The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape
Rambla, J.L. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Monforte, A.J. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Granell, A. - \ 2014
Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)16. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 4613 - 4623.
solanum-lycopersicon l. - fresh tomato - hydroperoxide lyase - nonvolatile components - alcohol-dehydrogenase - 9-hydroperoxide lyase - aroma components - flavor compounds - market tomatoes - bound volatiles
The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target compounds for plant breeding are addressed. Ample variability in the levels of almost any volatile compound exists, not only in the populations derived from interspecific crosses but also in heirloom varieties and even in commercial hybrids. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for all tomato aroma volatiles have been identified in collections derived from both intraspecific and interspecific crosses with different wild tomato species and they (i) fail to co-localize with structural genes in the volatile biosynthetic pathways and (ii) reveal very little coincidence in the genomic regions characterized, indicating that there is ample opportunity to reinforce the levels of the volatiles of interest. Some of the identified genes may be useful as markers or as biotechnological tools to enhance tomato aroma. Current knowledge about the major volatile biosynthetic pathways in the fruit is summarized. Finally, and based on recent reports, it is stressed that conjugation to other metabolites such as sugars seems to play a key role in the modulation of volatile release, at least in some metabolic pathways.
The impact of selected strains of probiotic bacteria on metabolite formation in set yoghurt
Settachaimongkon, S. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Antunes Fernandes, E.C. ; Hooijdonk, A.C.M. van; Zwietering, M.H. ; Smid, E.J. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van - \ 2014
International Dairy Journal 38 (2014)1. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 1 - 10.
nuclear-magnetic-resonance - delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus - lactic-acid bacteria - streptococcus-thermophilus - fermented milks - lactobacillus-acidophilus - functional foods - starter cultures - flavor compounds - dairy-products
The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 in cofermentation with traditional starters on metabolite formation in set yoghurt was evaluated. Microbial activity during fermentation and refrigerated storage was investigated by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and overall changes in yoghurt metabolite profiles. A complementary metabolomics approach using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance resulted in the identification of 37 volatile and 43 non-volatile metabolites, respectively. Results demonstrated that the two probiotic strains did not influence acidity and the key-aroma volatile metabolites of set yoghurt. However, a contribution by the presence of L. rhamnosus GG on the non-volatile metabolite profile of yoghurt was specifically noticed during storage. Multivariate analysis allowed yoghurts fermented by different starter combinations and different durations of storage to be differentiated according to their metabolite profiles. This provides new insights regarding the impact of probiotics on the metabolome of yoghurt.
Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis
Allwood, J.W. ; Cheung, W.W.L. ; Xu, Y. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Deborde, C. ; Biais, B. ; Maucourt, M. ; Berger, Y. ; Schaffer, A. ; Rolin, D. ; Moing, A. ; Hall, R.D. ; Goodacre, R. - \ 2014
Phytochemistry 99 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 61 - 72.
charentais cantaloupe melons - volatile organic-compounds - oxidase antisense gene - cucumis-melo - gas-chromatography - flavor compounds - cv makdimon - fruit - constituents - sulfur
Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality.
Rapid tomato volatile profiling by using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTS-MS)
Farneti, B. ; Cristescu, S.M. ; Costa, G. ; Harren, F.J.M. ; Woltering, E.J. - \ 2012
Journal of Food Science 77 (2012)5. - ISSN 0022-1147 - p. C551 - C559.
electronic nose - lycopersicon-esculentum - quality attributes - organic-compounds - flavor compounds - aroma volatiles - kidney beans - shelf-life - cultivars - harvest
The availability of rapid and accurate methods to assess fruit flavor is of utmost importance to support quality control especially in the breeding phase. Breeders need more information and analytical tools to facilitate selection for complex multigenic traits such as flavor quality. In this study, it is shown that proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a suitable method to monitor at high sensitivity the emission of volatiles determining the tomato aromatic profile such as hexanal, hexenals, methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde. The volatiles emitted by 14 tomato varieties (at red stage) were analyzed by 2 solvent-free headspace methods: solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography MS and PTR-MS. Multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) of the PTR-MS results allow an unambiguous separation between varieties, especially with a clear fingerprinting separation between the different tomato types: round truss, cocktail, and cherry tomatoes. PTR-MS was also successfully used to monitor the changes in volatile profiles during postharvest ripening and storage.
Typicality and Geographical Origin Markers of Protected Origin Cheese from The Netherlands Revealed by PTR-MS
Galle, S.A. ; Koot, A.H. ; Soukoulis, C. ; Cappellin, L. ; Biasioli, F. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2011
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59 (2011)6. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 2554 - 2563.
reaction-mass-spectrometry - volatile organic-compounds - flavor compounds - fragmentation patterns - profile - fraction - water - taste
Volatile fingerprints of 30 cumin cheese samples of artisanal farmers' cheese of Leiden with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and 29 cumin cheese samples of varying commercial Dutch brands without PDO protection were used to develop authentication models. The headspace concentrations of the volatiles, as measured with high sensitivity proton-transfer mass spectrometry, were subsequently subjected to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Farmers' cheese of Leiden showed a distinct volatile profile with 27 and 9 out of the 60 predominant ions showing respectively significantly higher and lower concentrations in the headspace of the cheese in comparison to the other cumin cheeses. The PLS-DA prediction models developed classified in cross-validation 96% of the samples of PDO protected, artisanal farmers' cheese of Leiden correctly, against 100% of commercial cumin cheese samples. The characteristic volatile compounds were tentatively identified by PTR-time-of-flight-MS. A consumer test indicated differences in appreciation, overall flavor intensity, creaminess, and firmness between the two cheese groups. The consumers' appreciation of the cumin cheese tested was not influenced by the presence of a name label or PDO trademark.
Characterisation of volatile components of Pinotage wines using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC–TOFMS)
Weldegergis, B.T. ; Villiers, A. de; McNeish, C. ; Seethapathy, S. ; Mostafa, A. ; Górecki, T. ; Crouch, A.M. - \ 2011
Food Chemistry 129 (2011)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 188 - 199.
solid-phase microextraction - bar sorptive extraction - south-african wines - flavor compounds - alcoholic beverages - madeira wines - white wine - quercus-petraea - aroma compounds - grape variety
As part of the ongoing research into the chemical composition of the uniquely South African wine cultivar Pinotage, the volatile composition of nine young wines of this cultivar was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fibre was used to extract the volatile compounds from the wine matrix. Extracts were analysed using an in-house developed GC × GC system equipped with a single jet, liquid nitrogen-based cryogenic modulator. In the current study, 206 compounds previously reported in wine and related matrices have been detected in nine Pinotage wines. Positive identification for 48 compounds was performed using authentic standards, while tentative identification of 158 compounds was based on deconvoluted mass spectra and comparison of linear retention indices (LRI) with literature values. Identified compounds included esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, acetals, furans and lactones, sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, terpenes, hydrocarbons, volatile phenols and pyrans. Volatile compounds potentially capable of influencing wine aroma are highlighted. Many of the compounds were common to all 9 wines, although volatile components unique to specific samples were also observed. The results represent the most detailed characterisation of volatile constituents of this cultivar reported to date.
A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from tomato fruit discovered using a metabolic data fusion approach.
Tikunov, Y.M. ; Vos, C.H. de; Gonzalez Paramas, A.M. ; Hall, R.D. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2010
Plant Physiology 152 (2010). - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 55 - 70.
methyl salicylate - lycopersicon-esculentum - bahd acyltransferase - solanum-lycopersicon - clitoria-ternatea - aroma components - flavor compounds - plant volatiles - glycosides - identification
A role for differential glycoconjugation in the emission of phenylpropanoid volatiles from ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) upon fruit tissue disruption has been discovered in this study. Application of a multiinstrumental analytical platform for metabolic profiling of fruits from a diverse collection of tomato cultivars revealed that emission of three discriminatory phenylpropanoid volatiles, namely methyl salicylate, guaiacol, and eugenol, took place upon disruption of fruit tissue through cleavage of the corresponding glycoconjugates, identified putatively as hexose-pentosides. However, in certain genotypes, phenylpropanoid volatile emission was arrested due to the corresponding hexose-pentoside precursors having been converted into glycoconjugate species of a higher complexity: dihexose-pentosides and malonyl-dihexose-pentosides. This glycoside conversion was established to occur in tomato fruit during the later phases of fruit ripening and has consequently led to the inability of red fruits of these genotypes to emit key phenylpropanoid volatiles upon fruit tissue disruption. This principle of volatile emission regulation can pave the way to new strategies for controlling tomato fruit flavor and taste.
The formation mechanism of lactones in Gouda cheese
Alewijn, M. ; Smit, B. ; Sliwinski, E.L. ; Wouters, J.T.M. - \ 2007
International Dairy Journal 17 (2007)1. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 59 - 66.
methyl ketone potentials - lactic-acid bacteria - milk-fat - quantitative-determination - volatile components - delta-decalactone - flavor compounds - dairy-products - cheddar cheese - gamma-lactone
Lactones are fat-derived aroma compounds, but the formation mechanism of these compounds during ripening of Gouda cheese is unknown. Both enzymatic and chemical formation pathways were investigated in this study. Lactone formation from milk triglycerides or free fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria enzymatic activity was not observed. Instead, the mechanism of the lactone formation in cheese was a one-step, non-enzymatic reaction, where a hydroxy fatty acid, esterified in a triglyceride undergoes trans-esterification to release the lactone directly. The lactone reaction potential was determined for all major ¿- and ¿-lactones by controlled heating of the fat. The chemical formation of lactones was temperature-dependent and the Arrhenius parameters of the formation reaction were estimated for each of the lactones. The kinetics of the reaction were first-order, and could be used to explain the formation of lactones in ripening Gouda cheese up to about 40 weeks
Up- and downregulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: Impacts on Furanone and Phenylpropanoid metabolism
Lunkenbein, S. ; Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Coiner, H. ; Boone, M.J. ; Krens, F.A. ; Schwab, W. - \ 2006
Journal of Experimental Botany 57 (2006)10. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2445 - 2453.
strawberry fragaria-ananassa - flavor compounds - gene-expression - tomato fruit - molecular-biology - dna microarrays - messenger-rnas - cell-wall - identification - aroma
A complex mixture of hundreds of substances determines strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) aroma, but only 15 volatiles are considered as key flavour compounds. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is regarded as the most important, but it is methylated further by FaOMT (Fragariaxananassa O-methyltransferase) to 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) during the ripening process. It is shown here that transformation of strawberry with the FaOMT sequence in sense and antisense orientation, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, resulted in a near total loss of DMMF, whereas the levels of the other volatiles remained unchanged. FaOMT repression also affected the ratio of feruloyl 1-O-ß-D-glucose and caffeoyl 1-O-ß-D-glucose, indicating a dual function of the enzyme in planta. Thus, FaOMT is involved in at least two different biochemical pathways in ripe strawberry fruit
Characterisation of the volatile profiles of infant formulas by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Ruth, S.M. van; Floris, V. ; Fayoux, S. - \ 2006
Food Chemistry 98 (2006)2. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 343 - 350.
skim milk powder - furfural compounds - flavor compounds - headspace
The volatile profiles of 13 infant formulas were evaluated by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS). The infant formulas varied in brand (Aptamil, Cow & Gate, SMA), type (for different infant target groups) and physical form (powder/liquid). Fingerprint mass spectra were obtained from the headspace of the samples using PTR-MS. GC¿MS was used to identify the volatile compounds. Brand, type and physical form of the infant formulas had a significant effect on the volatile profiles measured by PTR-MS. Forty-two masses were significantly affected by the brand, 14 by the type of formula, and 40 by the physical form. Eleven masses were among the most abundant across all samples (mass m/z 43, 45, 49, 55, 59, 60, 63, 69, 73, 83, and 87). Gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry revealed the identity of 28 of the volatile compounds of the infant formulas. Most of the masses detected in PTR-MS were related to compounds identified by GC¿MS.
Effect of whey protein on the In Vivo Release of Aldehydes.
Weel, K.G.C. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Burger, J.J. ; Claassen, N.E. ; Gruppen, H. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 2003
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2003). - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4746 - 4752.
bovine beta-lactoglobulin - 20 aroma compounds - flavor compounds - mass-spectrometry - binding - perception - saliva - chromatography - ionone - esters
Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer carbon chains and for buff er solutions with higher pH values. For in vivo aldehyde release measurements, these effects were much less pronounced. The presence of saliva or the binding of aldehydes to the surface of the oral cavity was not responsible for this effect. This difference can be explained by the highly dynamic conditions of in vivo aroma release of liquid products, due to the relatively large flow of air during exhalation. After swallowing, a thin film of aldehyde solution remains in the pharynx; subsequent exhalation will release both the free aldehydes present in this film and those reversibly bound to the whey protein.
A fast and simple method for quantitative determination of fat-derived medium and low-volatile compounds in cheese
Alewijn, M. ; Sliwinski, E.L. ; Wouters, J.T.M. - \ 2003
International Dairy Journal 13 (2003)9. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 733 - 741.
solid-phase microextraction - simultaneous distillation-extraction - gas-chromatographic analysis - dynamic headspace analysis - flavor compounds - cheddar cheese - gc-ms - parmesan cheese - potent odorants - milk
Cheese flavour is a mixture of many (volatile) compounds, mostly formed during ripening. The current method was developed to qualify and quantify fat-derived compounds in cheese. Cheese samples were extracted with acetonitrile, which led to a concentrated solution of potential favour compounds, mainly derived from milk fat. The solution was virtually free from triglycerides, protein and salt from the cheese matrix. Therefore, such an extract could be analysed directly by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). In the samples of the three cheese varieties analysed, 61 different compounds were identified, including 23 fatty acids, 14 lactones, 9 esters, 5 ketones, 10 alcohols, and several miscellaneous compounds. Furthermore, most compounds could be quantified by determining their distribution coefficients and thus correcting for their loss during extraction. This method was shown to be suitable for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of medium and low-volatile compounds. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Lipase in milk, curd and cheese
Geurts, T.J. ; Lettink, F.J. ; Wouters, J.T.M. - \ 2003
Milchwissenschaft-Milk Science International 58 (2003). - ISSN 0026-3788 - p. 62 - 66.
lipoprotein-lipase - flavor compounds - lipolysis - goats - raw
Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was interpreted as enzyme activity being present in the product concerned. Results obtained in this way showed that lipase was present in raw milk and in the curd and whey made of it, but that the bulk of the enzyme disappeared quickly from the curd during Gouda cheese making, as a result of several factors including scalding of the curd, whey removal and pH decrease. By using this method no lipase could be detected in ripened Gouda cheese, made of raw milk. Furthermore, no potential lipolytic activity was measured in ripened danish blue cheese, but it was in ripened Camembert and Brie, all of these cheeses being made of pasteurized milk. Obviously, the presence of active milk lipase in ripening cheese is by no means self-evident.
Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats
Machiels, D. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Posthumus, M.A. ; Istasse, L. - \ 2003
Talanta 60 (2003). - ISSN 0039-9140 - p. 755 - 764.
sniffing port analysis - solid-phase microextraction - extract dilution analysis - peppers capsicum-annuum - rehydrated french beans - aroma impact compounds - mouth model systems - bell peppers - flavor compounds - potent odorants
The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas chromatography-olfactometry was performed by a group of eight assessors using the detection frequency methodology. The odours of the detected compounds were described as well. Eighty-one volatile compounds were identified, 11 compounds of which possessed odour activity in the first beef sample and 14 of which in the second meat sample. Ten volatile flavour compounds were common to both: methanethiol, dimethyl sulphide, 2-butanone, ethyl acetate, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, an unknown compound, 2-octanone, decanal and benzothiazole. Two unknown compounds were only detected in the first sample while 2,3-pentanedione, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, 2-heptanone, dimethyl trisulphide and nonanal were only perceived in the second beef. Significant differences in terms of detection frequency, odour characteristics and in nature of the volatile flavour compounds were emphasised between the two samples. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.