Determination of phomopsin-A in lupin seeds and lupin-derived products : results of an interlaboratory validation study
Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.004) - 45
lupins - food products - determination - food analysis - phomopsins - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxins - lupinen - voedselproducten - bepaling - voedselanalyse - phomopsinen - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxinen
An interlaboratory study was performed for the determination of phomopsin A in lupin seeds and lupin derived products. This was done in the frame of the 2nd Standardization Mandate (M/520) in the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food, which had been issued by the European Commission in the framework of the Regulation EC 882/2004. The study was organized and carried out in accordance with collaborative study guidelines of AOAC. Test materials (seeds, flour, bakery product) were prepared by addition of naturally contaminated lupin seeds.
IAG ring test feed composition 2016
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rhee, N. van de; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2016.014) - 23
food analysis - feed composition tables - feed safety - ring test - voedselanalyse - voedertabellen - voederveiligheid - ringtest
The analysis of composition in terms of ingredients is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Composition analysis and label control of feed is regulated in Regulation (EC) 767/2009. In a broader view, composition analysis in the entire food chain can improve the effect of monitoring actions. The new legislation on food labelling (Regulation (EC) 1169/2011), effective from December 13th 2014, obliges to provide more detailed information to customers on composition and related topics. A ring test was organized for the microscopic determination of botanic composition in animal feed in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the ring test was RIKILT - Wageningen UR, The Netherlands. The aim of the ring study was to provide the participants information on the performance of the local implementation of the method for composition analysis of feed. The sample was based on an artificially produced feed mimicking a ruminant feed, and distributed without label information. The participants were requested to produce a correct declaration of the ingredients of the sample. The results were analysed using the IAG model for uncertainty limits. Shares of ingredients in the feed formulation outside the limits of the model were indicated as underor over-estimations. A total of 25 sets of results was returned. The percentage of under- or over-estimations was 28.6% for the seven main ingredients. In the overview of results, the two declared wheat ingredients and the two declared corn products were pooled to one ingredient each. This was necessary since some participants declared a general ingredient (“wheat” and “corn”) and others a specific type (gluten or bran). The use of the original declarations would result in an extra number of non-matching estimations without precise justification. The share of the citrus pulp, in the presence of an equal amount of beet pulp, was underestimated or not detected in 44% of the results. Citrus pulp as such is recognisable as feed ingredient. Still almost three quarter of all estimations appeared to be correct in the ranges of the uncertainty model. This means that visual inspection of the composition of a sample can be used for label control and this method can support traceability of ingredients in case of an incidence. The current results indicate that specific formulations can influence the precision of the estimation of the composition of the feed. The current lack of a complementary system for (chemical) proximate analysis could be a drawback for the overall approach of supporting traceability, necessary for fighting food fraud and for supporting feed safety. Besides a proper method description and up-to-date descriptions of ingredients, well developed skills of technicians are vital for a good performance.
Structure and fermentation of natural and manufactured lactose-based oligosaccharides
Difilippo, E. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen; Henk Schols. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576155 - 128
milks - lactose - oligosaccharides - ingestion - bioactive compounds - isolation - characterization - fermentation - colostrum - food analysis - melksoorten - lactose - oligosacchariden - inname - bioactieve verbindingen - isolatie - karakterisering - fermentatie - colostrum - voedselanalyse
At early stages of life, infant immature intestine is not fully developed, exposing the new-born to potential diseases. Compounds that can exert beneficial actions on the infant intestine are bioactive lactose-based oligosaccharides (LBOs). The natural source of LBOs is mother milk. When human milk is lacking, dietary supplementation with infant formula fortified with manufactured LBOs, such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is pursued. GOS have been shown to have several properties in common with HMOs. LBOs composition and intestinal fate is extensively described for humans, whereas they are hardly investigated for domestic animal. In this PhD thesis, composition of LBOs in equine and porcine colostrum were described and new structures were elucidated. The analysis were performed mainly using liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis techniques. High inter- and intra-individual variation were found for oligosaccharides present in equine and porcine milk. In vivo fermentation fate of porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was also described analysing PMOs as found in fecal samples of piglets. The results were correlated to existing literature on HMOs. Dietary oligosaccharides are partially present systemically, as suggested from HMO studies. GOS and PMOs in blood, urine and fecal samples from an in vivo feeding trial on piglet were described. Intact dietary oligosaccharides including GOS and milk oligosaccharides from the piglet diet were found in piglet blood and urine samples. All dietary oligosaccharides were fermented/absorbed in vivo, not being detectable in the piglet fecal samples. On the other hand, GOS in vitro fermentation by piglet inoculum delineate a unique fermentation profile regarding GOS size consumption compared to GOS in vitro fermentation by human fecal inoculum. Similar degradation profile regarding GOS linkage types was observed for GOS fermentation by piglet and human inocula.
Innovative mode of action based in vitro assays for detection of marine neurotoxins
Nicolas, J.A.Y. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): Peter Hendriksen; Toine Bovee. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574724 - 214
fish toxins - fish consumption - neurotoxins - food safety - food contamination - animal testing alternatives - food analysis - vistoxinen - visconsumptie - neurotoxinen - voedselveiligheid - voedselbesmetting - alternatieven voor dierproeven - voedselanalyse
Innovative mode of action based in vitro assays for detection of marine neurotoxins
J. Nicolas, P.J.M. Hendriksen, T.F.H. Bovee, I.M.C.M. Rietjens
Marine biotoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by particular phytoplankton species. These toxins often accumulate in seafood and thereby represent a threat to consumers. Regulatory limits have been set for lipophilic marine biotoxins (diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSPs) and azaspiracids (AZPs)) and for most marine neurotoxins (amnesic (domoic acid (DA)), neurotoxic (NSPs), and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs)) and the detection of these biotoxins in seafood still heavily relies on the mouse bioassay (MBA). However, the MBA is forbidden since the 1st of January 2015, except for the periodic control of production areas, especially with regard to the detection of unknown marine biotoxins.
Although analytical methods are sensitive to many marine biotoxins and allow for their identification and quantification, their use still presents several major drawbacks (chapter 3). They do not allow the detection of unknown toxins for example and are quite expensive to be used as routine screening methods. Therefore, a screening assay that allows the broad detection of known and unknown marine biotoxins with great sensitivity at affordable costs is highly needed. Mode of action cell-based assays offer these possibilities.
This thesis describes a wide variety of innovative mode of action based assays that could be used for screening purposes and proposes an integrated testing strategy suitable for the current needs in terms of food safety associated with seafood consumption. In addition, the assays developed are in line with the 3R paradigm of Russel and Burch and therefore comply with the current European Regulation for the replacement of animal experiments in the field of marine neurotoxins detection in seafood.
Survey on sterigmatocystin in food
Mol, J.G.J. ; Pietri, A. ; MacDonald, S.J. ; Anagnostopoulos, C. ; Spanjer, M. - \ 2015
Parma, Italy : EFSA (EFSA supporting publiation 2015 EN-774) - 56
sterigmatocystine - mycotoxinen - graansoorten - bieren - noten - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - sterigmatocystin - mycotoxins - cereals - beers - nuts - food safety - food analysis
A total of 1 259 samples of cereal grains, cereal products, beer and nuts were analysed for the presence of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries (mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK), additionally in Cyprus, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland). The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries (mostly rice and nuts). The samples comprised cereal grains (221 wheat, 35 rye, 33 maize, 59 barley, 51 oats, 2 spelt, 117 rice), grain milling products (125), pasta (115), bread/rolls (143), breakfast cereals/muesli (97), fine bakery ware (90), cereal-based infant food (54), beer (53), peanuts (28) and hazelnuts (36). All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Occurrence of mycotoxins in a total diet study (TDS) for adults and childeren in The Netherlands
Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Alewijn, M. ; Sprong, C. ; Castenmiller, J. - \ 2014
mycotoxinen - voedselveiligheid - monsters - voedselproducten - voedselanalyse - mycotoxins - food safety - samples - food products - food analysis
A total diet study (TDS) may be a valuable approach to assess the exposure of consumers to mycotoxins. A TDS study was performed on the risk associated with mycotoxin intake in cooperation with the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA).
Nationale referentie laboratoria : RIKILT jaarrapport 2013
Traag, W.A. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gersen, A. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, A. ; Heenen, S. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rikilt rapport 2014-004) - 47
voedselveiligheid - voedselbesmetting - voederveiligheid - voedselanalyse - ringtest - laboratoria - eu regelingen - food safety - food contamination - feed safety - food analysis - ring test - laboratories - eu regulations
In deze jaarrapportage doet het RIKILT verslag van haar activiteiten als Nationaal Referentielaboratorium (NRL).
Voedsel met integriteit : tussen echtheid en eigenheid
Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461739704 - 24
authenticiteit - voedsel - voedselanalyse - voedselethiek - voedselveiligheid - authenticity - food - food analysis - food ethics - food safety
Saskia van Ruth, Professor of Food Authenticity and Integrity
Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2014
voedselanalyse - voedselsamenstelling - voedseltechnologie - authenticiteit - analytische methoden - detectie - food analysis - food composition - food technology - authenticity - analytical methods - detection
Saskia van Ruth, Professor of Food Authenticity and Integrity, works on analytical methods that make it easier to detect food fraud.
Voedselfraudeur ontmaskerd (interview met Saskia van Ruth en Rita Boerrigter-Eenling)
Smit, A. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 28 - 31.
biologische voedingsmiddelen - authenticiteit - dranken - voedselanalyse - identificatie - voedseltechnologie - melkproducten - voedselinspectie - organic foods - authenticity - beverages - food analysis - identification - food technology - milk products - food inspection
Producenten die sjoemelen met de herkomst van levensmiddelen kunnen vaker op het matje worden geroepen. RIKILT Wageningen UR ontwikkelt steeds meer tests die duidelijk maken waar de ingrediënten vandaan komen én of ze wel echt op biologische wijze zijn gemaakt. Koffie en eieren blijken wat dat betreft verrassend herkenbaar.
The limits of testing for microbiological food safety
Joosten, H.M.L.J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461737939 - 24
voedselveiligheid - voedselmicrobiologie - microbiële besmetting - voedselanalyse - kwaliteitscontroles - food safety - food microbiology - microbial contamination - food analysis - quality controls
Occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food products in the The Netherlands
Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Venema, D.P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Kok, A. de; Scholten, J. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2013
alternaria - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - mycotoxinen - analytische methoden - alternaria - food safety - food analysis - mycotoxins - analytical methods
The objective of this research was: 1) adaptation of an existing LC-MS/MS method to determine 5 Alternaria toxins in various food commodities and 2) perform a survey (95 samples) to gain insight in the levels of Alternaria toxins in fresh apples, tomatoes, citrus, figs, olives, sunflower seeds, cereals, apple juices and tomato sauces, purchased in the Netherlands.
Selectivity in the sample preparation for the analysis of drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS
Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 43 (2013). - ISSN 0165-9936 - p. 229 - 239.
tandem mass-spectrometry - quantitative trace analysis - solid-phase extraction - veterinary drugs - antibiotic-residues - multiclass method - environmental-samples - multiresidue method - screening method - food analysis
Sample preparation is critical in relation to analysis time, sample throughput and therefore analysis costs. Due to recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrumentation, the detection of many compounds within one run became possible, and methods for the simultaneous analysis of different compound groups were developed. To be able to analyze compounds with different physical and chemical properties simultaneously, generic, non-selective sample-preparation procedures are applied. The most frequently reported generic sample-preparation methods are a solvent extraction only, solid-phase extraction and a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. These multi-analyte methods – sometimes including more than 150 different compounds – are of much interest for analytical laboratories due to their reduction in costs. A clear drawback of generic sample-preparation procedures is the occurrence of abundant matrix effects, which compromise detection limits, quantitative aspects, method selectivity and maintenance frequency. In contrast to the trend towards non-selective sample preparation, an opposite trend towards more selective sample-preparation methods is expected to be able to confirm the identity of compounds unambiguously (e.g., stereoisomers). This review gives an overview of generic sample-preparation procedures in the analysis of veterinary drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS as the detection technique and an outlook towards expected future trends.
|Nieuwe methoden voor risico- en gezondheidsanalyse producten : Efficient en relatief goedkoop
Mes, J.J. ; Meer, I. van der; Vos, R. de; Meulen, J. van der; Hulst, M.M. ; Smits, M.A. ; Hendriksen, P.J.M. ; Bovee, T.F.H. - \ 2013
Voeding Nu 15 (2013)3/4. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 24 - 26.
voedselanalyse - voedselveiligheid - analytische methoden - voeding en gezondheid - voedingsstoffen - spijsverteringsstelsel - immuunsysteem - food analysis - food safety - analytical methods - nutrition and health - nutrients - digestive system - immune system
Veel gezondheids- en veiligheidsonderzoek vindt plaats naar de afzonderlijke stoffen die in voeding voorkomen. Zo richt het gezondheidsonderzoek zich op het meten van de gehalten aan bioactieve vitamines, mineralen en (secundaire) metabolieten en het veiligheidsonderzoek op de contaminanten in voeding, zoals dioxines, residuen van behandelingsmiddelen en mycotoxinen. Onze voeding is echter geen mengsel van stoffen in een neutrale omgeving, maar een complexe matrix waarin stoffen met elkaar interacteren. Door de bioactieve effecten van het hele product centraal te zetten, kunnen de werkelijke effecten van voeding beter worden voorspeld.
LC-MS residue analysis of antibiotics : what selectivity is adequate?
Berendsen, B.J.A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michel Nielen, co-promotor(en): Linda Stolker. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735690 - 352
antibiotica - bèta-lactam antibiotica - chlooramfenicol - ceftiofur - voedselanalyse - lc-ms - selectiviteit - antibioticumresiduen - antibiotics - beta-lactam antibiotics - chloramphenicol - ceftiofur - food analysis - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - selectivity - antibiotic residues
In residue analysis of antibiotics quantitative and qualitative aspects are involved in declaring a sample non-compliant. The quantitative aspect regards the determination of the amount of the compound present in the sample. Validation procedures are available to determine the uncertainty of this result, which is taken into account in the decision making process. The qualitative aspect regards the confirmation of the identity of the compound present. In this, selectivity is the main parameter which is defined as the ability of a method to discriminate the analyte being measured from other substances. A trend observed in residue analysis is towards more generic methods for the detection of a broad range of compounds in a single run. As a result, by definition, selectivity is compromised. Procedures to determine the uncertainty of the qualitative aspect are lacking and, as a result, whether or not a method is adequately selective is a matter of experts’ judgment.
In this thesis a method is presented for grading selectivity of methods using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the outcome it can be stated if selectivity is adequate and thus if a confirmatory result stands strong when challenged in a court case. If selectivity is found inadequate, additional measures can be taken like the selection of another product ion or the use of a third product ion to obtain adequate selectivity.
Furthermore, two examples of analyses are presented in which selectivity plays an important role. First, the analysis of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP). CAP contains two chiral centers and the nitro-group can either be para- or meta-substituted. Therefore, eight different isomers of CAP occur of which only RR-p-CAP is antimicrobially active. In the analysis of CAP, extreme selectivity is needed to distinguish the antimicrobially active compound from its inactive isomers. A method applying chiral liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed to discriminate antimicrobially active CAP for its inactive isomers. Also the research for the possible natural occurrence of this drug is presented. It is shown that CAP can be produced in unamended soil by Streptomyces venezuelaein appreciable amounts and that crops can take up CAP from soils. Therefore, it is concluded that CAP can occur in crops and animal feed due to its natural production by soil bacteria.
Second, the development of a multi-ß-lactam method is presented. In this method a derivatization is applied to be able to effectively detect off-label ceftiofur use. In this selectivity is intentionally compromised and no unequivocal confirmation can be carried out using this method. The developed method is applicable to a wide range of ß-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems and is the best method available today for effective monitoring of off-label ß-lactam usage in poultry breeding.
Starch identification supported by expert system determinator
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Hekman, W.E. ; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. ; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2012
zetmeel - gemodificeerd zetmeel - identificatie - voedselanalyse - starch - modified starches - identification - food analysis
Identification of starch as ingredient is important for a range of purposes. The Starch Identification System as implemented in the platform Determinator is helpful in this respect since it allows consistent identification of starch in a large variety of products.
Speuren in het allerkleinste (interview met Grishja van der Veer)
Veer, Grishja van der - \ 2012
stable isotopes - forensic science - authenticity - analytical methods - food analysis - isotopes
Authenticiteit van Boeren-Leidse kaas : analytische test om kaas met beschermde oorsprong te verifiëren
Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT - Intstitute of Food Safety
kazen - voedselanalyse - voedseltechnologie - streekgebonden producten - massaspectrometrie - geur en smaak - authenticiteit - cheeses - food analysis - food technology - regional specialty products - mass spectrometry - flavour - authenticity
Binnen het onderzoeksinstituut RIKILT, onderdeel van Wageningen University & Research Centre, is een methode ontwikkeld om de identiteit van de Europees beschermde oorsprongsbenamingskaas 'Boeren-Leidse kaas met sleutels' te kunnen typeren en te verifiëren. De vingerafdruk van de vluchtige stoffen (het aroma) van de kaas wordt hierbij gebruikt om onderscheid te maken tussen Boeren-Leidse kaas met sleutels en andere komijnekazen met vergelijkbaar vetgehalte en rijpingsduur. De niet-destructieve methode behoeft een snelle scan van de lucht boven de kaas met behulp van Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry. De fingerprints worden opgeslagen in een database en uiteindelijk vergeleken met behulp van statistische methoden.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : vitamins, inositol and choline
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.004) - 54
analytische methoden - voedingsstoffen - bepaling - voedselanalyse - vitaminen - myo-inositol - choline - analytical methods - nutrients - determination - food analysis - vitamins - myo-inositol - choline
This report provides an overview of the available standardised analytical methods for the determination of nutrients in formula. This report focusses on the vitamins, inositol and choline compounds. In addition, several analytical method characteristics are provided i.e target compound(s) being actually measured, the matrixes wherein the methods have been validated and the method performance characteristics.
The kitchen as laboratory : Reflections on the science of food and cooking
Vega, C. ; Ubbink, J. ; Linden, E. van der - \ 2012
New York : Columbia University Press - ISBN 9780231153447 - 314
voedseltechnologie - voeding - voedselanalyse - voedselsamenstelling - eten koken - food technology - nutrition - food analysis - food composition - cooking
In this global collaboration of essays, chefs and scientists advance culinary knowledge by testing hypotheses rooted in the physical and chemical properties of food. Using traditional and cutting-edge tools, ingredients, and techniques, these pioneers create, and sometimes revamp, dishes that respond to specific desires and serve up an original encounter with gastronomic practice. From the seemingly mundane to the food fantastic the essays in The Kitchen as Laboratory cover a range of creations and their history and culture. They consider the significance of an eater's background and dining atmosphere and the importance of a chef's methods, as well as the strategies used to create a great diversity of foods and dishes.