Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Verdienvermogen - Kringlooplandbouw
    Termeer, Katrien ; Jongeneel, Roel ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Smit, Bert ; Apeldoorn, Dirk van; Migchels, Gerard ; Hoste, Robert - \ 2020
    circular agriculture - returns - finance - farm income - arable farming - livestock farming
    Navigating community conservancies and institutional complexities in Namibia
    Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Dimba Kiaka, R. ; Lubilo, R. - \ 2019
    In: Natural Resources, Tourism and Community Livelihoods in Southern Africa / Stone, M.T., Lenao, M., Moswete, N., London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9780429289422 - p. 64 - 77.
    area studies - development studies - finance - business & industry - environment & sustainability - tourism - hospitality & events
    Since the mid-1990s, communal conservancies have been promoted by the state and non-state agencies in Namibia as an alternative land use that simultaneously ensures wildlife conservation and provides livelihoods opportunities for rural communities. Members of local communities are given usufruct rights over wildlife and other natural resources. Eco-tourism and trophy hunting became important activities that can provide resources for community projects. Furthermore, the management of the conservancies is expected to be participatory. The new forms and modes of participating in decision-making and sharing of the monetary benefits of nature, however, have generated a series of interfaces and contestations with the pre-existing so-called traditional modes and forms of organising the use and access to natural resources. By focussing on two questions, this chapter sheds light on the interfaces and contestations that unfold in and during the conservancy formation process. First, we zoom in on the institutional complexities the communal conservancy programme became enmeshed in and how the “modern” and “traditional” forms of organisations configure each other. Secondly, we explore what this entanglement implies for the members of the conservancy. We draw from long-term fieldwork in two conservancies: ǂKhoadi ǁHôas and Wuparo in northwest and northeast Namibia respectively. The central argument we develop is that the organisation of conservancies has, by design, become entangled in a social field of multi-scalar institutions serving multiple and often conflicting interests. This is only partly due to the fact that the model has been parachuted into Namibia as part of a global conservation project. By singling out the management of, for instance, wildlife and consolidating it under communal conservancy conditions, it ignored and simplified the existing socio-political inequalities of the society that now constitute a conservancy, one which is expected to perform as a community to be labelled as successfully achieving its aims (i.e. poverty reduction and sustainable resource management). The control over wildlife and tourism benefits affects and is affected by rights and access to land that is controlled by local traditional authorities. At the same time, various other processes (i.e. migration) has produced new elites whose influence in controlling tourism benefits and land allocation affects the operation of the conservancies. Moreover, though the conservancy programme has made the communities to be producers of wildlife, the ownership of wildlife and the determination of its economic use remain with the state, global conservation community and international tourism market. The conservancy programme has created a fertile socio-political ground for these different nodes of power and authority to sprout, which together lead to a struggle over who is in charge and how the benefits are distributed. The imbalances and counter imbalances that stem from these struggles and power asymmetries result in enduring and intensified conflicts and contestations about the conservancy model. Amongst the unintended consequences of the conservancy formation process is that, over time, certain actor groups who rarely share in the conservancy benefits withdraw or engage in defiant behaviours.
    How to achieve Climate Action SDG 13 : Seminar report
    Hennemann, I. ; Gevers, G.J.M. - \ 2017
    Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI 17-015) - 16
    climatic change - governance - finance - klimaatverandering - governance - financiën
    What does the implementation of ‘SDG 13 Climate Action’ mean in practice and what is needed to achieve this? Reaching this goal not only depends on science and technologies, but maybe more so on human behaviour and collaboration between stakeholders across different levels and scales.
    This report summarises and visualises the main outcomes of an international seminar organised by Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation in November 2016. The seminar was structured around four core themes which are key to achieve Climate Action: Governance, national-local disconnect, incremental versus transformational change and climate finance.
    Nationale parken in transitie : governance-implicaties van een veranderend beleidskader
    Pleijte, M. ; During, R. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 87) - 78
    nationale parken - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - milieubeheer - governance - financiën - national parks - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - environmental management - governance - finance
    De nationale parken verkeren in een transitie. Met de decentralisatie van het natuurbeleid heeft het Rijksinds januari 2013 veel Rijkstaken voor nationale parken laten vallen. Het Rijk is alleen nog verantwoordelijkom nationale parken in te stellen en te begrenzen. Provincies konden zelf beslissen of zij die vervallenRijkstaken al dan niet overnamen. Hierdoor is onduidelijk geworden wie nu verantwoordelijk is voor denationale parken en waar ze hun middelen vandaan moeten halen. Dit heeft geleid tot een zoektocht naarregionale inbedding en nieuwe financieringsvormen. Daarbij zijn grote verschillen ontstaan tussen nationaleparken. Het merendeel van de nationale parkorganisaties is hierdoor bezig met overleven. Een motie en eenamendement in de Tweede Kamer vormden begin 2015 de opmaat voor het Programma Nationale Parkenvan Wereldklasse, waarbij onder andere het ministerie van Economische Zaken en provincies zijn betrokken.Hierdoor is een groot contrast ontstaan tussen nieuwe ambities en de feitelijke situatie.---The national parks are going through a period of transition. Since January 2013, when the decentralisation ofnature policy began, the national government has abandoned many of its responsibilities, except thedelineation of national park boundaries. The provinces were free to decide whether or not to take over thesenational government tasks, which resulted in a diversity of commitments. Where provincial governmentcommitment was lacking, the park authorities sought closer integration into the regional economy andregional society and looked for new forms of financing. As a result, there are now large differences betweenthe national parks. Most of the national park organisations are simply trying to survive. A motion and asubsequent amendment in Parliament laid the foundation for the launch early in 2015 of the World ClassNational Parks Programme (Nationale Parken van Wereldklasse), with a contest for the most ambitiousinternationally oriented park. Among the organisations involved are the Ministry of Economic Affairs and theprovincial governments. The new ambitions created by this contest stand in stark contrast to the actualsituation on the ground.
    Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
    Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cow an, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, W. van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
    LEI Wageningen UR (Brochure / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-029) - 50
    supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - commodities - retail marketing - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - basisproducten - marketing voor de detailhandel - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - glycine (fabaceae) - rundvlees - wereld
    This brochure offers a detailed analysis of the financial vehicles and mechanisms that drive the expansion of production of the following four commodities: skipjack canned tuna; cultured shrimp; soy; and beef. The commodities were selected in view of their global economic importance and their potentially adverse impact on the environment. The financial sector (investors, lenders, insurers, funds, etc.) serves as a gate-keeper to capital flows that are critical in supporting companies’ expansions of operational capacity. This sector can significantly influence how these businesses exploit renewable resources. In this brochure therefore:  The supply chains for each commodity were verified by geography;  The top companies in each segment of the supply chain were identified (e.g. farmers, primary processors, etc.); and  Primary sources of financing were identified.
    Wie stuurt de herder? : concurrentie of coöperatie? : natuur- en cultuurproductie met schaapskuddes
    Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2708) - 47
    schapen - natuurbescherming - heidegebieden - financiën - contracten - begrazing - erfgoed - nederland - sheep - nature conservation - heathlands - finance - contracts - grazing - heritage areas - netherlands
    Een verkennend onderzoek naar de positie en betekenis van traditioneel werkende herders in de Nederlandse samenleving. Aan de hand van interviews, een workshop en modelberekeningen is een beeld gevormd van de financiële positie van de herders in de sector, van de knelpunten en van de betekenis die de herders hebben voor natuur en cultuurhistorie. De analyse wijst uit dat de traditioneel werkende herders een maatschappelijke meerwaarde leveren die wordt ondergewaardeerd. Er worden diverse oplossingsrichtingen aangedragen en aanbevelingen gedaan voor een structurele herziening van het huidige systeem met korte termijn contracten.
    Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
    Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cowan, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, Willem van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
    LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-028) - 80
    supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - marketing voor de detailhandel - basisproducten - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - glycine (fabaceae) - rundvlees - wereld
    This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.
    Ernst van den Ende : 'Durf visionair te zijn'
    Dwarswaard, A. ; Ende, J.E. van den - \ 2015
    BloembollenVisie (2015)315. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 10 - 11.
    bloembollen - tuinbouw - productschappen - landbouwschap - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - belangengroepen - innovaties - investering - financiën - ornamental bulbs - horticulture - product boards - board of agriculture - agricultural research - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - interest groups - innovations - investment - finance
    Sinds 1 januari 2015 is er geen Productschap Tuinbouw meer. Collectief geld voor onderzoek is aanmerkelijk minder vanzelfsprekend. Voor directeur Ernst van den Ende van de Plant Sciences Group van Wageningen UR geen onoverkomelijk probleem. 'Geen geld in Nederland? Dan komt het wel uit het buitenland.' Somberen past hem niet.
    Climate Change Adaptation Manual : Lessons learned from European and other industrialised countries
    Prutsch, Andrea ; Grothmann, Torsten ; MCCallum, S. ; Schauser, I. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2014
    London : Routledge - ISBN 9780203381267 - 378 p.
    economics - finance - business & industry - environment and sustainability - law - politics & international relations
    Due to the lack of success in climate change mitigation efforts, the importance of adaptation is becoming more and more apparent and is now one of the main imperatives of international research and action. However, research on adaptation is mostly not directly applicable to adaptation policy or practice, leaving a gap between scientific results and practical advice for decision makers and planners. This book seeks to address this problem and bridge the gap and should provide readers with practical and applicable information on climate change adaptation.Following an introduction, the book is organised into four main sections, each reflecting an essential component in the adaptation process. Climate change adaptation is an emerging subject area and has gained increased political and academic attention within the last decade. Whereas most books in the field focus on adaptation in developing countries, this volume provides an examination of predominantly European policy and offers inter-disciplinary insight into cutting edge knowledge and lessons learnt in a relatively new field of implementation.
    Clustering as an Organizational Response to Capital Market Inefficiency: Evidence from Microenterprises in Ethiopia
    Ali, M.A. ; Peerlings, J.H.M. ; Zhang, X. - \ 2014
    Small Business Economics 43 (2014)3. - ISSN 0921-898X - p. 697 - 709.
    division-of-labor - credit constraints - industry - growth - finance - agglomeration - efficiency - returns - china - industrialization
    Absence of a well-developed capital market has been listed as a key obstacle to industrialization in developing countries in the development literature. In this paper, we show that industrial clusters, through specialization and division of labor, can ease the financial constraints of microenterprises even in the absence of a well-functioning capital market. By using data from more than 17,000 microenterprises in four sectors and four regions of Ethiopia, we find that clustering lowers capital entry barrier by reducing the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is found to be significantly larger for microenterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency, indicating the importance of clustering as an organizational response to a credit constrained environment. The findings highlight the importance of cluster-based industrial activities as an alternative method of propagating industrialization when local conditions do not allow easy access to credit.
    Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia
    Ali, M.A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731272 - 175
    agrarische economie - industrie - clusters - sociale netwerken - kleine bedrijven - ondernemingen - weven - industrialisatie - financiën - welzijn - kosten - afrika - ethiopië - etniciteit - agricultural economics - industry - clusters - social networks - small businesses - enterprises - weaving - industrialization - finance - well-being - costs - africa - ethiopia - ethnicity

    This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that clustering significantly increases profit. The increase in profit from clustering is found to be higher in urban than rural areas. It is also found that regional specific factors determining clustering of micro enterprises are different in urban and rural areas. Second, it is empirically shown that clustering eases the financial constraints of micro enterprises by lowering the capital entry barrier through the reduction of the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is significantly larger for enterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency. Third, the impact of clustering on the entry and exit decisions of farm households into and from non-farm enterprises is examined. Clustering significantly increases the likelihood of entry and enhances the survival of rural enterprises. The impact of entry and exit on household’s well-being is further investigated. Entry into non-farm enterprises significantly increases household’s income and boosts their food security status, while exit from non-farm enterprises is found to significantly reduce household’s income. Finally, the role of ethnic ties on the performance of micro enterprises is investigated. The empirical results show that ethnic ties affect the performance of producers negatively, which implies that the positive effect of ethnic ties, through the reduction of transaction costs arising from market imperfections, does not outweigh the negative effects of closed social networks.

    Keywords: clustering, micro enterprises, industrialization, finance, entry, exit, well-being, ethnic ties, transaction cost, Africa, Ethiopia.

    Kostenmodule Natuurplanner : functioneel ontwerp en software-validatie
    Raffe, J.K. van; Jong, J.J. de; Wamelink, G.W.W. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 217)
    natuurbeheer - natuur - kosten - modellen - biodiversiteit - financiën - nature management - nature - costs - models - biodiversity - finance
    De Natuurplanner (NP) is een computermodel waarmee de effecten op biodiversiteit worden doorgerekend van veranderingen in milieu, water, ruimtelijke samenhang en natuurbeheer. Om ook de financiële effecten van verschillende scenario’s voor natuurbeheer snel en efficiënt door te kunnen rekenen is de Kostenmodule NP ontwikkeld. Dit doorrekenen gebeurt in eerste instantie op gridniveau (250x250m) om vervolgens te aggregeren tot uitspraken op regionaal of landelijk niveau. Dit kan bijvoorbeeld van belang zijn als men wil overschakelen naar een goedkoper of een meer natuurlijk beheer. De module is getest voor vier scenario’s: natuurbeheer volgens de Index Natuur, Landschap & Recreatie (NLR) en een minder intensief beheer, beide gecombineerd met lage en hoge stikstofdepositie. De kostenmodule blijkt aan de verwachting te voldoen, maar een verdere aanpassing aan de nieuwe nationale beheertypenindeling (Index NL) is gewenst evenals een automatische koppeling aan de zgn. Databank Kostennormen zodat technisch-financiële wijzigingen direct doorwerken.
    Dag vogels, dag bloemen. (interview door Albert Sikkema)
    Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2011
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR (2011). - ISSN 1874-3625
    natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - financiën - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - finance - scientific research
    Het huidige kabinet bezuinigt fors op natuurbescherming. Ook het onderzoeksinstituut Alterra voelt dat stevig in haar portomonnee. Natuurbescherming is uit. Hoe moet het nu verder?
    Arbeidskosten blijven belangrijkste productiefactor in glastuinbouw : registratie en observatie zijn basis voor productieverbeteringen
    LEI, - \ 2011
    greenhouse horticulture - labour - labour costs - finance - farm management - factors of production
    Monitoring en evaluatie : puntensysteem Groene Diensten Midden-Delfland
    Schotman, A.G.M. ; Melman, T.C.P. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2122) - 40
    weidevogels - landschapsbescherming - agrarisch natuurbeheer - financiën - cultuurlandschap - evaluatie - zuid-holland - grassland birds - landscape conservation - agri-environment schemes - finance - cultural landscape - evaluation - zuid-holland
    Een aantal gemeenten in en rond Midden-Delfland heeft een fonds ingesteld om de instandhouding van het agrarisch cultuurlandschap van dit gebied te ondersteunen via een puntensysteem voor de beloning van ‘Groene Diensten’. De Europese Commissie heeft het puntensysteem getoetst en goedgekeurd. Monitoring en evaluatie vanuit doelmatigheid is gewenst. Bij de start van de uitvoering van het Groenfonds Midden-Delfland 2006 zijn daartoe indicatoren beschreven. Nu het Groenfonds Midden-Delfland enkele jaren in werking is, en er een nieuwe subsidieperiode (na 2011) aandient, is het belangrijk om hieraan uitvoering te geven. De vraag van het bestuur van het Groenfonds Midden-Delfland aan Alterra Wageningen-UR was, wat de bruikbaarheid is van de voorgestelde indicatoren? De wens was ook om, indien nodig, voorstellen te doen voor nieuwe indicatoren, een nulmeting te doen en de uitvoering van het puntensysteem te evalueren. Het al ontworpen stelsel van indicatoren was maar beperkt bruikbaar vanwege een geringe overlap met het goedgekeurde puntensysteem. Voorgesteld wordt om zes (groepen van) indicatoren te onderscheiden voor de inspanning die wordt geleverd met het puntensysteem en drie indicatoren voor de effecten. Een ruime meerderheid van de agrarische ondernemers in het gebied is op een of andere manier deelnemer aan het Groenfonds Midden-Delfland. Het grootste deel van de uitgaven van ongeveer € 2500 per jaar gaat naar onderhoud van opgaande landschapselementen, instandhouding van oud grasland en onderhoud van historische gebouwen. De bijdrage aan weidevogelbeheer vanuit het Groenfonds Midden-Delfland is vrij bescheiden in vergelijking met die uit de SNL (Subsidieregeling Natuur en Landschap, de landelijke regeling voor agrarisch natuurbeheer, de opvolger van de SAN). De maatregelen voor onderhoud en instandhouding zijn feitelijk per definitie effectief. Een effect op de achterliggende doelstelling, een bijdrage aan behoud van het open en groene karakter en waardering daarvoor bij de bewoners van de omringende steden is alleen aan te tonen met aanvullend onderzoek. Het is te vroeg om iets te zeggen over het effect op de overleving van landbouwbedrijven. Deze zal financieel niet groot zijn gezien de relatief bescheiden omvang van de vergoedingen. Een effect van de maatregelen voor weidevogelbeheer is niet aan te tonen zonder ook die in het kader van de SNL in beeld te hebben. In vergelijking met de rest van Nederland lijkt de weidevogelstand in Midden-Delfland zich beter te handhaven. Aanbevolen wordt alle maatregelen voor weidevogels in het gebied beter te integreren en de effecten in beeld te brengen. Naast het financiële effect is er ook een inspirerend effect: uit de gesprekken met deelnemers blijkt dat men zich als ondernemer gesterkt voelt. Men voelt als het ware een morele waardering vanuit de overheid.
    MKBA EcoLaNa grondfonds : De maatschappelijke gevolgen van de implementatie van een aantal duurzaamheidcriteria op veehouderij en akkerbouwbedrijven
    Blaeij, A.T. de; Dekking, A.J.G. ; Gaaff, A. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 42
    alternatieve landbouw - duurzame landbouw - plattelandsontwikkeling - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - land - fondsen - financiën - alternative farming - sustainable agriculture - rural development - farm management - farm structure - land - funds - finance
    Het EcoLaNa plan houdt in dat boeren overstappen op een duurzamere vorm van landbouw dan gangbare landbouw. Wat er onder duurzaamheid wordt verstaan blijkt uit de maatregelen die voor EcoLaNa zijn opgesteld. Door in te zetten op duurzame landbouw zal het EcoLaNa plan bijdragen aan het realiseren van de doelen die gesteld zijn door verschillende overheden, onder andere in het Europese Plattelandsontwikkelingsbeleid. Het gaat hierbij om doelen als het bevorderen van een sterke en dynamische agrofoodsector, instandhouding van de biodiversiteit en van landbouwsystemen met hoge natuurwaarden en uitvoering van de kaderrichtlijn water (POP2). In deze studie is middels een MKBA onderzocht of overschakeling naar duurzamere EcoLaNa landbouw voor de samenleving interessant is.
    Oriënteer je breed op financieringsinstrumenten overheid
    Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2010
    BloembollenVisie 2010 (2010)204. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 12 - 13.
    economisch beleid - landbouwbeleid - innovaties - overheidsbeleid - financiën - subsidies - bloementeelt - financieren - beleidsdoelstellingen - economic policy - agricultural policy - innovations - government policy - finance - subsidies - floriculture - financing - policy goals
    Nu het Ministerie van LNV opgaat in het Ministerie van Economie, Landbouw en Innovatie, is het logisch dat allerlei financieringsmaatregelen ook in elkaar worden geschoven. Volgens Harold van der Meulen is dat maar gedeeltelijk mogelijk. De EU stelt aan de land- en tuinbouw andere voorwaarden dan aan het niet-agrarische midden- en kleinbedrijf. Wel doen agrariërs er wijs aan verder te kijken dan alleen naar het eigen, agrarische 'loket'.
    Proteins in biomass streams
    Mulder, W.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Food & Biobased Research (Rapport 1134) - 60
    eiwitten - agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - biomassa - voedingseiwit - diervoedering - financiën - biobased economy - bioraffinage - productieprocessen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - economische aspecten - proteins - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - biomass - dietary protein - animal feeding - finance - biobased economy - biorefinery - production processes - biobased chemicals - economic aspects
    The focus of this study is to give an overview of traditional and new biomasses and biomass streams that contain proteins. When information was available, the differences in molecular structure and physical and chemical properties for the different proteins is given. For optimal biomass use, isolation of valuable compounds like proteins can be an important aspect. To make decisions possible if biorefinery strategies by which the isolation of proteins is feasible, the economical value and production volumes of the different biomass streams will be discussed (when available). Also the industrial relevance and possible applications, such as technical applications and chemicals derived from proteins, will be reported. In addition, the outlet of protein-rich biomass resources in the feed sector will be pointed out.
    Bio-economie vraagt nieuwe statistieken
    Leeuwen, M.G.A. van - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)dec. - p. 7 - 7.
    statistiek - macro-economische analyse - financiën - biobased economy - economische modellen - statistics - macroeconomic analysis - finance - biobased economy - economic models
    Om de biobased economy ook goed in macro-economische modellen te kunnen gaan vangen, moet het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek nieuwe data gaan verzamelen. Het vertalen van informatie over technische processen van biobased producten naar euro’s kan in principe wel binnen de bestaande economische modellen. Dat blijkt uit een studie van Wageningen UR.
    Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women
    Binaté Fofana, N. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854289 - 209
    development studies - women - rural women - hiv infections - human immunodeficiency viruses - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - public health - socioeconomics - rural areas - empowerment - finance - credit - cooperative credit - cote d'ivoire - west africa - developing countries - microfinance - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - hiv-infecties - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - volksgezondheid - sociale economie - platteland - empowerment - financiën - krediet - coöperatief krediet - ivoorkust - west-afrika - ontwikkelingslanden - microfinanciering
    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods.

    Microfinance has been recognized as a significant means of economic development in developing countries, especially in Africa where most of the economies are based on agriculture. Microfinance as a credit institution is seen as one of the relevant tools that can provide small loans for poor people especially women who have no access to formal banks. Therefore MFIs have attracted more attention from governments, NGOs, researchers and civil servants since the microcredit summit in 1997 and the nomination of the year 2005 as the International Year of Microcredit by the United Nations General Assembly.

    Studies have shown that the effects of MFIs on women’s activities differ between countries and between regions within countries according to factors including the environment, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the beneficiaries. This heterogeneity renders the effects of MFIs inconclusive and explains the necessity and the relevance to conduct this empirical study in Côte d’Ivoire.

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into women’s needs in terms of support for economic activities and empowerment in rural areas and the way in which MFIs address these needs. Specifically, the study aims at assessing whether microfinance services provided for women in Côte d’Ivoire fit their needs in terms of improving their incomes, productivity, decision-making power, human and social capital. Special attention is paid to HIV-affected women. To achieve these objectives, the study tends to respond to four main research questions: 1) What are women’s needs for credit in rural areas? 2) How do women have access to MFI credit in rural areas? 3) What are the effects of participation in microfinance programs on women’s practical and strategic gender needs? 4) What is the relationship between microfinance programs and women coping with HIV/AIDS? These research questions lead to the formulation of hypotheses that are confirmed or rejected.

    This study uses both a theoretical and empirical approach that represents the interaction of women’s livelihood, microfinance and HIV and AIDS. The empirical analysis consists of an in-depth analysis of microfinance institutions and a survey analysis applied to cross-sectional data collected from 440 women in the Abengourou region located in the Central Eastern part of Côte d’Ivoire. The sample was divided into four categories of women as follows: Non-HIV affected women with and without MFI credit; HIV-affected women with and without credit.

    This study gives a descriptive analysis of the study country, and the response of the state to promote the microfinance sector and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on the individual, household and communities in Côte d’Ivoire. Women in the Abengourou region are basically involved in agriculture from which they earn their livelihood and the opportunity to produce food for household consumption. The type of activities carried by women depends on their access to credit. Those who have no access to MFI loans were mainly engaged in farm activities while women with access to credit were mainly traders. They were also able to undertake both agricultural and trade activities. From these results, it appears that women in rural areas need MFI credit for trade purposes and to a lesser extent for agricultural activities.

    This study found a significant relation between savings and credit, meaning that access to MFI credit was fundamentally conditioned on the provision of savings from the borrowers that most of the rural population did not have. MFIs use savings as collateral to prevent defaults. In addition, MFI membership and the type of activity are also important to obtain MFI credit. Furthermore, access to MFI credit depends on factors linked to the characteristics of female borrowers including, marital status, wealth status of the household, ethnicity and the empowerment of women, and trade activity. These determinants positively affect the probability of obtaining MFI credit in rural areas. The study reveals that MFIs prefer to finance trade activity rather than agricultural activity as the latter is seen as risky and associated with unpredictable income.

    The use of the propensity score matching method led to the following results. MFIs are found to be effective in enhancing a set of variables including income, the level of farm production, human and social capital. MFI credit has enhanced women’s decision-making power within the households too. However, women’s access and use of MFI credit in rural areas did not significantly increase the value of women’s assets but it did significantly enhance the value of household assets. This result on the value of women’s assets did not confirm the findings of several studies which indicated that the provision of credit enables women to build up and improve the value of their assets (Rahman, 2004; Mayoux, 1999, Van Maanen, 2004). The result also suggested that female borrowers were more likely to use their income earned not to build their own assets, but to contribute to the improvement of the household standard of living. Doing so enables these women to achieve more power in fulfilling their practical and strategic gender needs within the household as indicated by the findings of this study.

    The effectiveness of MFIs in providing loans for women in rural areas is measured by the loan repayment which is an important indicator for MFI practitioners. It gives insight into the capability of the credit institution to insure its sustainability and to increase its outreach. From our analysis, loan repayment among female borrowers generally was not successful as some borrowers had difficulties to pay back their MFI loan. The non-repayment is mainly explained by the diversion of loans from investment purposes, which has to do with the lack of women’s control over loans. For MFIs, the diversion of loans can endanger their functioning and sustainability and therefore their effectiveness in rural areas. However, this study found the low repayment performance of female borrowers to be contradictory to the positive effect of MFI credit on women’s income and the positive return on investment they achieved. Hence, this study suggests that in addition to the diversion of loans, non-repayment might be linked to other factors especially the unwillingness of the borrowers to repay their loan.

    The analysis of the interaction between HIV/AIDS, women’s livelihood and MFIs reveals on the one hand that HIV and AIDS negatively affects both human and physical capital of households through morbidity and mortality. The morbidity of affected women results in a direct negative impact on their livelihood activities and an indirect effect on their income and loan repayment. HIV/AIDS has an impact on the morbidity of household members that leads to the loss of family labour, which is difficult to replace due to lack of resources. In addition, the morbidity results in a drop in the level of education as children are forced to stay at home due to illness. On the other hand, the negative effects of HIV and AIDS on female borrowers entail an indirect effect on MFIs through the incapability of affected borrowers to generate more money and inability to payback their loans. This result essentially has to do with the diversion of loans to meet medical expenditures and the process of the provision of loans that appears to be flawed. In line with this deficiency, the functioning and the effectiveness of MFIs to support and extend their outreach among HIV-affected individuals or households are threatened.

    This study contributes to the existing findings about the socio-economic role of MFIs to support women generating their livelihood. It gives empirical findings in the case of rural areas in Côte d’Ivoire. Such study was not done since the implementation of microfinance institutions in the Abengourou region. The study reveals that the activities carried by women can be influenced by their need to have access to MFIs. This means that women will choose to undertake a particular activity to fit the preferences of microfinance institutions. Another important contribution of this study is to empirically link women’s empowerment to their access to MFI credit. The study reveals that women’s empowerment regarding the demand for and the use of credit make them more reliable and give them more opportunity to obtain MFI credit. With regard to HIV, this study highlights the diversity and the specificity of the way HIV-affected individuals are financially supported by credit institutions.

    To conclude, the study provides some policy recommendations and interventions in order to make MFIs more effective in offering financial services to individuals and households in general and women in particular in rural areas. Specifically we recommend the provision of loans taking into account the needs of borrowers with respect to the special nature of their activities to be financed. MFIs need subsidies from the state or other potential donors to reinforce the capacity building of MFI credit officers through training and to support the transaction costs linked to the provision of small loans. Doing so will help them to better understand and serve the rural population living in an environment which seems to be complex. The study also recommends further study to be conducted in order to explore the long-run effects of MFI credit in rural Côte d’Ivoire.

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