Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Data from: Endure and call for help: strategies of black mustard plants to deal with a specialised caterpillar
    Lucas Gomes Marques Barbosa, D. ; Dicke, M. ; Kranenburg, Twan ; Aartsma, Y.S.Y. ; Beek, T.A. van; Huigens, Martinus E. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University & Research
    carbon - flowering plants - indirect defence - nitrogen - plant fitness - tolerance
    raw data on: 1) pollinator visitation rates to Brassica nigra plants during day and night; 2) Plant Chemistry including volatile emission and carbon and nitrogen contents; 3) Plant fitness including biomass and seed production
    De foeragerende honingbij
    Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2015
    Bijenhouden 9 (2015)6. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 7 - 9.
    bijenhouderij - foerageren - honingbijen - apis - drachtplanten - bloeiende planten - nectar - stuifmeel - bestuivers (dieren) - beekeeping - foraging - honey bees - apis - pollen plants - flowering plants - nectar - pollen - pollinators
    Dit artikel is een compilatie van het Wageningen-UR PRI rapport 606 ’Factoren die het foerageergedrag van honingbijen bepalen (deel I)’. In dit rapport wordt het haalgedrag van de honingbij beschreven: hoe wordt het bepaald en wat wordt verzameld en hoe. Daarnaast is in het rapport een drachtplantenlijst opgenomen (deel II). Hoe bijen drachten bezoeken is interessant voor de bijenhouder en van wezenlijk belang voor het inzetten van honingbijen voor bestuiving en voor het interpreteren van uitkomsten in studies waarin bijenvolken gebruikt worden voor het aantonen van plantenziekten en milieuverontreinigingen.
    Genomics 4.0 : syntenic gene and genome duplication drives diversification of plant secondary metabolism and innate immunity in flowering plants : advanced pattern analytics in duplicate genomes
    Hofberger, J.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Eric Schranz. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573147 - 142
    genomica - planten - metabolisme - bloeiende planten - genomen - genen - next generation sequencing - genomics - plants - metabolism - flowering plants - genomes - genes - next generation sequencing

    Genomics 4.0 - Syntenic Gene and Genome Duplication Drives Diversification of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Innate Immunity in Flowering Plants

    Johannes A. Hofberger1, 2, 3

    1 Biosystematics Group, Wageningen University & Research Center, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands (August 2012 – December 2013)

    2 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands (December 2010 – July 2012)

    3 Chinese Academy of Sciences/Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, 320 Yueyang Road,

    Shanghai 200031, PR China (January 2014 – December 2014)


    Large-scale comparative analysis of Big Data from next generation sequencing provides powerful means to exploit the potential of nature in context of plant breeding and biotechnology. In this thesis, we combine various computational methods for genome-wide identification of gene families involved in (a) plant innate immunity and (a) biosynthesis of defense-related plant secondary metabolites across 21 species, assess dynamics that affected evolution of underlying traits during 250 Million Years of flowering plant radiation and provide data on more than 4500 loci that can underpin crop improvement for future food and live quality.


    As sessile organisms, plants are permanently exposed to a plethora of potentially harmful microbes and other pests. The surprising resilience to infections observed in successful lineages is due to a complex defense network fighting off invading pathogens. Within this network, a sophisticated plant innate immune system is accompanied by a multitude of specialized biosynthetic pathways that generate more than 200,000 secondary metabolites with ecological, agricultural, energy and medicinal importance. The rapid diversification of associated genes was accompanied by a series of duplication events in virtually all plant species, including local duplication of short sequences as well as multiplication of all chromosomes due to meiotic errors (plant polyploidy). In a comparative genomics approach, we combined several bioinformatics techniques for large-scale identification of multi-domain and multi-gene families that are involved in plant innate immunity or defense-related secondary metabolite pathways across 21 representative flowering plant genomes. We introduced a framework to trace back duplicate gene copies to distinct ancient duplication events, thereby unravelling a differential impact of gene and genome duplication to molecular evolution of target genes. Comparing the genomic context among homologs within and between species in a phylogenomics perspective, we discovered orthologs conserved within genomic regions that remained structurally immobile during flowering plant radiation. In summary, we described a complex interplay of gene and genome duplication that increased genetic versatility of disease resistance and secondary metabolite pathways, thereby expanding the playground for functional diversification and thus plant trait innovation and success. Our findings give fascinating insights to evolution across lineages and can underpin crop improvement for food, fiber and biofuels production

    Tales on insect-flowering plant interactions : the ecological significance of plant responses to herbivores and pollinators
    Lucas Gomes Marques Barbosa, D. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Dicke, co-promotor(en): Joop van Loon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572119 - 207
    bloeiende planten - insecten - insect-plant relaties - plant-herbivoor relaties - herbivoren - bestuivers (dieren) - trofische graden - parasitoïden - herbivoor-geinduceerde plantengeuren - flowering plants - insects - insect plant relations - plant-herbivore interactions - herbivores - pollinators - trophic levels - parasitoids - herbivore induced plant volatiles - cum laude
    cum laude graduation
    Wilde bijen mede achteruitgegaan door gebrek aan bloemen
    Scheper, J.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    apidae - wilde bijenvolken - bloeiende planten - door bijen verzameld stuifmeel - bouwland - waardplanten - rassen (dieren) - insect-plant relaties - vegetatietypen - apidae - wild honey bee colonies - flowering plants - bee-collected pollen - arable land - host plants - breeds - insect plant relations - vegetation types
    Uit onderzoek van stuifmeel van bijen uit museumcollecties blijkt dat het verlies aan bloemen in het landschap wel eens een belangrijke oorzaak van de achteruitgang van wilde bijensoorten zou kunnen zijn. Dit werd al langer vermoed, maar tot op heden ontbrak hiervoor het bewijs. Dat bewijs is nu geleverd aan de hand van museumcollecties. “Uit ons onderzoek bleek een duidelijke relatie tussen het voorkomen van bijensoorten en hun waardplanten,” zegt Jeroen Scheper in een toelichting op het onderzoek dat zojuist is verschenen in het wetenschappelijk tijdschrift PNAS.
    Using multi-locus allelic sequence data to estimate genetic divergence among four Lilium (Liliaceae) cultivars
    Shahin, A. ; Smulders, M.J.M. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Arens, P.F.P. ; Bakker, F.T. - \ 2014
    Frontiers in Plant Science 5 (2014). - ISSN 1664-462X
    nuclear ribosomal dna - transcribed spacer region - phylogeny group classification - species trees - reticulate evolution - molecular phylogeny - flowering plants - genus lilium - apg iii - networks
    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) may enable estimating relationships among genotypes using allelic variation of multiple nuclear genes simultaneously. We explored the potential and caveats of this strategy in four genetically distant Lilium cultivars to estimate their genetic divergence from transcriptome sequences using three approaches: POFAD (Phylogeny of Organisms from Allelic Data, uses allelic information of sequence data), RAxML (Randomized Accelerated Maximum Likelihood, tree building based on concatenated consensus sequences) and Consensus Network (constructing a network summarizing among gene tree conflicts). Twenty six gene contigs were chosen based on the presence of orthologous sequences in all cultivars, seven of which also had an orthologous sequence in Tulipa, used as out-group. The three approaches generated the same topology. Although the resolution offered by these approaches is high, in this case there was no extra benefit in using allelic information. We conclude that these 26 genes can be widely applied to construct a species tree for the genus Lilium.
    Annonaceae substitution rates - a codon model perspective
    Chatrou, L.W. ; Pirie, M.D. ; Velzen, R. van; Bakker, F.T. - \ 2014
    Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 36 (2014)edição especial, e.. - ISSN 0100-2945 - p. 108 - 117.
    molecular evolution - flowering plants - phylogeny reconstruction - historical biogeography - nucleotide substitution - maximum-likelihood - genera - diversification - characters - patterns
    The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific) differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF) for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.
    Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.
    Koek-Noorman, J. ; Westra, L.I.T. - \ 2012
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169 (2012)1. - ISSN 0024-4074 - p. 135 - 189.
    flowering plants - genera - classification - evolution - families - genus
    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in identification, not only at the family level, but also at the level of genera or below, notwithstanding the fact that the number of characters that can be easily observed in end-grain photographs is restricted. The differences are often slight and difficult to summarize in a few words, making illustrations an indispensable tool. Therefore, we provide end-grain photographs of cross-sections of wood of 66 genera and > 90 species of Annonaceae. The variation seen in lens key characters is discussed against the framework of the current phylogenetic tree of the family. Additional remarks on microscopic features are given when appropriate
    Radiations and key innovations in an early branching angiosperm lineage (Annonaceae; Magnoliales)
    Erkens, R.H.J. ; Chatrou, L.W. ; Couvreur, T.L.P. - \ 2012
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169 (2012)1. - ISSN 0024-4074 - p. 117 - 134.
    rain-forest trees - species-rich genus - adaptive radiation - diversification rates - rapid diversification - goniothalamus annonaceae - molecular phylogenetics - ecological opportunity - guatteria annonaceae - flowering plants
    Biologists are fascinated by species-rich groups and have attempted to discover the causes for their abundant diversification. Comprehension of the causes and mechanisms underpinning radiations and detection of their frequency will contribute greatly to the understanding of the evolutionary origin of biodiversity and its ecological structure. A dated and well-resolved phylogenetic tree of Annonaceae was used to study diversification patterns in the family in order to identify factors that drive speciation and the evolution of morphological (key) characters. It was found that, except for Goniothalamus, the largest genera in the family are not the result of radiations. Furthermore, the difference in species numbers between subfamilies Annonoideae (former long branch clade) and Malmeoideae (former short branch clade) cannot be attributed to significant differences in the diversification rate. Most of the speciation in Annonaceae is not distinguishable from a random branching process (i.e. chance), and no special explanations are therefore necessary for the distribution of species richness across the major part of the phylogenetic tree for Annonaceae. Only for a small number of clades can key innovations be invoked to explain the elevated rate of diversification
    Editorial: The natural history of Annonaceae.
    Chatrou, L.W. ; Erkens, R.H.J. ; Richardson, J.E. ; Saunders, R.M.K. ; Fay, M.F. - \ 2012
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 169 (2012)1. - ISSN 0024-4074 - p. 1 - 4.
    phylogeny group classification - cladistic-analysis - uvaria annonaceae - flowering plants - apg iii - families - genera - genus - update - orders
    Consultancyonderzoek naar mogelijke oorzaken uitval bij Mandevilla
    Noort, F.R. van; Lieffering, M. - \ 2011
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1095) - 26
    sierplanten - apocynaceae - dipladenia - bloeiende planten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - glastuinbouw - ornamental plants - apocynaceae - dipladenia - flowering plants - plant pathogenic fungi - greenhouse horticulture
    Abstract Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture and Marcel Lieffering Kamer- en Perkplantenadviesburo conducted exploratory research, funded by the Dutch Product Board for Horticulture, into the loss of plants in Mandevilla growing. In literature, the diseases Pythium, Phytophthora, Fusarium oxysporum, Agrobacterium and Ralstonia were mentioned. In an experimental production test, only Phytophthora was found. In this experiment, differences in crop loss were mainly related to the origin. The differences in crop loss between substrates and pH levels were clearly smaller. Origin also had a major impact on plant quality: one origin was much better than the other two.
    An assessment of chromosomal rearrangements in neopolyploids of Lilium hybrids
    Xie, S.L. ; Khan, N. ; Ramanna, M.S. ; Niu, L.X. ; Marasek Ciolakowska, A.R. ; Arens, P. ; Tuyl, J.M. van - \ 2010
    Genome 53 (2010)6. - ISSN 0831-2796 - p. 439 - 446.
    in-situ hybridization - x asiatic hybrids - brassica-napus - intergenomic recombination - homeologous recombination - flowering plants - gish analysis - genome - longiflorum - polyploids
    Two types of newly induced polyploids (neopolyploids) of Lilium hybrids were monitored for the occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. One of the populations was obtained through crossing an allotriploid Longiflorum x Oriental hybrid (LLO) with an allotetraploid Longiflorum x Trumpet hybrid (LLTT), both of which were derived from somatic chromosome doubling. The other type of allopolyploid population was derived from meiotic chromosome doubling in which numerically unreduced (2n) gametes from two different interspecific hybrids. namely. Longiflorum x Asiatic (LA) and Oriental x Asiatic (OA). were used to get backcross progeny with the Asiatic parents. GISH clearly discriminated the three constituent genomes (L, T, and O) in the complements of the progeny obtained from mitotic chromosome doubling. A total of 26 individuals were analyzed from this population and there was no evidence of chromosomal rearrangements. However, in the case of meiotically doubled allopolyploid progeny, considerable frequencies of chromosomal rearrangements were observed through GISH. The so-called chromosomal rearrangements in meiotic polyploids are the result of homoeologous recombination rather than translocations. Furthermore, evidence for the occurrence of meiotic recombination in the LA hybrids has been confirmed with GISH on meiotic chromosomes. Thus, there was evidence that neopolyploids of Lilium hybrids did not possess any noticeable chromosome rearrangements
    Bloeizekerheid Sierteeltgewassen Cymbidium
    Lamers, R. ; Balk, P. ; Verhoef, N. ; Kromwijk, J.A.M. ; Noort, F.R. van - \ 2010
    bloementeelt - bloei - bloeiende planten - bloeidatum - siergewassen - sierteelt - garanties - viburnum - cymbidium - floriculture - flowering - flowering plants - flowering date - ornamental crops - ornamental horticulture - warranties - viburnum - cymbidium
    Poster over een onderzoek naar bloeiresultaat van twee siergewassen. Bloeiresultaat kan onvoorspelbaar zijn. NSure ontwikkelt genoomtoetsen om fysiologische gewasstatus in beeld te brengen, zoals winterhardheid en oogstmoment. In dit onderzoek worden voor twee gewassen, Viburnum en Cymbidium bloeizekerheidstoetsen ontwikkeld. Voor een aantal andere siergewassen worden verkenningen uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden om een dergelijke toets te ontwikkelen (potorchideeën (miltonia), hortensia, nerine, zantedeschia, amaryllis en bromelia)
    Verbetering bloeizekerheid bij potplanten en snijbloemen
    Noort, Filip van - \ 2010
    pot plants - cut flowers - floriculture - flowering plants - flowering - warranties
    Overig onderzoek trekheesters - Stand van zaken 11 november 2010
    Kromwijk, Arca - \ 2010
    verticillium - viburnum - rootstocks - earliness - woody plants - buds - flowering - plant development - achievement - flowering plants
    Species pools along contemporary environmental gradients represent different levels of diversification
    Bartish, I.V. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Aidoud, A. ; Hennion, F. ; Prinzing, A. - \ 2010
    Journal of Biogeography 37 (2010)12. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 2317 - 2331.
    phylogenetic niche conservatism - plant-communities depends - evolutionary history - group classification - indicator values - flowering plants - diversity - ecology - dispersal - patterns
    Aim - Within a region, different habitat types are characterized by different species and some habitat types have higher species diversities than others. Different habitat types are also characterized by different phylogenetic clades. However, it is not known whether – within a given region – some habitat types have species pools that are more phylogenetically diversified than others. We investigated whether species pools in contemporary habitat types represent different levels of diversification of angiosperms and, if so, whether these differences correlate with particular environmental factors. We tested these relationships in a region of recent geological origin possessing a comparatively young flora, and compared the result with standard analyses of species diversity. Location The Netherlands. Methods - We studied angiosperms across the full range of habitat types present in the Netherlands. We characterized levels of diversification represented in species pools within each of these habitat types with respect to (1) taxonomic diversification, i.e. the rate of increase of richness across taxonomic ranks (relative to a null expectation for a given species richness), and (2) cladogenic diversification, i.e. the average cladogenic distance of species from the root of a phylogenetic tree of the species pool within a given region. Results - Species pools of different habitat types represented different levels of taxonomic and cladogenic diversification. These differences were strongly correlated with the environmental characteristics of the habitat type. Greater levels of taxonomic diversification were represented in the species pools of relatively dry and open habitat types. Greater levels of cladogenic diversification were represented in habitats with both dry and weakly acidic soils. The relationship between environmental factors and taxonomic and cladogenic diversification (r2 = 0.88 and 0.76, respectively) was stronger than that between environmental factors and species richness (r2 = 0.34). Main conclusions - Within a region, species resulting from particularly high rates of diversification accumulated in particular habitat types. These habitat types represent specific contemporary abiotic environments and have a tighter relationship with levels of diversification than with species richness.
    Distribution of orbicules in Annonaceae mirrors evolutionary trend in angiosperms
    Huysmans, S. ; Verstraete, B. ; Smets, E. ; Chatrou, L.W. - \ 2010
    Plant Ecology and Evolution 143 (2010)2. - ISSN 2032-3913 - p. 199 - 211.
    asimina-triloba annonaceae - pollen wall development - sporoderm development - developmental events - callose dissolution - flowering plants - tapetum types - magnoliales - rubiaceae - characters
    Background and aims - Orbicules or Ubisch bodies have been recorded in many angiosperm families and although the first observations date back to 1865, their function in the anther remains enigmatic. In flowering plants a general evolutionary trend is observed from common occurrence of orbicules in early diverging lineages towards a more patchy distribution in derived clades of eudicots. Annonaceae was our family of choice for an in depth study of orbicule distribution in early diverging angiosperms since it met the following three criteria: (1) high tapetum diversity, (2) orbicule presence and absence recorded, and (3) recent phylogeny at genus level available. Key results - Our SEM data of eighteen species show that orbicules are more common in Annonaceae than previously perceived. The resulting orbicule distribution pattern on the family topology indicates a consistent absence of orbicules in the 'long branch clade' while orbicules are present in Anaxagorea, the ambavioids, and the 'short branch clade'. Presence of orbicules is the ancestral condition in the family. Morphologically, Annonaceae orbicules are small (<1 µm), spherical and smooth. Conclusions - The orbicule distribution pattern in Annonaceae reflects the general evolutionary trend in flowering plants. We hypothesize that orbicule presence can be considered as a powerful proxy for non-amoeboid tapetum characterization in Annonaceae.
    Insights into the influence of priors in posterior mapping of discrete morphological characters: a case study in Annonaceae
    Couvreur, T.L.P. ; Gort, G. ; Richardson, J.E. ; Sosef, M.S.M. ; Chatrou, L.W. - \ 2010
    PLoS ONE 5 (2010)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
    bayesian phylogenetics - prior distributions - flowering plants - evolution - likelihood - states - reconstruction - inference - model - rates
    Background - Posterior mapping is an increasingly popular hierarchical Bayesian based method used to infer character histories and reconstruct ancestral states at nodes of molecular phylogenies, notably of morphological characters. As for all Bayesian analyses specification of prior values is an integrative and important part of the analysis. He we provide an example of how alternative prior choices can seriously influence results and mislead interpretations. Methods/Principal Findings - For two contrasting discrete morphological characters, namely a slow and a fast evolving character found in the plant family Annonaceae, we specified a total of eight different prior distributions per character. We investigated how these prior settings affected important summary statistics. Our analyses showed that the different prior distributions had marked effects on the results in terms of average number of character state changes. These differences arise because priors play a crucial role in determining which areas of parameter space the values of the simulation will be drawn from, independent of the data at hand. However, priors seemed to fit the data better if they would result in a more even sampling of parameter space (normal posterior distribution), in which case alternative standard deviation values had little effect on the results. The most probable character history for each character was affected differently by the prior. For the slower evolving character, the same character history always had the highest posterior probability independent of the priors used. In contrast, the faster evolving character showed different most probable character histories depending on the prior. These differences could be related to the level of homoplasy exhibited by each character. Conclusions - Although our analyses were restricted to two morphological characters within a single family, our results underline the importance of carefully choosing prior values for posterior mapping. Prior specification will be of crucial importance when interpreting the results in a meaningful way. It is hard to suggest a statistically sound method for prior specification without more detailed studies. Meanwhile, we propose that the data could be used to estimate the prior value of the gamma distribution placed on the transformation rate in posterior mapping
    Planten laten bloeien op commando
    Angenent, G.C. ; Immink, G.H. - \ 2009
    Groenten & Fruit 63 (2009)31. - ISSN 0925-9708 - p. 12 - 13.
    planten - vegetatieve groeiperiode - bloeiwijzen - genen - plantenveredelingsmethoden - milieufactoren - bloeiende planten - plants - vegetative period - inflorescences - genes - plant breeding methods - environmental factors - flowering plants
    Planten gaan bloeien als de condities daarvoor geschikt zijn, maar hoe 'voelt' een plant dat het juiste moment daar is? Onderzoekers weten inmiddels welke genen dit proces aansturen. Dat biedt mogelijkheden om de bloei van planten in de veredeling en in de teelt te sturen
    From Africa via Europe to South America: migrational route of a species-rich genus of Neotropical lowland rain forest trees (Guatteria, Annonaceae)
    Erkens, R.H.J. ; Maas, J.W. ; Couvreur, T.L.P. - \ 2009
    Journal of Biogeography 36 (2009)12. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 2338 - 2352.
    long-distance dispersal - chloroplast sequence data - historical biogeography - dna-sequences - northern-hemisphere - plastid rbcl - phylogenetic-relationships - molecular phylogenetics - vicariance analysis - flowering plants
    Aim Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than by vicariance. In general, three routes have been documented for the dispersal of taxa onto the South American continent: (1) via the North Atlantic Land Bridge, (2) via the Bering Land Bridge, or (3) from Africa directly onto the continent. Here a species-rich genus of Neotropical lowland rain forest trees (Guatteria, Annonaceae) is used as a model to investigate these three hypotheses. Location The Neotropics. Methods The phylogenetic relationships within the long-branch clade of Annonaceae were reconstructed (using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) in order to gain insight in the phylogenetic position of Guatteria. Furthermore, Bayesian molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal-vicariance (Bayes-DIVA) analyses were undertaken. Results Most of the relationships within the long-branch clade of Annonaceae were reconstructed and had high support. However, the relationship between the Duguetia clade, the Xylopia-Artabotrys clade and Guatteria remained unclear. The stem node age estimate of Guatteria ranged between 49.2 and 51.3 Ma, whereas the crown node age estimate ranged between 11.4 and 17.8 Ma. For the ancestral area of Guatteria and its sister group, the area North America-Africa was reconstructed in 99% of 10,000 DIVA analyses, while South America-North America was found just 1% of the time. Main conclusions The estimated stem to crown node ages of Guatteria in combination with the Bayes-DIVA analyses imply a scenario congruent with an African origin followed by dispersal across the North Atlantic Land Bridge in the early to middle Eocene and further dispersal into North and Central America (and ultimately South America) in the Miocene. The phylogenetically and morphologically isolated position of the genus is probably due to extinction of the North American and European stem lineages in the Tertiary
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