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Bat flight analysis around wind turbines : a feasibility study
Lagerveld, Sander ; Kooistra, Gert ; Otten, Gerwoud ; Meesters, Lydia ; Manshanden, Jasper ; Haan, Dick de; Gerla, Daan ; Verhoef, Hans ; Scholl, Michaela - \ 2017
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C026/17) - 42
chiroptera - flight - animal behaviour - wind farms - offshore - north sea - netherlands - vliegen - diergedrag - windmolenpark - noordzee - nederland
This study, as part of the Wozep-project Behaviour and Collision Risk of Bats (Bats_2), investigates how bat behaviour can be studied near offshore wind turbines. To find out whether it is wise to continue and further develop behavioural research at wind turbines in the context of the Wozep programme, we first conducted a feasibility study on land.
Flight height of seabirds : a literature study
Jongbloed, R.H. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C024/16) - 25 p.
sea birds - flight - height - animal behaviour - zeevogels - vliegen - hoogte - diergedrag
Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals
Kölzsch, A. ; Alzate, A. ; Bartumeus, F. ; Jager, M. de; Weerman, E.J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Naguib, M. ; Nolet, B.A. ; Koppel, J. van de - \ 2015
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 282 (2015)1807. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
correlated-random-walks - environmental complexity - wandering albatrosses - movement patterns - marine predator - flight - strategies - success - evolve - scale
Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment.
Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings
Lentink, D. ; Kat, R. de - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
reynolds-number airfoils - aerodynamics - forces - flight
Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13%) of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration—similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation) before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.
Group size and dispersal ploys: an analysis of commuting behaviour of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme)
Haarsma, A.J. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2014
Canadian Journal of Zoology 92 (2014)1. - ISSN 0008-4301 - p. 57 - 65.
sonar signal-design - echolocation behavior - prey detection - habitat - summer - flight - water - netherlands - clutter
Like most bat species, the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme (Boie, 1825)) lives in roosts more or less in the centre of their foraging habitat and are considered central-place foragers. Commuting routes, or flyways, between roosts and hunting areas have an essential ecological function for bats. We summarize the results of research performed on the commuting routes of pond bats between 2002 and 2009. We give, among others, a description on how bats disperse, how to recognize a commuting route, and details about the effort needed to make a complete survey of one commuting route. Furthermore, we make a relation between number of animals on the route and size of their respective roost. The results suggest pond bats are not completely reliant on waterways for reaching their foraging habitat; they use directional dispersal, following commuting routes over waterways in combination with shortcuts over land. These results provide information that can be used to better understand how bats use their commuting routes. Also, the knowledge can be applied to survey work.
The Predictive Adaptive Response: Modeling the Life-History Evolution of the Butterfly
Heuvel, J. van den; Saastamoinen, M. ; Brakefield, P.M. ; Kirkwood, T.B. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Shanley, D.P. - \ 2013
American Naturalist 181 (2013)2. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. E28 - E42.
phenotypic plasticity - metabolic syndrome - body-size - adaptation - starvation - growth - flight - lepidoptera - temperature - hypothesis
A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource allocation patterns to the thorax during the pupal stage. We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species
Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives
Wolf, M. ; Kurvers, R.H.J.M. ; Ward, A.J.W. ; Krause, S. ; Krause, J. - \ 2013
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 280 (2013)1756. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
antipredator vigilance - social information - predatory attack - fish shoals - flocking - evolution - selection - flight - birds - foragers
In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false- positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications.
Effect of local weather on butterfly flight behaviour, movement, and colonization: significance for dispersal under climate change
Cormont, A. ; Malinowska, A.H. ; Kostenko, O. ; Radchuk, V. ; Hemerik, L. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Verboom, J. - \ 2011
Biodiversity and Conservation 20 (2011)3. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 483 - 503.
klimaatverandering - weersgegevens - diergedrag - vliegen - lepidoptera - migratie - dispersie - climatic change - weather data - animal behaviour - flight - lepidoptera - migration - dispersion - british butterflies - range margins - habitat - landscapes - metapopulations - temperature - responses - search - models - wind
Recent climate change is recognized as a main cause of shifts in geographical distributions of species. The impacts of climate change may be aggravated by habitat fragmentation, causing regional or large scale extinctions. However, we propose that climate change also may diminish the effects of fragmentation by enhancing flight behaviour and dispersal of ectothermic species like butterflies. We show that under weather conditions associated with anticipated climate change, behavioural components of dispersal of butterflies are enhanced, and colonization frequencies increase. In a field study, we recorded flight behaviour and mobility of four butterfly species: two habitat generalists (Coenonympha pamphilus; Maniola jurtina) and two specialists (Melitaea athalia; Plebejus argus), under different weather conditions. Flying bout duration generally increased with temperature and decreased with cloudiness. Proportion of time spent flying decreased with cloudiness. Net displacement generally increased with temperature. When butterflies fly longer, start flying more readily and fly over longer distances, we expect dispersal propensity to increase. Monitoring data showed that colonization frequencies moreover increased with temperature and radiation and decreased with cloudiness. Increased dispersal propensity at local scale might therefore lower the impact of habitat fragmentation on the distribution at a regional scale. Synergetic effects of climate change and habitat fragmentation on population dynamics and species distributions might therefore appear to be more complex than previously assumed
Vortex interactions with flapping wings and fins can be unpredictable
Lentink, D. ; Heijst, G.J.F. van; Muijres, F.T. ; Leeuwen, J.L. van - \ 2010
Biology Letters 6 (2010)3. - ISSN 1744-9561 - p. 394 - 397.
soap films - flow - foil - wake - generation - vorticity - fields - flight - body
As they fly or swim, many animals generate a wake of vortices with their flapping fins and wings that reveals the dynamics of their locomotion. Previous studies have shown that the dynamic interaction of vortices in the wake with fins and wings can increase propulsive force. Here, we explore whether the dynamics of the vortex interactions could affect the predictability of propulsive forces. We studied the dynamics of the interactions between a symmetrically and periodically pitching and heaving foil and the vortices in its wake, in a soap-film tunnel. The phase-locked movie sequences reveal that abundant chaotic vortex-wake interactions occur at high Strouhal numbers. These high numbers are representative for the fins and wings of near-hovering animals. The chaotic wake limits the forecast horizon of the corresponding force and moment integrals. By contrast, we find periodic vortex wakes with an unlimited forecast horizon for the lower Strouhal numbers (0.2–0.4) at which many animals cruise. These findings suggest that swimming and flying animals could control the predictability of vortex-wake interactions, and the corresponding propulsive forces with their fins and wings.
Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk
Blackburn, G.S. ; Hipfner, J.M. ; Ydenberg, R.C. - \ 2009
Journal of Avian Biology 40 (2009)4. - ISSN 0908-8857 - p. 412 - 418.
atlantic puffins - great-island - arctica l - predation - seabirds - success - flight - gulls - wind - newfoundland
Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or kleptoparasitism rates could be due either to low danger or to effective counter-tactics by prey. Tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata breeding at a large colony in British Columbia, Canada, deliver several loads of fish each day to their nestlings and are targets for kleptoparasitism by glaucous-winged gulls Larus glaucescens. In the present study, we documented the ecological conditions under which overflights occurred in order to assess when overflights were made and to statistically isolate the effect of overflights on kleptoparasitism risk at this site. Load-carrying puffins engaged in overflights under ecological conditions associated with relatively high rates of kleptoparasitism. Further, when ecological factors determining risk were statistically controlled, overflights were correlated with marginally lower chances of kleptoparasitism than when the risk factors were ignored. The results suggest that breeding puffins at this site use overflights for kleptoparasite avoidance. This tactic is used sparingly, suggesting it is costly. Costs of overflight behaviour might contribute to the impact of kleptoparasitism on the breeding success of tufted puffins.
Exploring the biofluiddynamics of swimming and flight
Lentink, D. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Leeuwen, co-promotor(en): M.H. Dickinson; G.J.F. van Heijst. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085049715 - 184
vissen - luchtinsecten - vogels - zaden - zwemmen - vliegen - dynamica - vloeistofmechanica - diermodellen - zoölogie - engineering - fishes - aerial insects - birds - seeds - swimming - flight - dynamics - fluid mechanics - animal models - zoology - engineering - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings
Lentink, D. ; Müller, U.K. ; Stamhuis, E.J. ; Kat, R. de; Gestel, W.J.H. van; Veldhuis, L.L.M. ; Henningsson, P. ; Hedenström, A. ; Videler, J.J. ; Leeuwen, J.L. van - \ 2007
Nature 446 (2007). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 1082 - 1085.
black vulture - apus-apus - flight - birds - tunnel - aerodynamics - orientation
Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance7, 8, 9. That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models2, 10, which extrapolated the wing's performance envelope from aerodynamic theory. Here we describe the aerodynamic and structural performance of actual swift wings, as measured in a wind tunnel, and on this basis build a semi-empirical glide model. By measuring inside and outside swifts' behavioural envelope, we show that choosing the most suitable sweep can halve sink speed or triple turning rate. Extended wings are superior for slow glides and turns; swept wings are superior for fast glides and turns. This superiority is due to better aerodynamic performance¿with the exception of fast turns. Swept wings are less effective at generating lift while turning at high speeds, but can bear the extreme loads. Finally, our glide model predicts that cost-effective gliding occurs at speeds of 8¿10 m s-1, whereas agility-related figures of merit peak at 15¿25 m s-1. In fact, swifts spend the night ('roost') in flight at 8¿10 m s-1 (ref. 11), thus our model can explain this choice for a resting behaviour11, 12. Morphing not only adjusts birds' wing performance to the task at hand, but could also control the flight of future aircraft7
Regulation of stroke pattern and swim speed across a range of current velocities: Diving by common eiders wintering in polynyas in the Canadian Arctic
Heath, J.P. ; Gilchrist, H.G. ; Ydenberg, R.C. - \ 2006
Journal of Experimental Biology 209 (2006)20. - ISSN 0022-0949 - p. 3974 - 3983.
brunnichs guillemots - body shape - birds - drag - flight - glide - cost - size - acceleration - frequency
Swim speed during diving has important energetic consequences. Not only do costs increase as drag rises non-linearly with increasing speed, but speed also affects travel time to foraging patches and therefore time and energy budgets over the entire dive cycle. However, diving behaviour has rarely been considered in relation to current velocity. Strong tidal currents around the Belcher Islands, Nunavut, Canada, produce polynyas, persistent areas of open water in the sea ice which are important habitats for wildlife wintering in Hudson Bay. Some populations of common eiders Somateria mollissima sedentaria remain in polynyas through the winter where they dive to forage on benthic invertebrates. Strong tidal currents keep polynyas from freezing, but current velocity can exceed 1.5 m s¿1 and could influence time and energy costs of diving and foraging. Polynyas therefore provide naturally occurring flume tanks allowing investigation of diving strategies of free ranging birds in relation to current velocity. We used a custom designed sub-sea ice camera to non-invasively investigate over 150 dives to a depth of 11.3 m by a population of approximately 100 common eiders at Ulutsatuq polynya during February and March of 2002 and 2003. Current speed during recorded dives ranged from 0 to 1 m s¿1. As currents increased, vertical descent speed of eiders decreased, while descent duration and the number of wing strokes and foot strokes during descent to the bottom increased. However, nearly simultaneous strokes of wings and feet, and swim speed relative to the moving water, were maintained within a narrow range (2.28±0.23 Hz; 1.25±0.14 m s¿1, respectively). This close regulation of swim speed over a range in current speed of 1.0 m s¿1 might correspond to efficient muscle contraction rates, and probably reduces work rates by avoiding rapidly increasing drag at greater speeds; however, it also increases travel time to benthic foraging patches. Despite regulation of average swim speed, high instantaneous speeds during oscillatory stroking can increase dive costs due to drag. While most diving birds have been considered either foot or wing propelled, eider ducks used both wing and foot propulsion during descent. Our observations indicate that the power phase of foot strokes coincides with the transition between upstroke and downstroke of the wings, when drag is greatest. Coordinated timing between foot and wing propulsion could therefore serve to maintain a steadier speed during descent and decrease the costs of diving. Despite tight regulation of stroke and swim speed patterns, descent duration and total number of foot and wing strokes during descent increase non-linearly with increasing current velocity, suggesting an increase in energetic costs of diving.
Modelling the flyway of arctic breeding shorebirds; parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis
Ens, B.J. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Bauer, S. ; Klaassen, M. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra (NIOO-rapport 2006-01) - 119
zeevogels - kusten - migratie - modellen - vliegen - energiekosten van activiteiten - predatie - calidris - oevers - sea birds - coasts - migration - models - flight - energy cost of activities - predation - calidris - shores
This report describes the derivation of parameter estimates for the model DYNAMIG for an arctic breeding shorebird, the Knot. DYNAMIG predicts the optimal spring migration of birds, like shorebirds and geese, that depend of a chain of discrete sites, to travel between their breeding grounds and their wintering grounds. An important parameter is the terminal reward, which describes the fitness consequences of arriving with a particular body condition at a particular time on the breeding grounds. We derived the terminal reward from field studies in Siberia carried out as part of this project. Other parameter values, like flight costs, maintenance metabolism and predation risk were derived from the literature. Predictions on aspects of the migration schedule with the parameterized model were partly correct and partly wrong. Suggestions are made how to remedy the discrepancies. An interesting prediction of the model that requires testing is that Knots breeding in Canada migrate via Iceland, whereas Knots breeding on Greenland migrate via Norway. A sensitivity analysis indicated that this prediction was quite robust.
Predicting the temperature-dependent natural population expansion of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera
Hemerik, L. ; Busstra, M.C. ; Mols, P. - \ 2004
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 111 (2004). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 59 - 69.
coleoptera-chrysomelidae - leconte coleoptera - oviposition - velocity - flight - patterns - northern - dynamics - barberi - spread
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was accidentally introduced near Belgrade in Serbia just before 1992 and from there its expansion into Europe started. We have estimated its mean rate of expansion from 1992 to 2000 to be approximately 33 km year(-1), using data from the annual surveys of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation. We investigated whether or not D. virgifera can establish itself at certain places in Europe, taking its temperature-dependent development into account. We also estimated the time it will take D. virgifera to reach the Netherlands, considering only its dispersal by flight. All life stage transitions of D. virgifera were simulated with the program INSIM to assess whether or not it could establish itself in particular places. In the simulations, we used the available laboratory data on its life history characteristics, as well as a time series (2-6 years) of daily minimum and maximum temperatures from weather stations across Europe. The temperature-dependent net reproduction resulting from the simulations showed that D. virgifera populations cannot establish themselves at latitudes above 55degreesN. The overall expected velocity of D. virgifera's range expansion was computed with van den Bosch et al.'s formula [van den Bosch F, Hengeveld R & Metz JAJ (1992) Analysing the velocity of animal range expansion. Journal of Biogeography 19: 135-150], where the expansion velocity was based on dispersal characteristics and demographic parameters. We predicted that D. virgifera will not reach the Netherlands by flight from the border of its 2000 range before 2018 using this overall expected velocity. The explanation of this late arrival is that the velocity of population expansion decreases in all directions from the centre of its 2000 range due to unfavourable temperatures. Our analysis is an improvement on former analyses in that it uses temperature-dependent life history characteristics. We stress, however, that the lack of knowledge on dispersal behaviour and on the values of life history characteristics in field situations might severely limit the applicability of the predicted velocity.
Editorial: Fish 'n flag
Müller, U.K. - \ 2003
Science 302 (2003). - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1511 - 1512.
flight - wind - wave