Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
Sanders, N. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Elburg, A.A. van; Danner, U.N. ; Meer, F. van; Hoek, H.W. ; Adan, R.A.H. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9 (2015). - ISSN 1662-5153 - 12 p.
default mode network - high-calorie foods - eating-disorders - functional-anatomy - reward - fmri - stimuli - leptin - energy - cortex
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patients.
Default Mode Network in the Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on Human Executive Function
Bossong, M.G. ; Jansma, J.M. ; Hell, H.H. van; Jager, G. ; Kahn, R.S. ; Ramsey, N.F. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
deficit hyperactivity disorder - working-memory - endocannabinoid system - healthy-volunteers - prefrontal cortex - synaptic plasticity - error awareness - brain-function - neural basis - fmri
Evidence is increasing for involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cognitive functions including attention and executive function, as well as in psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits, such as schizophrenia. Executive function appears to be associated with both modulation of active networks and inhibition of activity in the default mode network. In the present study, we examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in executive function, focusing on both the associated brain network and the default mode network. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, investigating effects of the endocannabinoid agonist ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on executive function in 20 healthy volunteers, using a continuous performance task with identical pairs. Task performance was impaired after THC administration, reflected in both an increase in false alarms and a reduction in detected targets. This was associated with reduced deactivation in a set of brain regions linked to the default mode network, including posterior cingulate cortex and angular gyrus. Less deactivation was significantly correlated with lower performance after THC. Regions that were activated by the continuous performance task, notably bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortex, did not show effects of THC. These findings suggest an important role for the endocannabinoid system in both default mode modulation and executive function. This may be relevant for psychiatric disorders associated with executive function deficits, such as schizophrenia and ADHD
Allured or alarmed: Counteractive control responses to food temptations in the brain
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Kroese, F.M. ; Evers, C. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2013
Behavioural Brain Research 248 (2013). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 41 - 45.
self-regulatory-success - menstrual-cycle phase - primary visual-cortex - attentional control - inhibitory control - goal activation - fmri - metaanalysis - reliability - validity
Typically, it is believed that palatable, high caloric foods signal reward and trigger indulgent responses. However, Counteractive Control Theory suggests that, to the extent that people are concerned about their weight, a confrontation with palatable foods should also trigger ‘alarm bell responses’ which promote successful self-control. Our study is the first to investigate such counteractive control processes in the brain employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a sample of successful self-regulators. Indeed, besides the traditional finding that foods elicit heightened attention as witnessed by greater activation of primary visual cortex, we found that viewing palatable foods elicited brain activation in areas associated with self-regulation. Crucially, brain activation in self-regulation areas was related to diet importance. Thus, our results are the first to show that food cues not only evoke hedonic brain responses; in successful self-regulators they also trigger alarm bell responses, which may reflect the neural processes underlying successful self-control.
Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics
Laan, L.N. van der; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
decision-making - orbitofrontal cortex - color-perception - consumers - valuation - signals - attention - brain - fmri - activations
Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus) and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus). In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.
Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on human working memory function
Bossong, M.G. ; Jansma, J.M. ; Hell, H.H. van; Jager, G. ; Oudman, E. ; Saliasi, E. ; Kahn, R.S. ; Ramsey, N.F. - \ 2012
Biological Psychiatry 71 (2012)8. - ISSN 0006-3223 - p. 693 - 699.
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - catechol-o-methyltransferase - endogenous cannabinoids - genetic-variation - brain-function - schizophrenia - dysfunction - fmri - mri - cognition
Background Evidence indicates involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in both the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and working memory (WM) function. Additionally, schizophrenia patients exhibit relatively strong WM deficits. These findings suggest the possibility that the eCB system is also involved in WM deficits in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined if perturbation of the eCB system can induce abnormal WM activity in healthy subjects. Methods A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted with a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, investigating effects of the eCB agonist ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol on WM function in 17 healthy volunteers, by means of a parametric Sternberg item-recognition paradigm with five difficulty levels. Results Performance accuracy was significantly reduced after ¿9-tetrahydrocannabinol. In the placebo condition, brain activity increased linearly with rising WM load. ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administration enhanced activity for low WM loads and reduced the linear relationship between WM load and activity in the WM system as a whole and in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cerebellum in particular. Conclusions ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol enhanced WM activity network-wide for low loads, while reducing the load-dependent response for increasing WM loads. These results indicate that a challenged eCB system can induce both abnormal WM activity and WM performance deficits and provide an argument for the possibility of eCB involvement in WM deficits in schizophrenia
Implied motion activation in area MT can be explained by visual low-level features
Lorteije, J.A.M. ; Barraclough, N. ; Jellema, T. ; Raemaekers, M. ; Duijnhouwer, J. ; Xiao, D.K. ; Oram, M.W. ; Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Perrett, D.I. ; Wezel, R.J.A. - \ 2011
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23 (2011)6. - ISSN 0898-929X - p. 1533 - 1548.
double magnetic induction - feature-based attention - representational momentum - static images - sts neurons - human brain - macaque mt - optic flow - responses - fmri
To investigate form-related activity in motion-sensitive cortical areas, we recorded cell responses to animate implied motion in macaque middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal (MST) cortex and investigated these areas using fMRI in humans. In the single-cell studies, we compared responses with static images of human or monkey figures walking or running left or right with responses to the same human and monkey figures standing or sitting still. We also investigated whether the view of the animate figure (facing left or right) that elicited the highest response was correlated with the preferred direction for moving random dot patterns. First, figures were presented inside the cell's receptive field. Subsequently, figures were presented at the fovea while a dynamic noise pattern was presented at the cell's receptive field location. The results show that MT neurons did not discriminate between figures on the basis of the implied motion content. Instead, response preferences for implied motion correlated with preferences for low-level visual features such as orientation and size. No correlation was found between the preferred view of figures implying motion and the preferred direction for moving random dot patterns. Similar findings were obtained in a smaller population of MST cortical neurons. Testing human MT+ responses with fMRI further corroborated the notion that low-level stimulus features might explain implied motion activation in human MT+. Together, these results suggest that prior human imaging studies demonstrating animate implied motion processing in area MT+ can be best explained by sensitivity for low-level features rather than sensitivity for the motion implied by animate figures.
Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A. ; Osch, M.J.P. ; Nievelstein, R.A.J. ; Grond, J. van der - \ 2006
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1297 - 1305.
human orbitofrontal cortex - sensory-specific satiety - gender-differences - liquid food - eating behavior - sex-differences - stimuli - appetite - humans - fmri
Background:The brain plays a crucial role in the decision to eat, integrating multiple hormonal and neural signals. A key factor controlling food intake is selective satiety, ie, the phenomenon that the motivation to eat more of a food decreases more than does the motivation to eat foods not eaten. Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women. Design:Twelve men and 12 women participated. Subjects fasted overnight and were scanned by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while tasting chocolate milk, before and after eating chocolate until they were satiated. Results:In men, chocolate satiation was associated with increased taste activation in the ventral striatum, insula, and orbitofrontal and medial orbitofrontal cortex and with decreased taste activation in somatosensory areas. Women showed increased taste activation in the precentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and putamen and decreased taste activation in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Sex differences in the effect of chocolate satiation were found in the hypothalamus, ventral striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex (all P <0.005). Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. Therefore, sex differences are a covariate of interest in studies of the brain's responses to food.