart monitoring diervoeders NL
    Jong, J. de; Roest, J.G. van der; Meurs, Ilona - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2016.004) - 67
    monitoring - diervoedering - hulpbronnen - voederveiligheid - monitoring - animal feeding - resources - feed safety
    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een inventarisatie van de monitoring die door de diervoedersector wordt uitgevoerd wat betreft de veiligheid van diervoedergrondstoffen en diervoeders. De inventarisatie betreft de aard en omvang van de monitoring en heeft zich gericht op ongewenste stoffen (Richtlijn 2002/32/EG), GGO’s (Verordening (EG) 1829/2003) en residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen (Verordening (EG) 396/2005). Het onderzoek is afgebakend tot grondstoffen behorend tot de hoofdgroepen maïs en maïsbijproducten, soja en sojabijproducten en oliën en vetten. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in twee fases. In fase 1 zijn interviews uitgevoerd bij de volgende bedrijven en organisaties in de diervoedersector: SecureFeed (tot 2015 TrustFeed), het Comité van Graanhandelaren, MVO en drie importeurs van diervoedergrondstoffen, waarvan één importeur ook crusher is van oliehoudende zaden. Hierbij is ook informatie verzameld over de representativiteit van de bemonstering en over de accreditatie- en validatie-status van het uitgevoerde laboratoriumonderzoek. Vervolgens zijn in fase 2 drie aanbevelingen uit fase 1 uitgewerkt, namelijk (i) terugtracering van een aantal partijen diervoedergrondstoffen om beter inzicht te verkrijgen in de frequentie en de aard van de uitgevoerde analyses in de keten van import of productie tot inmenging in mengvoeders, (ii) nagaan welke analyseresultaten aanwezig zijn in de databank van GMP+ International en of deze data beschikbaar gemaakt kunnen worden voor het doel van dit project en (iii) nagaan of de in België gehanteerde werkwijze waarbij het monitoringsplan van BEMEFA door de FAVV wordt gevalideerd voor de Nederlandse situatie bruikbaar is.
    Insecten als eiwitrijke diervoedergrondstof : Gezonde Veehouderij 2023
    Veldkamp, Teun - \ 2015
    animal feeding - insects - animal protein - feed safety - nutritional adequacy
    Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2014
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015-012) - 48
    voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - voederveiligheid - schadelijke stoffen - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - laboratoriumproeven - europese unie - food legislation - food safety - feed safety - noxious substances - genetically engineered organisms - laboratory tests - european union
    Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL’s) vormen een onderdeel van het stelsel voor controle en handhaving van EU wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van veiligheid van voedsel en diervoeders. RIKILT is aangewezen als NRL voor twaalf onderzoekdomeinen. Taken van een NRL zijn afhankelijk van het onderzoekdomein. In dit rapport wordt een overzicht gegeven van de activiteiten in 2014 van alle NRL’s van RIKILT. Dit zijn de NRL’s voor dioxines en PCB’s, pesticiden in dierlijke producten, mycotoxinen, zware metalen, polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAK’s), mariene biotoxinen, stoffen en producten gerelateerd aan Richtlijn 96/23/EG, genetisch gemodificeerde organismen in voedsel en voeders, dierlijke eiwitten, diervoederadditieven, melk- en melkproducten en watergehalte pluimveevlees.
    Salmonella spp. in the feed chain in the Netherlands : monitoring results of five years (2008 to 2012)
    Yassin, H. ; Adamse, P. ; Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2015.005) - 131
    salmonella - voedselpathogenen - veevoederindustrie - voer - voederveiligheid - voedselonderzoek - monitoring - salmonella - foodborne pathogens - feed industry - feeds - feed safety - food research - monitoring
    Salmonella spp. is an important food-borne pathogen in humans. In the Netherlands, monitoring Salmonella spp. in the feed and food chain has become an important issue since 1997. Monitoring results from different sectors, such as broiler meat and eggs, are analysed annually to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. The objective of this study was to analyse Salmonella spp. prevalence in feed materials in the Netherlands during the years 2008-2012. Data from the Dutch feed industry, stored in the GMP+ monitoring database, were provided by the Dutch Product Board Animal Feed for use in the current study. These data included results of, on average, 10080 compound feed and 9109 feed material samples per year. This high total number of samples reflects the intensive monitoring program in the Netherlands.
    Voedsel- en diervoederveiligheid van algenproducten : Verkenning van wet- en regelgeving voor voedselveilige productie van algen
    Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 631) - 17
    algenteelt - humane voeding - veevoeder - wetgeving - iso - erkende regelingen - voedselveiligheid - certificering - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voederveiligheid - algae culture - human feeding - fodder - legislation - iso - approval schemes - food safety - certification - food policy - food industry - food legislation - nutrition labeling - novel foods - feed safety
    Het telen van algen als voedsel of diervoeder brengt, net als bij andere voedselproducten, eisen voor voedselveiligheid met zich mee.
    Trendanalyse van historische gegevens : handleiding voor het gebruik van monitoringsgegevens
    Adamse, P. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.001) - 22
    tendensen - historische verslagen - monitoring - analytische methoden - statistische analyse - diervoeding - besmetters - voedselveiligheid - voedingsnormen - gegevensverwerking - voederveiligheid - trends - historical records - monitoring - analytical methods - statistical analysis - animal nutrition - contaminants - food safety - feeding standards - data processing - feed safety
    Het doel van dit rapport is om aan te geven welke technieken gebruikt kunnen worden om inzicht te krijgen in het achtergrondniveau van contaminanten in diervoeders en diervoederproducten. Beschreven is tevens met welke factoren rekening gehouden moet worden bij het gebruik van historische monitoringsgegevens. Deze gegevens zijn verzameld in het kader van monitoringsprogramma’s.
    Occurence of mycotoxins and pesticides in straw and hay used as animal feed
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.006)
    mycotoxinen - pesticiden - stro - hooi - diervoedering - veehouderij - voederveiligheid - dierenwelzijn - mycotoxins - pesticides - straw - hay - animal feeding - livestock farming - feed safety - animal welfare
    The aim of this survey was to provide data on the occurrence of mycotoxins and pesticide residues in straw and hay used as animal feed in the Netherlands.
    Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2013
    Traag, W.A. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gersen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Heenen, S. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rikilt rapport 2014-004) - 47
    voedselveiligheid - voedselbesmetting - voederveiligheid - voedselanalyse - ringtest - laboratoria - eu regelingen - food safety - food contamination - feed safety - food analysis - ring test - laboratories - eu regulations
    In deze jaarrapportage doet het RIKILT verslag van haar activiteiten als Nationaal Referentielaboratorium (NRL).
    Occurence and trend analysis of organochlorine in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2013.009) - 41
    diervoeding - organische chloorverbindingen - gechloreerde koolwaterstofpesticiden - voersamenstelling - polychloorbifenylen - voederkwaliteit - voederveiligheid - diergezondheid - animal nutrition - organochlorine compounds - organochlorine pesticides - feed formulation - polychlorinated biphenyls - forage quality - feed safety - animal health
    In this report historical data are used to give insight into the trends in levels of organochlorine compounds in compound feeds and feeding materials for animals in the Netherlands. The main focus is on pesticides, but non-dioxin-like PCBs have been studied as well. The latter will be included in the trend analysis reports about dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the future. This analysis was performed on request of the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority). The results of these analyses will enable the NVWA to develop a risk-directed sampling strategy for the National Feed Monitoring program. More than 5000 feed samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds in the period 2001-2011. The materials in these samples originate from all over the world, but were sampled in the Netherlands. Samples were taken by the NVWA for the Netherlands National Feed Monitoring program and by the feed industry.
    Proficiency test for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fats
    Elbers, I.J.W. ; Traag, W.A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (RIKILT-report 2013.017) - 113
    diervoeding - veevoeder - plantaardige vetten - dioxinen - polychloorbifenylen - voederveiligheid - tests - verontreinigende stoffen - toxische stoffen - voersamenstelling - animal nutrition - fodder - plant fats - dioxins - polychlorinated biphenyls - feed safety - tests - pollutants - toxic substances - feed formulation
    The test provides an evaluation of the methods applied for quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fat by the laboratories. The proficiency test was organised according to ISO 17043. For this test, four samples were prepared: - sunflower oil spiked with dioxins and PCBs; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated fish oil; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with 2,3,7,8-PCDF; - sunflower oil mixed with contaminated chicken fat and spiked with non-dioxin like PCBs.
    Grond met gerelateerde voedselincidenten met dioxines en PCB's
    Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Traag, W.A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (Rapport / RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety 2013.012) - 33
    bodemverontreiniging - ecotoxicologie - dioxinen - polychloorbifenylen - veevoeder - voederveiligheid - verontreinigde grond - voedselveiligheid - inventarisaties - schapenhouderij - pluimveehouderij - hennen - soil pollution - ecotoxicology - dioxins - polychlorinated biphenyls - fodder - feed safety - contaminated soil - food safety - inventories - sheep farming - poultry farming - hens
    Dioxines en PCB's blijven de agenda van de contaminanten beheersen. Waar het in eerste instantie een probleem van vuilverbranding was, later traden voergerelateerde incidenten met andere bronnen op de voorgrond. Nu deze (voergerelateerde) bronnen onder controle zijn, lijkt het milieu een grotere rol te spelen als bron voor dioxines en PCB's. Anders dan bij voeders zijn er voor grond op agrarische bedrijven geen duidelijke normen, die moeten voorkómen dat dierlijke producten besmet raken. Het is duidelijk dat dieren, die grazen of scharrelen, een bepaalde hoeveelheid grond kunnen opnemen. Bij koeien wordt uitgegaan van 4% van de droge stof. Bij schapen, die het gehele jaar buiten zijn, zou dat nog wel hoger kunnen uitvallen. Dit rapport geeft een literatuuroverzicht van bekende onderzoeksresultaten.
    Levels and trends of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed : levels and trends of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed in the Netherlands during the last decade (2001-2011)
    Schoss, S. ; Adamse, P. ; Immerzeel, J. ; Traag, W.A. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT 2012.012) - 129
    polychloorbifenylen - dioxinen - voer van dierlijke oorsprong - voederveiligheid - voedselveiligheid - polychlorinated biphenyls - dioxins - feed of animal origin - feed safety - food safety
    Trend analysis on monitoring data could be a suitable method to identify feed commodities with higher dioxin or DL-PCB concentrations, thus contributing to risk-based monitoring. The aim of the present study was to obtain insight into background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in feed and potential trends therein.
    A risk evaluation of traces of packaging materials in former food products intended as feed materials
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rijk, R. ; Schouten, G.P.J. ; Mennes, W. ; Meijer, G.A.L. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Jong, J. de - \ 2011
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Report / RIKILT 2011.002) - 68
    besmetters - voederveiligheid - verpakkingsmaterialen - risicoschatting - contaminants - feed safety - packaging materials - risk assessment
    Efficacy and safety of dietary N,N-dimethylglycine in broiler production
    Kalmar, I.D. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks; Martin Verstegen, co-promotor(en): G.P.J. Janssens. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858751
    vleeskuikens - aminozuurderivaten - metabolieten - pluimveevoeding - voedertoevoegingen - voedersupplementen - vleeskuikenresultaten - verteerbaarheid - karkasopbrengst - oxidatieve stress - ascites - voederveiligheid - voedselveiligheid - voedingsfysiologie - diervoeding - broilers - amino acid derivatives - metabolites - poultry feeding - feed additives - feed supplements - broiler performance - digestibility - carcass yield - oxidative stress - ascites - feed safety - food safety - nutrition physiology - animal nutrition

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), the dimethyl derivative of the amino acid glycine, is a naturally occurring intermediary metabolite in the choline to glycine metabolism. The molecule was first reported in 1943 and is currently used for a variety of applications, including the enhancement of athletic performances in both man and racing animals. With respect to its biological activities, DMG is for instance suggested to enhance oxygen utilisation and to posses non-enzymatic anti-oxidant properties. The studies described in this thesis aimed to evaluate DMG as a feed additive in chickens for fattening.

    In a pilot study, broilers were challenged with both cold stress and a high energy feed in order to incite broiler ascites syndrome. This metabolic disease results from an imbalance between oxygen requirement and supply, and is an important cause of financial losses and a major welfare issue in the modern broiler industry. A low dosage of dietary DMG effectively attenuated progression towards ascites. We hypothesize that this effect results from reduction in endothelial damage and dysfunction caused by plasma free fatty acids, which were substantially lowered by DMG supplementation. Furthermore, DMG improved nutrient digestibility and reduced nitrogen emission, which can be attributed to an emulsifying effect of DMG at the gut level. A subsequent trial revealed dose-dependent effects of dietary DMG on technical performance, carcass yield, oxidative stress parameters and broiler ascites syndrome. However, the nature and magnitude of the effects depended on fatty acid profile of the basal ration. Herein, effects were most pronounced when fed a diet rich in
    poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Generally, effects showed a linear relationship with dose, except for progression towards broiler ascites syndrome, which showed a quadratic relationship with dietary DMG content. Next, a series of efficacy trials were performed on farms at different European locations, using broiler strains and rearing conditions common to each region. Basal flock efficiency showed a wide range between trials; still, DMG systematically improved broiler performance. Finally, a safety and tolerance trial demonstrated a wide safety range of DMG in the target species. Moreover, DMG did not accumulate in consumer parts of broilers when included in diets at the recommended dosage, and bioaccumulation in meat at tenfold dosage did not exceed DMG content in for instance spinach.

    In conclusion, current investigations clearly demonstrate a wide applicability of DMG as a new feed additive in broiler production, in which both economic efficiency and environmental load as well as animal welfare is enhanced without compromising consumer safety.

    Food and feed safety aspects of cisgenic crop plant varieties
    Prins, T.W. ; Kok, E.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (RIKILT report 2010.001) - 27
    transgene planten - genetische modificatie - voedselveiligheid - voederveiligheid - transgenic plants - genetic engineering - food safety - feed safety
    This report presents the results of the discussions that identified food and feed safety aspects of cisgenic plant varieties in comparison to conventional varieties on the one hand and transgenic plant varieties on the other hand. It was concluded that on the basis of the general characteristics of cisgenic plant varieties, there is, from a food and feed safety perspective, no scientific basis for a general reduction of requirements for cisgenic crop plant varieties.
    Melamine in sojaschilfers, oorzaak van verschillen tussen laboratoria
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2009
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Rapport / RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid 2009-101) - 14
    melamine - sojameel - voedertoevoegingen - besmetting - voedselanalyse - analytische methoden - extractie - laboratoria - laboratoriummethoden - cyanaten - voer - voederveiligheid - melamine - soyabean oilmeal - feed additives - contamination - food analysis - analytical methods - extraction - laboratories - laboratory methods - cyanates - feeds - feed safety
    In november 2008 is door het bedrijfsleven in een tweetal partijen diervoedergrondstoffen (sojaschilfers/-meel) melamine aangetroffen op niveaus tussen 40 en 800 mg/kg. Naar aanleiding hiervan heeft de VWA aan RIKILT verzocht om deze monsters (genomen door het bedrijfsleven) te analyseren op melamine en daarnaast, ten behoeve van de risicobeoordeling, op de hydrolyseproducten ammeline, ammelide en cyanuurzuur
    Onderzoek naar de mogelijke besmetting van een partij hooi met haren van de eikenprocessierups
    Spijker, J.H. ; Aelst, A.C. van; Niemeijer, C.M. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1606) - 25
    hooi - voer - paardenvoeding - paarden - besmetting - insecten - thaumetopoea processionea - tortricidae - insectenplagen - bomen - voederveiligheid - hay - feeds - horse feeding - horses - contamination - insects - thaumetopoea processionea - tortricidae - insect pests - trees - feed safety
    Mogelijk effect van dierziekte bij paarden als gevolg van het voorkomen van restatnten van de eikenprocessierups in diervoeder, namelijk hooi
    Uitwisselingsonderzoek voor de bepaling van lood en cadmium in suikerbietenpulp
    Horstman, H.J. ; Hovens, J.P.C. ; Veen, N.G. van der - \ 1982
    Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 82.99) - 3
    suikerbieten - bietenpulp - voedselanalyse - chemische samenstelling - metaalelementen - voederveiligheid - sugarbeet - beet pulp - food analysis - chemical composition - metallic elements - feed safety
    Net het IRS (Instituut voor Rationele Suikerproduktie) is een ontwikkelingsonderzoek uitgevoerd betreffende de bepaling van lood en cadmium in suikerbietenpulp.
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