Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Leaf phenolics and seaweed tannins : analysis, enzymatic oxidation and non-covalent protein binding
    Vissers, Anne M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Gruppen; W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J.P. Vincken. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432023 - 154
    phenols - leaves - seaweeds - tannins - beta vulgaris - laminaria - proteins - catechol oxidase - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - in vitro - mass spectrometry - browning - fermentation - animal feeding - fenolen - bladeren - zeewieren - tanninen - beta vulgaris - laminaria - eiwitten - catechol oxidase - kernmagnetische resonantiespectroscopie - in vitro - massaspectrometrie - bruinkleuring - fermentatie - diervoedering

    Upon extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) and oarweed (Laminaria digitata) for animal food and feed purposes, endogenous phenolics and proteins can interact with each other, which might affect the protein’s applicability. Sugar beet leaf proteins might become covalently modified by phenolics through polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Oligomeric phenolics from seaweed (so-called phlorotannins (PhT)) might bind non-covalently to protein. The first aim of this thesis was to study factors involved in protein modification by phenolics. The second aim was to investigate the effect of PhT supplementation to feed on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Besides PPO activity and the amount of low molecular weight phenolic substrates present, brown colour formation in sugar beet leaves was dependent on the amount of phenolics, which do not serve as a substrate of PPO. These non-substrate phenolics can engage in browning reactions by oxidative coupling and subsequent coupled oxidation of the products formed. Similar reactions might also be involved in covalent protein modification by phenolics, and therewith protein properties.
    High molecular weight PhT from L. digitata could potentially modify protein properties by non‑covalent interactions. L. digitata contained PhT with subunits mainly connected via C‑O-C linkages, as determined using NMR spectroscopy. Further mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of a wide range of oligomers with degrees of polymerisation between 3 and 27. The interaction between PhT and proteins (b-casein and bovine serum albumin) was studied using model systems with different pH values, representing the various environments throughout the ruminants digestive tract. Phlorotannins bound to protein independent of pH, and broadened the pH range of protein precipitation from 0.5 to ~1.5 pH unit around the protein’s pI. At the pH of the abomasum of 2-3, the proteins re-solubilised again, presumably by increase in their net charge. Due to their ability to form water insoluble complexes, PhT could improve ruminal fermentation in vitro in a dose dependent manner, resulting in lower methane production and ammonia (NH3) concentration. The decreased NH3 concentration reflected decreased dietary protein breakdown in the rumen, which is considered a nutritional and environmental benefit.

    Onderzoek Waterkringloopsluiting Tulpenbroeierij : overzicht huidige en toekomstige technieken om waterkringloopsluiting mogelijk te maken
    Os, E.A. van; Feenstra, L. ; Ruijven, J. van; Stijger, C.C.M.M. ; Koeman-Stein, N. ; Appelman, W. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1394) - 38
    tulpen - forceren van planten - glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwater - recirculatiesystemen - drainagewater - pathogenen - pathogeen eliminatie - gewasbescherming - voedingsstoffen - fenolen - tulips - forcing - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - waste water treatment - waste water - recirculating systems - drainage water - pathogens - pathogen elimination - plant protection - nutrients - phenols
    Closing of the water cycle is required in the forcing of tulips. For growers it is important to know if and how they can eliminate pathogens at an adequate way and which equipment is most suitable to break down plant protection products from waste water. Now participating growers have various equipment for full or partly disinfection. It is recommended to start with good pre-filtration methods to eliminate pathogens which can be fully achieved with UV and ozone, while products such as hydrogen peroxide with additives or chlorite products can be used for an after-effect in the pipe work. Phenolic compounds, released by the roots, can be eliminated with oxidising methods. However efficacy has not been investigated. Purification of discharge water, before entering the waste ditch, will be obliged. New, certified, equipment will come on the market soon. Reuse of discharge water, after pre-fi ltration and disinfection, is also an option.
    Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling
    Strikwold, Marije - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens; Ruud Woutersen, co-promotor(en): Ans Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576926 - 169
    animal experiments - animal testing alternatives - toxicity - testing - phenols - in vitro - embryonic stem cells - tissues - cells - dosage - toxicology - animal health - dierproeven - alternatieven voor dierproeven - toxiciteit - testen - fenolen - in vitro - embryonale stamcellen - weefsels - cellen - dosering - toxicologie - diergezondheid
    Plants4Cosmetics : perspectives for plant ingredients in cosmetics
    Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1603) - 38
    cosmetics - plants - flavonoids - phenols - pigments - plant pigments - polysaccharides - geranium - hyacinthus - chrysanthemum - orchidaceae - skin - hair - oil plants - medicinal plants - natural products - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - cosmetica - planten - flavonoïden - fenolen - pigmenten - plantenpigmenten - polysacchariden - geranium - hyacinthus - chrysanthemum - orchidaceae - huid - haar - olieleverende planten - medicinale planten - natuurlijke producten - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy
    In opdracht van Bio Base Westland en de TKI Tuinbouw Koepel PPS Plantenstoffen, heeft Wageningen UR – Food & Biobased Research een exploratieve desktop studie uitgevoerd gericht op de identificatie van veelbelovende routes voor de valorisatie van plantinhoudstoffen - waaronder ook reststromen uit de tuinbouw - voor de cosmetische industrie. Een uitgebreide analyse van de beschikbare informatie werd uitgevoerd om de mogelijkheden voor de Nederlandse tuinbouwsector te bepalen. Er is gekeken naar marktkansen in de cosmetische industrie met inbegrip van natuurlijke en biologische ingrediënten.
    Effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling van stek van sierheesters
    Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2012
    houtachtige planten - struiken - stekken - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fenolen - bruinkleuring - wortels - ziektebestrijding - woody plants - shrubs - cuttings - propagation materials - phenols - browning - roots - disease control
    Bij het snijden van stekmateriaal wordt plantenweefsel beschadigd. Hierdoor komen chemische verbindingen vrij, zoals fenolen. Deze fenolen kunnen onder invloed van enzymen en zuurstof omgezet worden in schadelijke verbindingen en brui nige pigmenten. In stek van pruimenonderstammen was eerder gevonden dat fenolen een negatief effect hebben op de beworteling. De schadelijke verbindingen kunnen weggevangen worden door Disappyr, met daarin het actieve bestanddeel polyvinylpolypyrrolidone ( PVPP). In stek van vijf soorten sierheesters zijn effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling onderzocht.
    Effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling van stek van sierheesters
    Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2012
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bollen en Bomen - 17
    houtachtige planten - struiken - stekken - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fenolen - bruinkleuring - wortels - ziektebestrijding - woody plants - shrubs - cuttings - propagation materials - phenols - browning - roots - disease control
    Bij het snijden van stekmateriaal wordt plantenweefsel beschadigd. Hierdoor komen chemische verbindingen vrij, zoals fenolen. Deze fenolen kunnen onder invloed van enzymen en zuurstof omgezet worden in schadelijke verbindingen en bruinige pigmenten. In stek van pruimenonderstammen was eerder gevonden dat fenolen een negatief effect hebben op de beworteling. De schadelijke verbindingen kunnen weggevangen worden door D isappyr,met daarin het actieve bestanddeel polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). In stek van vijf soorten sierheesters zijn effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling onderzocht
    Available IMARES generated ecotoxicological data with relevance to petroleum related chemicals
    Vries, P. de; Klok, T.C. - \ 2011
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C013/11) - 17
    ecotoxicologie - aardoliekoolwaterstoffen - fenolen - ecosystemen - amphipoda - letale dosis - vibrio fischeri - waterbodems - corophium - fytoplankton - zoöplankton - ecotoxicology - petroleum hydrocarbons - phenols - ecosystems - amphipoda - lethal dose - vibrio fischeri - water bottoms - corophium - phytoplankton - zooplankton
    This document provides an overview of ecotoxicological tests of oil and oil-related chemicals performed by Imares. This meta-data overview was generated for the potential use of its underlying data in the ecotoxicological models in the SYMBIOSES model system.
    Bruine wortels in tulp, Praktijkoplossingen: Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden van de toepassing van anti-oxidanten en PVPP tegen het ontstaan van bruine wortels bij tulp
    Dam, M.F.N. van; Gude, H. - \ 2006
    Lisse : PPO Bloembollen (PPO rapport 360114) - 19
    tulipa - tulpen - afwijkingen, planten - wortels - fenolen - gewasbescherming - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bloembollen - tulipa - tulips - plant disorders - roots - phenols - plant protection - agricultural research - ornamental bulbs
    Bij de broei van tulpen op water doet zich het verschijnsel voor dat wortels bruin verkleuren en te kort wor-den. Dit leidt tot kwaliteitsverlies van de tulpen. Er is in eerder onderzoek aangetoond dat fenolen uit de bolhuid een oxidatiereactie aangaan onder invloed van enzymen uit de wortels (polyfenoloxidase). Hierbij komen polyfenolen en chinonen vrij die een bruine neerslag en de bijbehorende groeiremming van de wortels veroorzaken. In dit onderzoek kwam naar voren dat anti-oxidanten perspectiefvol lijken om het proces tot staan te brengen. Ook is gewerkt met de fenol-vanger polyvinylpolypyrillidone (PVPP) waarmee fenolen kunnen worden vastgelegd zodat de oxidatiereactie niet kan plaatsvinden. Ook deze stof leek perspectiefvol. In dit vervolgonderzoek werd de praktische toepassing van anti-oxidanten (citroenzuur en ascorbinezuur) nader beproefd. Bij gebruik van citroenzuur werd de polyfenoloxidase-activiteit geremd. Door de toevoeging daalde de pH van de voedingsoplossing echter naar pH-waarden van 3 à 4. De wortelgroei werd hierbij sterk geremd. In de verdere proeven met citroenzuur en ascorbinezuur werd de pH gecorrigeerd om deze neveneffecten te voorkomen. Bij de gekozen concentraties van de anti-oxidanten met pH-correctie trad geen verbetering op in de hoeveelheid bruine wortels. De verklaring hiervan ligt in het feit, dat de polyfenoloxida-se-reactie blijkbaar voornamelijk wordt geremd doordat dit proces moeilijk verloopt bij een lage pH. Omdat wortelvorming bij tulp uiteraard een eis is zijn daarmee deze pH-verlagende anti-oxidanten ongeschikt ge-bleken als toepassing tegen bruine wortels in tulp. PVPP bleek goed toepasbaar als middel tegen bruine wortels. Bruine wortels kunnen worden voorkomen door het gebruik van PVPP. Bij de toepassing van dit middel zijn bovendien geen negatieve effecten op de kwaliteit van de tulpen waargenomen. Om PVPP praktisch en met lage kosten te kunnen toepassen is een systeem met regeneratie en hergebruik nodig. Als voorschot op een verkenning van de technische moge-lijkheden is de toepassing van PVPP in de bierindustrie bestudeerd.
    Bruine wortels in tulp : onderzoek naar het mechanisme achter de bruinverkleuring van tulpenwortels in de teelt op water
    Dam, M.F.N. van; Gude, H. ; Plas, L.H.W. van der - \ 2005
    Lisse : PPO Bloembollen - 30
    wortelrot - tulipa - tulpen - snijbloemen - fenolen - plantenziektebestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bloembollen - nederland - root rots - tulipa - tulips - cut flowers - phenols - plant disease control - agricultural research - ornamental bulbs - netherlands
    Bij de broei van tulpen op water ontstaan tijdens het uitlopen van de wortels soms bruine verkorte wortels. Dit kan leiden tot verminderde wateropname en slechte opname van voedingszouten uit het water. Voor de bloementeler betekent dit vervolgens financiële schade doordat er bloemen van mindere kwaliteit worden geoogst en er uitval kan optreden. In dit onderzoek is uitgegaan van de veronderstelling dat het proces van fenoloxidatie de oorzaak is van het probleem. Uit de bolhuid komen fenolen vrij. Onder invloed van het enzym polyphenoloxidase uit de wortels oxideren de fenolen via di-fenolen tot polyfenolen en chinonen. De laatste twee zijn de giftige stoffen waardoor de wortels verkleuren en waardoor er groeiremming optreedt. Binnen dit onderzoek zijn experimenten uitgevoerd om het veronderstelde bestaan van het polyfenoloxidase proces aan te tonen. Daarnaast is ook gezicht naar manieren van beïnvloeding van het proces, door het toevoegen van stoffen die de reactie remmen of stoppen. De hoeveelheid fenol in de bolhuid bleek de belangrijkste factor voor het optreden van de reacties waardoor bruinverkleuring wordt veroorzaakt. Het betrokken enzym (polyfenoloxidase) bleek voornamelijk in de wortels aanwezig. Per cultivar of partij kon de activiteit daarvan verschillen, maar dat beïnvloedde de verbruiningsreactie niet. Een lage hoeveelheid enzymen kan net zo goed bruine wortels veroorzaken als een hoge hoeveelheid, mits er maar fenolen aanwezig zijn. Het polyfenoloxidase-proces bij tulpen was te beïnvloeden: door binding van fenolen, door onttrekking van zuurstof, door toepassing van anti-oxidanten en door het verlagen van de pH trad minder of geen bruinverkleuring op. De invloed van ijzer op de bruinverkleuring kon niet worden aangetoond. Het onderzoek leidde tot de conclusie dat oxidatie van uit de huid vrijkomende fenolen door polyfenoloxidase in de wortels inderdaad de oorzaak is van de bruinverkleuring en de groeiremming van de wortels van tulp. In een vervolg op dit onderzoek worden de gevonden oplossingsrichtingen naar praktijktoepassingen vertaald.
    Effects of plant sterols and olive oil phenols on serum lipoproteins in humans
    Vissers, M.N. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.B. Katan; P.L. Zock. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085023 - 141
    voedingsonderzoek bij de mens - planten - sterolen - fenolen - olijfolie - bloedeiwit - lipoproteïnen - mens - human nutrition research - plants - sterols - phenols - olive oil - blood protein - lipoproteins - man

    The studies described in this thesis investigated whether minor components from vegetable oils can improve health by decreasing cholesterol concentrations or oxidative modification of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) particles.

    The plant sterolsβ-sitosterol and sitostanol are known to decrease cholesterol concentrations, but it is not clear whether other chemically related structures have similar effects. We examined the cholesterol-lowering effects of concentrates ofβ-sitosterol and 4,4'-dimethylsterols from rice bran oil and triterpene alcohols from sheanut oil. Plant sterols from rice bran oil lowered serum LDL cholesterol by 9%. This was probably due toβ-sitosterol rather than the 4,4'-dimethylsterols. Triterpene alcohols did not affect serum cholesterol concentration.

    Oxidative modification of LDL is hypothesised to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. Extra virgin olive oil contains phenols with antioxidant activity that could prevent oxidative modification of LDL. Three weeks of consumption of phenol-rich olive oil or a single dose of olive oil phenols did not decrease LDL oxidisability, neither in fasting plasma nor postprandial plasma samples. We showed that olive oil phenols reduce LDL oxidisability in vitro , but only in amounts that are much higher than can be reached by olive oil consumption in vivo .

    The first requirement for an in vivo action of a dietary antioxidant in humans is that it enters the blood circulation. We therefore studied the absorption and urinary excretion of olive oil phenols in humans. We found that apparent absorption of the ingested olive oil phenols was more than 55-66 mol%. Absorption was confirmed by the urinary excretion of at least 5 mol% tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. A further requirement for a dietary antioxidant to prevent oxidative modification of LDL is that it becomes present in the circulation or in LDL in a form with antioxidant activity. In the body olive oil phenols are extensively metabolised. The antioxidant activity of these phenol metabolites is unknown. To determine the antioxidant activity of olive oil phenols in vivo future studies should focus on the antioxidant activity of the metabolites actually present in plasma rather than on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the phenols as present in the olive oil.

    In conclusion, although the olive oil phenols are well absorbed, the amount of phenols in olive oil and their consequent attainable plasma concentration in humans is probably too low to reduce LDL oxidisability. Furthermore, our studies provide no evidence that 4,4'-dimethylsterols from rice bran oil or triterpene alcohols from sheanut oil are able to decrease cholesterol concentrations. Thus, there are no indications that the minor components from vegetable oils described in this thesis have important effects on serum lipoproteins.

    The effects of nonylphenol on Rana temporaria tadpole survival, development and longitudinal growth
    Poorte, J. de; Naber, A.B. ; Stumpel, A.H.P. ; Bosveld, A.T.C. - \ 2000
    In: Endocrine-disrupting compounds: wildlife and human health risks : proceedings of a symposium 27 October 1998, The Hague / Vethaak, A.D., Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee - ISBN 9789036934046 - p. 137 - 141.
    amphibia - rana temporaria - oestrogenen - fenolen - overleving - amfibieën - ecotoxicologie - endocrinologie - fauna - herpetologie - kikkers - milieuverontreiniging - amphibia - rana temporaria - oestrogens - phenols - survival - fauna
    Fate and effects of the insecticide Dursban 4E in indoor Elodea-dominated and macrophyte-free model ecosystems: 1. Fate and primary effects of the active ingredient chloropyrifos.
    Brock, T.C.M. ; Crum, S.J.H. ; Wijngaarden, R. van; Budde, B.J. ; Tijink, J. ; Zuppelli, A. ; Leeuwangh, P. - \ 1992
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 23 (1992)1. - ISSN 0090-4341 - p. 69 - 84.
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - nadelige gevolgen - selectiviteit - toxiciteit - onbedoelde effecten - niet-doelorganismen - organo-fosforverbindingen - derivaten - chloride - fenolen - fenol - dioxinen - pentachloorfenol - milieu - verontreinigende stoffen - verontreiniging - plant protection - pesticides - adverse effects - selectivity - toxicity - nontarget effects - nontarget organisms - organophosphorus compounds - derivatives - chloride - phenols - phenol - dioxins - pentachlorophenol - environment - pollutants - pollution
    Betekenis van fenolische zuren in plantecelwanden in relatie tot verteerbaarheid : een literatuurstudie = Correlation between fenolic acids in plant cell walls and feed digestibility : a literature study
    Hogendorp, R.J. - \ 1991
    Lelystad : IVVO-DLO (Rapport IVVO no. 227) - 17
    cellulose - verteerbaarheid - voer - fenolen - overzichten - cellulose - digestibility - feeds - phenols - reviews
    Sensory and nutritional effects of amino acids and phenolic plant compounds on the caterpillars of two Pieris species
    Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 1988
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.M. Schoonhoven. - S.l. : Van Loon - 210
    aminozuren - dieren - voedingsgedrag - insecten - larven - Lepidoptera - fenolen - fytoalexinen - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - planten - secreties - fenolverbindingen - rupsen - rhopalocera - amino acids - animals - feeding behaviour - insects - larvae - Lepidoptera - phenols - phytoalexins - plant pests - plant protection - plants - secretions - phenolic compounds - caterpillars - rhopalocera

    The relationships between caterpillars of Pierisbrassicae L. and Pierisrapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and a common host plant Brassicaoleracea L. were studied using chemosensory and nutritional techniques. Attention was focussed on amino acids, which are in part essential nutrients, and on phenolic and flavonoid derivatives of two aromatic amino acids, that are products of the secondary metabolism in the host plant.

    An electrophysiological study of amino acid gustation showed that in both species 14 out of 22 amino acids were stimulants to a receptor cell in a maxillary sensillum. The nutritionally essential amino acids were generally stronger stimuli than dispensable ones. A correlation analysis provided indirect evidence that the amino acid receptor possessed four sites, one less specific and three or possibly four specific ones. A comparison of data on free amino acid concentrations in B.oleracea with dose-response relations of the amino acid cell showed that this cell can quantitatively sense foliar amino acids.

    Phenolic acids and an anthocyanin that naturally occur in B.oleracea elicited neural responses from two to three maxillary gustatory cells. Chlorogenic and protocatechuic acids, both carrying ortho-substituted hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring, were the most effective stimulants. A steep increase in responsiveness was occurring with increasing concentrations in the range 0.2 - 5.0 mM. P.rapae was the less sensitive of both species. Flavonols were ineffective. The predominant anthocyanin in B.oleracea , cyanin, evoked neural activity in some cells but inhibited the activity in gustatory cells sensitive to sugars, amino acids and glucosinolates in P.brassicae . Chemosensory responsiveness was reflected in preference behaviour. Naturally occurring levels of phenolic acids in B.oleracea as found in phytochemical studies are able to affect sensory processes in the caterpillars (Chapter 3).

    Assessment of possible metabolic effects of dietary phenolics and some other dietary variations was performed using a flow-through respirometer. This was designed to monitor continuously the gas exchange of feeding caterpillars during the complete final instar. The results of these measurements were compared to the results obtained using standard gravimetric techniques that make use of the measurement of food intake to calculate metabolic efficiency. Respirometric results yielded small effects on the energetic efficiency of growth, which was in contrast to gravimetric results. The causes of the discrepancies between both methods and the consequences of these findings for studies on insect food utilization in general are discussed (Chapter 4).

    The nutritional utilization of amino acids and nitrogen was studied comparatively for caterpillars of both species on an artificial diet and on B.oleracea . Food consumption in the final instar was lower on the artificial diet. More food was consumed when leaf amino acid content was lower. Relationships were found between food consumption and the absorption efficiencies of most of the essential amino acids. Absorption efficiencies for glycine, cystein and serine were lower on the artificial diet, differences for other amino acids were small between the diets. Amino acid utilization patterns were similar for both species. Balance sheet calculations showed that an extensive conversion from phenylalanine to tyrosine occurred. For both species indications were obtained that tyrosine and cystein may become limiting for growth when dietary protein levels are low (Chapter 5).

    Phenolic acids (caffeic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (oenin and quercetin-3-rutinoside) inhibited survival, development and growth when larvae of both species were continuously exposed to these compounds present in an artificial diet. P.brassicae was distinctly more sensitive at lower levels of the compounds (0.4 and 1.0 mM). Final instars of both species were much less sensitive than earlier instars. Growth inhibition in final instars was primarily due to reduced food consumption. The results suggest a potential role of phenolic acids and flavonoids, normal constituents of leaves of B.oleracea , in defence against Pieris caterpillars (Chapter 6).

    Seven cultivars of B.oleracea were offered as food to study their suitability as a host plant for larvae of both caterpillar species. Parameters of larval performance showed differences between cultivars. Highperformance liquid chromatography was used to analyse leaf tissues of five cultivars with respect to concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Each of the cultivars was found to have its own quantitative pattern of these compounds. Unidentified polar flavonoid components were detected in highly variable amounts. These preliminary results further support a potential role of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in resistance of B.oleracea against Pieris (Chapter 7).

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