Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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SHARP Indicators Database: Towards a public database for environmental sustainability
Mertens, E. ; Kaptijn, Gerdine ; Kuijsten, A. ; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2019
environment - greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) - land use (LU) - life cycle analyses (LCA) - Europe - food - diet
In the SHARP-ID, environmental impact assessment was based on attributional life cycle analyses using environmental indicators greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use (LU). Life cycle inventory data of 182 primary products were combined with data on production, trade and transport, and adjusted for consumption amount using conversions factors for production, edible portion, cooking losses and gains, and for food losses and waste in order to derive estimates of GHGE and LU for the foods as eaten.
Fermentations great promise
Smid, Eddy - \ 2019
biobased economy - microorganisms - bacteria - chemicals - food - fatty acids - kerosene - fermentation
Cold chains in Hanoi and Bangkok: Changing systems of provision and practice
Rinkinen, Jenny ; Shove, E. ; Smits, M. - \ 2019
Journal of Consumer Culture 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1469-5405 - p. 379 - 397.
social practice - systems of provision - urbanisation - refrigeration - food
We know that patterns of domestic consumption are situated within broader systems of provision and that home appliances like the fridge freezer bridge between practices of cooking, shopping and eating, on one hand, and increasingly global systems of food production, distribution and diet on the other. In analysing the uses of fridge freezers in Hanoi and Bangkok as expressions, in microcosm, of complex and evolving processes of urbanisation and food provisioning, this article provides new insight into how specific configurations, dependencies and patterns of consumption take hold and how they vary and change. Our analysis of systems and practices in flux has the dual function of showing how household strategies reflect and contribute to more extensive transformations, and of demonstrating how these are shaped by ongoing tensions and relations between new and established forms of urban food supply and associated concepts of freshness and safety. The result is a subtle account of the multiple routes through which consumer ‘needs’ evolve.
Groene revolutie helpt honger de wereld uit
Rabbinge, R. - \ 2018
Milieu (2018)6. - ISSN 0920-2234 - p. 12 - 14.
biobased economy - biomass - food - sustainability - biobased materials
De wereld produceert voldoende voedsel om alle
monden te voeden en toch wordt er nog heel veel honger
geleden. Hoe kan dat en wat hebben we in de 20e eeuw
wel en niet tot stand gebracht? Welke grote trends
op het gebied van landbouw en voedselvoorziening
hebben zich voorgedaan en welke grote verande-
ringen hebben daarbij in het karakter van landbouw
plaatsgevonden
Institutional Changes and Changing Political Consumerism in China
Lei, Zhang ; Liu, Wenling ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / Boström, Magnus, Micheletti, Michele, Oosterveer, Peter, Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780190629038
consumerism - institutional changes - behavioral change - consumption transitions - food - energy
The growth of consumption is one of the most impressive social changes in contemporary China. This transformation is driven and shaped by the forces of globalization, economic growth, political modernization, the emerging middle class, industrialization/urbanization, advances in information and communication technologies, and sustainability challenges. Given China’s unique historical, cultural, and institutional context, it is highly interesting to assess the relevance of the concept of political consumerism in China. This chapter analyzes how institutional changes are shaping consumer politics and how political consumerism affects the development of governance in China. Two important consumption domains, food and energy, are used to explore what occurred in the particular context of rapidly transforming China. The conclusion discusses the question of whether the increased buying power of Chinese consumers will actually be used to address environmental and safety concerns.
Food Safety Issues Related to Uses of Insects for Feeds and Foods
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Camenzuli, L. ; Belluco, S. ; Meijer, N. ; Ricci, A. - \ 2018
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 17 (2018)5. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 1172 - 1183.
edible insects - feed - food - review - safety

Edible insects are expected to become an important nutrient source for animals and humans in the Western world in the near future. However, before insects can be put on the market, the safety of their use for feed and food is warranted. This literature study was prepared to provide an overview of the actual knowledge of possible food safety hazards, including chemical, microbiological, and allergenic agents and prions, to human and animal health upon the use of insects for food and feed, and to highlight data gaps and suggest the way forward. From the data available, heavy metals of concern are cadmium in black soldier fly and arsenic in yellow mealworm larvae. Investigated mycotoxins do not seem to accumulate. Residues of pesticides, veterinary drugs, and hormones, as well as dioxins and PCBs, are sometimes found in insects. Contamination of insects with pathogens to human health is a consequence of a combination of the substrates used and the farming and processing steps applied. Insects harbor a wide variety of microorganisms, and some human pathogenic bacteria may be present. In addition, insects may harbor and transmit parasites. There is no evidence so far insects may harbor pathogenic viruses or prions, but they may act as vectors. Insects and insect-derived products may have allergenic potential. In this review, evidence on some safety aspects is displayed, and data gaps are identified. Recommendations are given for future research to fill the most relevant data gaps.

Designing a research infrastructure on dietary intake and its determinants
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Geelen, A. ; Zimmermann, K. ; Finglas, P. ; Raats, M.M. ; Mikkelsen, B.E. ; Poppe, K.J. ; van't Veer, P. - \ 2018
Nutrition Bulletin 43 (2018)3. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 301 - 309.
big data - consumers - diet - food - public health - research infrastructure

Research on dietary intake and its determinants is crucial for an adequate response to the current epidemic of diet-related non-communicable chronic diseases. In order to respond to this challenge, the RICHFIELDS project was tasked with designing a research infrastructure (RI) that connects data on dietary intake of consumers in Europe, and its determinants, collected using apps and wearable sensors, from behavioural laboratories and experimental facilities and from other RIs. The main output of the project, an RI design, describes interfaces (portals) to collect data, a meta-database and a data-model to enable data linkage and sharing. The RICHFIELDS project comprises three phases, each consisting of three work packages, and an overarching methodological support work package. Phase 1 focused on data generated by consumers (e.g. collected by apps and sensors) relating to the purchase, preparation and consumption of food. Phase 2 focused on data generated by organisations such as businesses (e.g. retail data), government (e.g. procurement data) and experimental research facilities (e.g. virtual supermarkets). Phases 1 and 2 provided Phase 3 with insights on data types and design requirements, including the business models, data integration and management systems and governance and ethics. The final design will be used in the coming years to build an RI for the scientific research community, policy makers and businesses in Europe. The RI will boost interdisciplinary multi-stakeholder research through harmonisation and integration of data on food behaviour.

Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

The effect of date marking terminology of products with a long shelf life on food discarding behaviour of consumers
Holthuysen, Nancy ; Kremer, Stefanie ; Bos-Brouwers, Hilke - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1709) - ISBN 9789463432290 - 26
keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedsel - voedselverspilling - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - terminologie - consumentengedrag
The TeRiFiQ project : Combining technologies to achieve significant binary reductions in sodium, fat and sugar content in everyday foods whilst optimising their nutritional quality
Salles, C. ; Kerjean, J.R. ; Veiseth-Kent, E. ; Stieger, M. ; Wilde, P. ; Cotillon, C. - \ 2017
Nutrition Bulletin 42 (2017)4. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 361 - 368.
consumer - fat - food - perception - sodium - sugar
Most developed countries are confronted with rising rates of diseases related to unhealthy eating habits, particularly the excessive consumption of salt, saturated fat and free sugars. However, fat, sugars and salt in food influence not only its nutritional qualities but also its sensory properties, safety (e.g. shelf life) and affordability. The main challenge is to formulate healthier foods that are acceptable to consumers. In this context, the overall objective of TeRiFiQ was to achieve significant binary reductions in the salt-fat and sugar-fat contents of frequently consumed food products around Europe, while, at the same time, ensuring the products’ nutritional and sensorial qualities, safety and affordability for both industry and consumers was not compromised. TeRiFiQ addressed four major food categories: cheeses, processed meat, bakery and sauce products. Different strategies adapted to each food category were used to reduce the target ingredients. Significant reductions in the salt-fat and fat-sugar contents of a number of cheese, processed meat, bakery and sauce products were achieved, and these changes were found to be acceptable to consumers. The most promising reformulated food products were developed at the industrial scale.
Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

Food reward from a behavioural and (neuro)physiological perspective
Bruijn, Suzanne E.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. de Graaf; R.F. Witkamp, co-promotor(en): G. Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436748 - 154
food - physiological functions - feeding behaviour - food preferences - perception - hormones - responses - neurohormonal control - stomach bypass - gastric bypass - satiety - voedsel - fysiologische functies - voedingsgedrag - voedselvoorkeuren - perceptie - hormonen - reacties - neurohormonale controle - maag bypass - buik bypass - verzadigdheid

Food reward is an important driver of food intake and triggers consumption of foods for pleasure, so-called hedonic eating, even in the absence of any energy deficits. Hedonic eating can trigger overeating and may therefore lead to obesity. Given the rise in obesity rates and the health risks associated with being obese, hedonic eating and food reward are important phenomena to study. This thesis aimed to add on to the existing knowledge on food reward. The phenomenon was approached from a behavioural, sensory and (neuro)physiological perspective in healthy, lean and in obese gastric bypass populations.

For the behavioural perspective, the main outcome measure used in this thesis was food preferences. To be able to study food preferences for four macronutrient and two taste categories, a new food preference task was developed. In chapter 2, the development and validation of the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) were described. The MTPRT uses a ranking method to determine preferences for four macronutrient (high-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein, low-energy) and two taste (sweet and savoury) categories.

For the sensory and physiological perspective, focus was put on the endocannabinoid system (ECS): a neuromodulatory system that plays a role in food reward. To gain more insight into this role, the effect of ECS modulation with pharmacological challenges on sensory perception of sweet taste and on food preferences were studied, as well as endocannabinoid responses to food intake. In chapter 3 it was shown that inhaling Cannabis with low doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) does not alter sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, nor does it affect food preferences. Vice versa, in chapter 4 it was found that liking of a food taste does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake, after controlling for expectations. When palatability of the food is unknown until the first bite, response of endocannabinoids, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide did not differ between a palatable and a neutral food across anticipatory, consummatory and post-ingestive phases of food intake. Endocannabinoid and ghrelin plasma concentrations decreased after food intake, which suggests an orexigenic function for endocannabinoids.

In chapters 5, 6 and 7, studies with patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were described. These studies were intended to gain more insight into alterations in food reward in relation to (morbid) obesity and in response to surgical treatment by RYGB surgery.

First, in chapter 5 food preferences were assessed before, and at two months and one year after RYGB. It was shown that patients have decreased preference for high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods, and increased preference for low-energy foods after compared with before surgery. In addition, liking ratings for the high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods were decreased after RYGB surgery, whereas liking of low-energy products changed minimally. Potential mechanisms behind these alterations in food preferences include changes in neural processing of food cues and changes in appetite-related gut hormones.

In chapter 6, it was shown that alterations in food preferences after RYGB surgery are indeed related to changes in neural activation in response to food cues. With regards to the appetite-related hormones it was shown that plasma concentrations of the endocannabinoid anandamide were increased after compared with before surgery. Plasma concentrations of other endocannabinoids and ghrelin did not change. Moreover, changes in endocannabinoid or ghrelin concentrations did not correlate with changes in food preferences or neural response to food cues. Together, these results suggest that changes in neural processing of food cues contribute to changes in food preferences towards low-energy foods, and provide a first indication that the endocannabinoid system does not seem to play a role in this process.

To gain more insight into behavioural responses to food cues, a response-inhibition paradigm was used in chapter 7, in which response-inhibition to high-energy and low-energy food cues was assessed during brain imaging. The behavioural data did not show differences in performance when comparing before and two months after RYGB surgery. The brain imaging data showed that activation in reward-related brain areas was decreased in response to both high- and low-energy food pictures after RYGB surgery. Also, prefrontal brain areas were more activated in response to the high-energy pictures, which suggests improved response inhibition.

In conclusion, the findings in this thesis show that modulating the ECS with low doses of THC and CBD does not influence sweet taste perception and liking and food preferences, and vice versa, food taste liking in the absence of expectations does not affect endocannabinoid responses to food intake. With regards to RYGB surgery it was uncovered that changes in food preferences after RYGB surgery are related to altered brain reward processing, but no relation with changes in endocannabinoid tone was found. The success of RYGB surgery and the changes in food choice might in part be caused by an improved inhibitory response to high-energy foods.

'Meer reststromen benutten in veevoer'
Gerrits, Walter - \ 2017
residual streams - animal nutrition - sustainability - food - food production - livestock farming
What if the trucks stop coming? : exploring the framing of local food by cooperative food retailers in New Mexico
Constance, Cheron Z. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): L.G. Horlings; L. Shaw. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431941 - 261
food - agricultural products - cooperatives - cooperative farm enterprises - food products - new mexico - voedsel - landbouwproducten - coöperaties - coöperatieve landbouwbedrijven - voedselproducten - new mexico

Proponents of local food cite a variety of economic and environmental advantages of short food supply chains. Consumer interest in local food has also offered a point of differentiation for many players in the food industry, including restaurants and grocery stores. Engaging with local food has significant challenges, however, and many production and distribution systems engender and support more diffuse food provisioning, not less. Though food can travel thousands of miles from its point of origin to consumption, many cooperative (co-op) grocery stores have long sold locally-produced food and have deep ties to their supplier communities. This thesis offers case studies of two co-ops in the natural and organic food sector and examines how they think about and work with local food. The theories of embeddedness (after Polanyi) and diverse economies (from Gibson-Graham) undergird the analyses of these co-ops’ involvement with local food and how the cooperative business model relates to it.

Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients
Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.M. Boom, co-promotor(en): A.J. van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431378 - 188
sugarbeet - leaves - thylakoids - cellulosic fibres - food - surface proteins - food crops - protein extraction - suikerbieten - bladeren - thylakoïden - cellulosevezels - voedsel - oppervlakte-eiwitten - voedselgewassen - eiwitextractie

Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional profile (e.g. dietary fibres, minerals and secondary metabolites) and consist of complex biological structures (e.g. chloroplastic membranes) that can be explored as novel fractions that ultimately broaden the use of leaves. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore green leaves as a food source, with emphasis on neglected leaf fractions. This thesis describes a processing approach that aims at separating/generating enriched- functional fractions rather than pure components, and highlights the implications for value creation out of green leaves. The extraction of leaf membrane proteins is investigated using a proteomics extraction method, while the properties of other valuable leaf components (complexes and fibres) are analysed for techno-functional applications. Furthermore, the feasibility of leaves as a food source is studied at an industrial scale, considering large scale processing and options for leaf stabilisation.

The extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves is evaluated in Chapter 2 by using a traditional heat coagulation method. The heat treatment is thought to precipitate the insoluble proteins together with fibres, chlorophyll and other components, resulting in a green curd. Therefore, the distribution of soluble and insoluble proteins was followed along the extraction process to discern the effect of the heating step on protein fractionation. This study showed that both soluble and insoluble protein distribute almost evenly over the leaf fractions juice, pulp, supernatant and final pellet. The even distribution of the proteins was attributed to the anatomy of leaves and their biological function, which is predominantly the enzymatic activity related to photosynthesis instead of protein storage, which occurs in other plant tissues. This chapter further concludes that striving for high purity severely compromises the yield, and consequently results in inefficient use of the leave proteins.

Chapter 3 describes the application of proteomic analytical extraction protocols to analyse the fractionation behaviour of leaf proteins. This analysis lead to the translation into food- grade processes based on four fundamental extraction steps: (1) tissue disruption, (2) enzymatic inhibition, (3) removal of interfering compounds, and (4) protein fractionation and purification. Part of these extraction steps can be translated into food-grade alternatives, while the processing conditions determine the potential properties for food of the final products. Nevertheless, it was concluded that harsh and/or non-food grade conditions were required to isolate the leaf membrane proteins with high purity. Those results were explained by the fact that membrane proteins are heterogeneous w.r.t. charge, hydrophobicity, post- translational modification and complexation, leading to non-selective behaviour when compared with a single pool of proteins.

Given the large challenges in isolating membrane proteins from leaves, we studied another approach in which green leaves are considered as a source of naturally structured elements that have relevant techno-functional properties for food products, like the chloroplastic membranes (i.e. thylakoid membranes) and cellulose-rich fibres. Chapter 4 describes the properties of thylakoid membranes and their emulsifying mechanism. These membranes showed surface active properties and their adsorption kinetics were typical for large molecules or soft particles. The thylakoid fragments can effectively stabilise emulsion droplets, even though aggregation was observed already during emulsion preparation and increased with increased thylakoid concentration. Both composition and structure make thylakoid membranes suitable as a biobased material for food and pharma applications.

To continue exploring valuable fractions from leaves, Chapter 5 reports on the interfacial behaviour of cellulose-rich particles obtained from leaf pulp. Cellulosic particles were produced from the pulp obtained after leaf pressing. The particles spontaneous adsorption onto the oil-water interface and interfacial behaviour similar to that of solid particles. Addition of cellulosic particles to oil-in-water emulsions resulted in stable emulsions above a particle concentration of 0.1 w/v%, although phase separation was observed. The particle fines (0.04 – 1.0 µm) stabilised the droplet interface, while large particles formed a network in the continuous phase and rendered a top (green) phase in the emulsions. Finding applications for leaf side streams, like leaf pulp, broadens the options for total leaf processing and contributes to resource use optimisation.

A sustainability assessment of leaf processing is discussed in Chapter 6, considering the challenges that may appear at industrial scale. The seasonal availability of sugar beet plants implies the need of processing large amounts of biomass within a short time due to their high moisture content (85 - 90%) and their sensitivity to spoilage. Processing options were evaluated on their resource use efficiency in terms of energy requirement and exergy indicators. A decentralised process constitutes a good option compared to freezing, since solid side streams can be directly returned the land, leaving nutrients to the soil, and reducing transportation loads. With a decentralised process, freezing of the leaves becomes unnecessary; the leaf juice is transported while chilled, resembling the transportation of fresh milk that is also chill-transported from the farm to a central factory.

Chapter 7 concludes this thesis with a general discussion of the main findings. An integrated process for leaf valorisation is described, which combines the production of functional fractions with the production of bulk products such as protein-rich and fibre-rich fractions. A compilation of data on protein yield and protein purity of fractions obtained from protein crops (e.g. soy, lupine beans, pulses) and from photosynthetic active tissues (e.g., leaves, algae, duckweed) is included. Protein crops reach 50 - 60% protein yield with a protein purity of ~ 90%, whereas leaves and other photosynthetic active tissues reach similar protein purity (60 – 80 w/w% protein) but at much lower yields (10%). We hypothesize that the low yields are due to the small length scale in which protein is structured inside the leaves and the lack of protein storage anatomy in these tissues. Therefore, we conclude that leaf valorisation requires non-conventional approaches that go beyond higher extraction yields but that consider a complete use of the biomass.

How to achieve resource use efficiency in integrated food and biobased value chains?
Annevelink, E. ; Gogh, J.B. van; Bartels, P.V. ; Broeze, J. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Groot, J.J. ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Top, J.L. ; Willems, D.J.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research report 1720) - ISBN 9789463431163 - 23
resources - biobased economy - food chains - food biotechnology - biomass - change - sustainability - value chain analysis - efficiency - use efficiency - food - resource management - integrated systems - hulpbronnen - voedselketens - voedselbiotechnologie - biomassa - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - waardeketenanalyse - efficiëntie - gebruiksefficiëntie - voedsel - hulpbronnenbeheer - geïntegreerde systemen
Effect van houdbaarheidsdata van lang houdbare producten op weggooigedrag van consumenten
Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Kremer, S. ; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1709) - ISBN 9789463430852 - 22 p.
houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - voedsel - voedselverspilling - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - terminologie - consumentengedrag - keeping quality - food - food wastage - nutrition labeling - terminology - consumer behaviour
The transmission and management of price volatility in food supply chains
Assefa, Tsion Taye - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579835 - 132
food prices - agricultural prices - volatility - cap - food - supply chain management - price controls - voedselprijzen - landbouwprijzen - vluchtigheid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - voedsel - ketenmanagement - prijsbewaking

The 2006-2011 period has been marked by increased volatility in food an agricultural commodity prices at a global level. In the EU, the continuous liberalization of agricultural markets under the Common Agricultural Policy has led to the exposure of EU agricultural to increasing market price volatility. This thesis has investigated the transmission and management of price volatility in EU food supply chains. The transmission of price volatility in various food supply chains is first investigated through a literature review followed by an empirical analysis of price volatility transmission in the case of the German fresh pork supply chain. The effect of market power was also taken into account in the latter empirical analysis. Next, the management of price volatility was investigated through interviews conducted with actors of selected EU food supply chains. This was followed by the analysis of the effectiveness of selected price volatility management strategies. Lastly, in light of the policy support for agricultural insurance within the Common agricultural policy, premium rates of an agricultural revenue insurance contract were calculated for the Dutch ware potato sector.

One of the gaps identified in the reviewed literature is the lack of attention given to the effects of contextual factors on price volatility transmissions in food supply chains. Contextual factors include market power in the chain and pricing strategies (e.g. contracts) by chain actors. Results of the price volatility transmission analysis conducted in this thesis in the case of the German pork chain show that retail market power limited both the transmission of price levels and price volatility. This thesis shows that price volatility is perceived as risky by all actors in the food supply chain. Deviations of prices by more than 10 to 15 % from expected levels were perceived as price volatility by a majority of the chain actors. Results further show that price volatility management strategies in EU food chains are diverse and well beyond traditional instruments such as futures and forward contracts. Contrary to expectations, price fixing contracts were not found to be desirable by interviewed chain actors. This thesis also found that the effectiveness of contracts in reducing price volatility depended on how the contract price was set.

Results of this thesis further show that premium rates of a revenue insurance contract for the Dutch ware potato sector across categories of farms. The average premium rates calculated were 32.1%, 22.2%, 33.1% and 24.0% on guaranteed revenue per hectare for the high expected yield, low expected yield, high yield variance to expected yield ratio and low yield variance to expected yield ratio categories of farm, respectively. The difference in premium rates across categories of farms implies that charging the same average premium rate to all Dutch ware potato farms can lead to adverse selection.

Networks, flows and actors : promoting sustainability in globalising food provision
Oosterveer, Peter J.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579750 - 24
networks - sustainability - globalization - food - health - social sciences - food chains - governance - netwerken - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - globalisering - voedsel - gezondheid - sociale wetenschappen - voedselketens
Cater with Care : impact of protein-enriched foods and drinks for elderly people
Beelen, J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Nicole de Roos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578814 - 142
undernutrition - hospital catering - hospitals - protein - elderly - protein intake - food - beverages - diet studies - dietetics - dietitians - randomized controlled trials - ondervoeding - ziekenhuiscatering - ziekenhuizen - eiwit - ouderen - eiwitinname - voedsel - dranken - dieetstudies - diëtetiek - diëtisten - gestuurd experiment met verloting

Protein undernutrition is a major health concern for older adults, especially for those who are ill. There is growing consensus for a protein intake target of 1.2 - 1.5 gram per kg bodyweight per day (g/kg/d) for these older adults. However, this target is not reached by the majority of older adults. Therefore, more effective and novel strategies to increase protein intake are warranted, including the use of protein-enriched foods and drinks. This thesis evaluated the impact of the developed protein-enriched foods and drinks on protein intake and physical performance among older adults. The studies in this thesis were done as part of the Cater with Care® project; a collaboration between the university, care organizations, and partners from the food industry. The industrial partners developed the products, focusing each on different product categories: Carezzo Nutrition developed bread, pastry, and fresh juices and soups; The Kraft Heinz Company focused on long shelf-life and convenience foods; and the Veal Promotion Foundation produced veal meat.

To fit the products to the needs of the target group, interviews with undernourished older adults (at home or hospitalized) and with dietitians were conducted (chapter 2). These interviews showed that undernutrition awareness is low among older adults. To treat undernutrition by changing their eating habits, older adults need to be aware of their health problem, they need to be willing to change, and they need to be able to understand and implement the dietitian’s advices. This process takes time while undernutrition should be treated immediately. For immediate treatment, enriched products could be used, without first creating awareness. According to the interviewees, enriched products should fit within older adults’ eating habits, and have small portion sizes.

To gain insights in food choices of hospitalized older adults (65 years and older) an observational study was conducted. In this study, energy and protein intakes of 80 hospitalized older patients at low and high risk of undernutrition were assessed (chapter 3). Patients who received an energy- and protein-rich menu, because of their risk of undernutrition, were better able to reach the protein and energy targets than patients with a low risk of undernutrition receiving a standard menu. Based on these results we proposed that all hospitalized older adults – both at low and high risk of undernutrition – should receive an energy- and protein-rich menu.

Subsequently, a pilot study was done in a care home and a rehabilitation center with the aim to explore the potential of the developed protein-enriched products to increase protein intake (chapter 4). Participants did not compensate their consumption of regular protein-rich foods (e.g. dairy, cheese) upon the introduction of protein-enriched foods and drinks. The 22 institutionalized elderly (mean age 83 years) consumed 12 gram protein per day more than they did before the intervention. Consequently, more people met the protein target of 1.2 g/kg/d than before the intervention. We concluded that protein-enriched products enabled institutionalized elderly to reach protein intake targets. Furthermore, we gained valuable feedback to improve the assortment of protein-enriched products for the effectiveness study.

In the final study, effects of the protein-enriched products on protein intake and physical performance were studied in a randomized controlled trial during hospitalization and subsequent recovery at home. During the hospital period in which 147 older patients participated, patients that received protein-enriched products increased their protein intake compared to the control group that already received a protein-rich hospital menu (chapter 5). As a result, 79% of the intervention group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d, compared to 48% of the control group. Finally, effects of the protein-enriched products were tested at home, for a longer period (chapter 6). Half of the hospital phase participants (n = 75) continued the intervention at home for 12 weeks. The protein-enriched products were successfully implemented in the daily menu of the older adults: the intervention group had a higher average protein intake (1.5 ± 0.6 g/kg/d) than the control group (1.0 ± 0.4 g/kg/d) during the 12-week intervention period. Seventy-two percent of the intervention group reached a protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/d during the 12-week intervention, compared to 31% of the control group. Protein intake of the intervention group was mainly increased by the following protein-enriched products: bread, dairy drinks, dairy desserts, soups, and fruit juices. However, despite the successful improvement of protein intake, we found no added value on physical performance in the first 6 months after hospitalization.

It was concluded that with the protein-enriched familiar foods and drinks, we have a feasible, acceptable, and appetizing long-term strategy to increase protein intake of older adults in various settings. We envisage a beneficial role of these protein-enriched products in combination with physical activity in older adults with lower protein intakes.

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