After the facts: Producing, using and contesting knowledge in two spatial-environmental conflicts in the Netherlands
Roth, Dik ; Köhne, Michiel ; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm ; Winnubst, Madelinde - \ 2020
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space (2020). - ISSN 2399-6544
Citizen protest - flood risk management - knowledge - knowledge actors - shale gas
While the problematic role of knowledge in controversial policy processes is widely acknowledged, relatively little is known about how protesting citizen groups involved in such controversies construct, mobilize and use knowledge. This article explores these issues in two conflicts about planned interventions in the Netherlands. The first case, about energy policies, concerns protests against plans for shale gas extraction. In the second case, concerning flood risk management, citizens organized protests against a planned ‘bypass’ of the River Waal. To better understand the role of citizen groups as knowledge actors, we analyse how these groups organized and strategized their protests and produced, used and contested knowledge to claim voice in decision-making. The study shows the key role of citizen groups as knowledge actors in contested planning processes, and of their knowledge strategies in internally divided communities. It also shows the importance of the source and type of knowledge and how it is constructed, mobilized and used in various stages of resistance against policy plans.
The shifting position of homeowners in flood resilience: From recipients to key-stakeholders
Snel, Karin A.W. ; Witte, Patrick A. ; Hartmann, Thomas ; Geertman, Stan C.M. - \ 2020
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 7 (2020)4. - ISSN 2049-1948
flood protection - flood resilience - flood risk governance - flood risk management - homeowner involvement
The academic debate on flood risk governance is paying increased attention to the shifting position of homeowners. Homeowners are increasingly expected to adapt their homes to protect against possible floods. Although an overall agreement seems to exist on the involvement of homeowners in flood risk governance, the academic literature is dispersed in its argumentation on why homeowners should be involved. Therefore, this article provides a coherent overview of the transition from flood protection to flood risk management, and subsequently of the arguments that unfold regarding the shifting position of homeowners within this debate. This overview, based on a systematic review of the academic literature, helps to shed light on the changing role of homeowners in flood risk governance and contributes to categorizing the arguments used in current academic reasoning on homeowner involvement in flood risk governance. We use a conceptual distinction between macro-level and micro-level arguments, and between individual and collective efforts to structure our results. This conceptual overview illustrates the potential gap in convincing homeowners of the urgency to take action, because the connection between the macro-level arguments (i.e., climate change and responsibility) and the micro-level arguments (i.e., minimizing flood damage on privately owned properties) is generally not made. We, therefore, suggest that a stronger coherence in the argumentation would contribute to increase homeowner awareness of their changing responsibilities, which might bring about a future shift toward a new phase in flood risk governance, in which the responsibilities of homeowners are more explicitly acknowledged and integrated into climate adaptation strategies. This article is categorized under: Engineering Water > Planning Water Human Water > Water Governance.
Integrated Adaptation Tipping Points (IATPs) for urban flood resilience
Ahmed, Farhana ; Khan, M.S.A. ; Warner, Jeroen ; Moors, Eddy ; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien - \ 2018
Environment and Urbanization 30 (2018)2. - ISSN 0956-2478 - p. 575 - 596.
Adaptation Tipping Point - Dhaka - flood risk management - modelling - resilience - social tipping point
This paper applies an Adaptation Tipping Point (ATP) approach for the assessment of vulnerability to flooding in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A series of rigorous modelling exercises for fluvial and pluvial flooding was conducted to identify the critical ATPs of the physical system, under both existing and proposed flood risk management strategies, for different urban and climate change scenarios. But a standalone assessment of the physical system’s ATPs is insufficient to gain a complete understanding of flood risks; community resilience also depends on people’s adaptability and the acceptance of risks by the community in question. Through participatory public consultations, this study determines the critical ATPs for community risk acceptance. The concept of the “Integrated Adaptation Tipping Point (IATP)”, introduced here, combines the accepted level of risk to the community with the ATPs for physical systems. This approach reveals that the assessed vulnerability to flooding increases when social tipping points are considered.
Cutting dikes, cutting ties? Reintroducing Flood Dynamics in Coastal Polders in Bangladesh and the Netherlands
Warner, J.F. ; Staveren, M.F. van; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2018
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 32 (2018). - ISSN 2212-4209 - p. 106 - 112.
controlled flooding; - flood risk management - the Netherlands - Bangladesh - Tidal River Management
Renewed attention for ecosystem dynamics when considering flood related interventions has been instrumental in shaping initiatives to ‘de-polder' lands, i.e. returning previously reclaimed land to the waters. This is a substantial paradigm shift in land and water management, as poldering has been crucial to the development of both the Dutch and Bangladeshi deltas, where wetlands have been turned into productive agricultural areas by constructing peripheral embankments to separate water in rivers from water within polders. Although these interventions have contributed significantly to increased food production and safer livelihoods within the embankments in the short run, negative socio-environmental effects also surfaced. Constructing flood preventive embankments also means preventing the deposition of sedimentation. As a consequence, soil subsidence and the increase of economic value in the built-up area behind the embankments, turned a 'high-incidence, low-consequence' flood risk situation into a 'low incidence – high consequence' one. It also led to changes in social structures, decision-making power and trade-offs between when and how much water is taken in or drained out – (re-)distributing hydrological risks between stakeholders. It is against this background that polder embankments have come in for strong criticism and reconsideration. They were cut, reduced in height, moved or even completely removed, in the cases central in this paper. As a result of such ‘de-poldering’, flood dynamics (riverine/freshwater or tidal) have reappeared in formerly enclosed lands. Proponents of ecosystem-based approaches to water and flood management have been instrumental in encouraging this practice.
This contribution describes and analyses two cases from the Dutch and Bangladeshi deltas, where these kinds of interventions have taken shape over the last 10–20 years. The article highlights the complexity and interaction between environmental, technological and socio-political drivers for (and against) dyke removal and restoration of flood dynamics to reduce flood disaster risk. The Dutch case emphasizes how a de-poldering project had redistributive consequences, when farmers felt they had to pay the price for other people's safety from flooding. The Bangladesh case study shows how controlled tidal flooding addresses another water related risk: prolonged water logging within delta polders. Originating in a popular practice of the region, this DRR strategy met with varying degrees of success when implemented as a top-down intervention.
Adaptive delta management: a comparison between the Netherlands and Bangladesh Delta Program
Zevenbergen, Chris ; Khan, Shah Alam ; Alphen, Jos van; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Catharien ; Veerbeek, William - \ 2018
International Journal of River Basin Management 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1571-5124 - p. 1 - 7.
Adaptive Delta Management - flood risk management - multi-level governance
In the Netherlands, the central government, water authorities, provinces and municipalities are working together on a new Delta Program on Flood Risk Management and Fresh Water Supply (DP). Its primary goal is to protect the Netherlands against floods and ensure the availability of fresh water, now and for future generations. The DP has developed a new, adaptive management concept: the Adaptive Delta Management (ADM) approach. ADM is defined as ‘a smart and intelligent way of taking account of uncertainties and dependencies in decision-making on Delta Management with a view to reducing the risk of overspending or underinvestment’. Important features of DP are: (i) involving multiple stakeholders in a joint decision-making process to enhance ownership, legitimacy and feasibility; (ii) taking a risk-based perspective; (iii) adopting a flexible approach in possible strategies by valuing flexibility with regard to the timing of implementation and (iv) interlinking various investment agendas and looking for opportunities for mainstreaming with planned investments. Along similar lines, a Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 (BDP 2100) is being devised to achieve long-term sustainable socio-economic development and provide safety in the face of disasters through adaptive water governance in Bangladesh. It embodies a holistic, integrated vision, adaptive strategies and a long-term investment agenda for the Bangladesh Delta. The Plan is scheduled to be finalized in 2017. ADM is not an approach that can be transferred easily from one country to another as it demands a fundamental change in institutional capacity at multiple levels including new knowledge and skills, relationships and policy frameworks, and, hence, depends on the local socio-economic characteristics, culture and governance. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities for successful formulation and implementation of BDP 2100.