Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Participatory Exploration of the Heterogeneity in Household Socioeconomic, Food, and Nutrition Security Status for the Identification of Nutrition-Sensitive Interventions in the Rwandan Highlands
    Mashingaidze, Nester ; Ekesa, Beatrice ; Ndayisaba, Celestin Pierre ; Njukwe, Emmanuel ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Gwazane, Munyaradzi ; Vanlauwe, Bernard - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4 (2020). - ISSN 2571-581X
    agricultural biodiversity - anthropometry - food consumption - household typology - livelihood capital

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are challenges in rural Rwanda that are presumed to be affected by differential household socioeconomic status, but the relationship between food and nutrition security and socioeconomic status is not well-understood. We used a participatory and multidisciplinary study comprising nutrition survey, focus group discussion (FGD), detailed household/farm characterization, and interviews to construct a participatory household typology and to determine differences in the socioeconomic, food, and nutrition security status of 17 households representing the identified household types in Nyabihu District of Western Province. Strategies to improve household food and nutrition security were identified by the case study households themselves. During the FGDs, it was hypothesized that financial, physical, and natural capitals varied, resulting in high, medium, and low resource endowed households, abbreviated as HRE, MRE, and LRE, respectively. The HRE households had the most educated household heads, largest landholdings (~1 ha), and highest agricultural biodiversity and total farm income per annum. This probably resulted in better diets for women, children higher household food consumption relative to the other households. In contrast, the LRE households were the least food-secure, with poor household food consumption and low dietary diversity across seasons, probably due to limited physical and economic access to food. However, anthropometry of women and children did not differ with household type. Half of the children were stunted, including some from the more food-secure HRE households. Undiversified, nutritionally inadequate diets and bouts of illness likely contributed to chronic malnutrition in children. Making agricultural programs more nutrition-sensitive, creating diverse employment opportunities, and sensitizing communities to nutrition and adequate feeding practices of children could complement the interventions identified by households to improve their food and nutrition security.

    Sustainable food consumption: norms, morality and consumer ethos
    Wahlen, Stefan - \ 2018
    food consumption - eating - norms - morality - consumption governance - sustainable consumption
    The sustainable development goal on sustainable consumption and production outlines that food can significantly contribute to a more sustainable development. In recent years increased research as well as public interest has attempted to promote more sustainable food consumption. Yet, the debates often responsibilize individual consumers for the outcome of their behavior. Many of these debates neglect collective features of consumption. This is where this contribution seeks to fill a gap: the contribution aims at scrutinizing media debates surrounding sustainable consumption. I am interested to the contribution of media debates rendering sustainable consumption as morally acceptable. The research question accordingly asks: how is sustainable consumption and associated consumer ethos as way of thinking about consumers described in media debates. The contribution scrutinizes the description of sustainable food consumption in daily press and the moral associations. The analysis of newspaper articles published in a daily press review of the major German consumer organization reveals two different consumer ethoses: a parsimonious and a renunciative consumer ethos. Discussions centred around food and packaging waste, the best-before date, but also around organic and vegetarian food as a more sustainable option and the social acceptability thereof. In a parsimonious consumer ethos, consumers are depicted as relating to efficiency. Consumer should follow a morality of thriftiness in what concerns sustainable food consumption. In the renunciative consumer ethos, the data reveal sustainable consumption as relating more to sufficiency. Consumers should refrain from particular parts of food consumption in order to protect the environment. We can also see that the consumer is to some extent responsibilised for activities that lie beyond the consumers’ scope of practice but should be looked after in terms of scrutinizing systems of provision. In the end, distinguishing these two ethoses can assist in developing policy measures, as these extent beyond the traditional understanding of the consumer as market participant, but acknowledge everyday activity and its morality in consuming as collective features of consumption.
    Tool voor Food bedrijven in transitie
    Mols, H. ; Warnaar, M. ; Methorst, B. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Dagevos, H. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Genderen, R.A. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
    protein sources - food consumption - feeding habits
    Om ook op termijn voldoende, duurzaam en gezond voedsel, in een gezonde leefomgeving, te kunnen garanderen zijn aanpassingen noodzakelijk in het voedselsysteem. Een voedseltransitie betekent dat wij op een hele andere manier gaan produceren en consumeren. Deze verandering zal niet van de één op de andere dag gebeuren. Het is een ontwikkeling die nu al volop gaande is en de komende jaren ook zal doorgaan. Er zijn inmiddels honderden kleinschalige en middelgrote initiatieven in Nederland die bijdragen aan vernieuwing en innovatie rond voedsel. Deze initiatieven sluiten aan bij allerlei maatschappelijke trends zoals gemak, duurzaamheid, beleving, dierenwelzijn, digitalisering, gezondheid, individualisering, eerlijke handel, exclusiviteit en terug naar de natuur. Er is daarbij op verschillende manieren sprake van innovaties in de wereld van voedsel. In deze wiki van Groen Kennisnet die studenten kunnen doorlopen zijn de innovaties onderverdeeld in acht thema’s: eiwittransitie, stadslandbouw, lokaal, gezond, customised, webwinkels en platforms, food events en voedselverspilling.
    Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
    Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
    food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

    In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

    Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

    In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

    Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

    In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

    In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

    In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

    Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade : the case of the Antwerp–Rotterdam–Düsseldorf region
    Wascher, Dirk Michael ; Jeurissen, Leonne - \ 2017
    Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 41 (2017)8. - ISSN 2168-3565 - p. 944 - 964.
    Ecological footprint - food consumption - spatial planning - sustainable cities
    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the prevailing global trade agro-food systems for the impact areas land use change, competition for space, biodiversity, and climate change, paying special attention to the Dutch approach toward global agro-food-chains. Finally, we put forward recommendations for developing sustainable foodscapes in metropolitan regions based on food-oriented spatial planning devices addressing aspects such as climate change, biodiversity, cross-border collaboration, food chain innovation, and footprint assessments.
    Understanding heterogeneity in decision-making among elderly consumers: the case of functional foods
    Zanden, Lotte D.T. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.W. Kleef; R.A. de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431439 - 161
    voedselopname - ouderen - voedselsamenstellingtabellen - voedselverrijking - ouderenvoeding - leeftijdsgroepen - marketing - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - ziekenhuisdiëten - besluitvorming - consumenten - voedselconsumptie - food intake - elderly - food composition tables - food enrichment - elderly nutrition - age groups - marketing - food marketing - hospital diets - decision making - consumers - food consumption

    The population of elderly has grown considerably over the past few decades, due to reduced birth rates and increased life expectancy. Old age is, however, still associated with a higher incidence of various health conditions that pose a threat to quality of life and result in high healthcare costs. Various products and services could help elderly to stay active and healthy for longer if they were adopted, such as mobility aids, home modifications and functional foods. A key challenge is to position products and services like these on the market in such a way that elderly can see their value and will start using them. In doing this, it is crucial to know what elderly need and to understand how they make decisions. This thesis therefore aims to provide a deeper understanding of decision-making among elderly consumers. It does so using functional foods as an example, and concentrates on answering the following research questions: 1) Which types of wants, inferences and intentions characterize the elderly consumer population? 2) What are relevant ways to distinguish between elderly consumers? and 3) How can elderly consumers be motivated to form consumption intentions for products and services aimed at promoting their wellbeing?

    An experience-sampling paradigm shows that there are age-related differences in both desires (i.e. wants), such as the desire for food, and goals, such as the goal to work (i.e. intentions), but not in the way these wants and intentions interact with each other (Chapter 2). Young and old consumers experience the same types of conflict between their wants and intentions. The extent of conflict does change with age however, such that older adults experience conflict less often and less strongly than younger adults. This age-related difference can be partly explained by the way in which consumers perceive the time they have left in their lives. Those who perceive time as limited, experience more conflict. Zooming in on product-specific decision-making, a series of focus groups indicates that elderly consumers overall want to use healthy products that they use frequently as a basis for enrichment with protein (Chapter 3). Most elderly do not display intentions to purchase and use such products, however, either because they do not feel the need to use functional foods or because they hold various negative inferences regarding functional foods, such as a high price or bad taste. Importantly, elderly consumers differ strongly in their wants, inferences and intentions, suggesting that segmentation of this population is warranted.

    A narrative review reveals that there are various ways to segment the elderly consumer population, for example based on age, future time perspective or purchase behaviour, and every approach has its strengths and weaknesses (Chapter 4). Based on the objectives of a segmentation approach one can, however, make an informed decision regarding which segmentation base to use. In the functional food market, elderly consumers may best be segmented using a segmentation base on the food or product level (i.e. rather than the person level) that results in segments in which consumers have similar needs and wants, for example the attributes benefits that consumers seek. A segmentation study shows that using such a segmentation base results in segments that provide concrete instructions for the development of functional foods (Chapter 5). The resulting segments of elderly have unique preferences that do not necessarily reflect those of the average elderly consumer and thereby provide useful insights that can help increase our understanding of elderly consumers.

    Segmentation also provides a basis for tailoring products to the needs and wants of elderly consumers. A segmentation study illustrates that such tailoring can increase elderly consumers’ willingness to try protein-enriched foods for the first time (i.e. trial purchase), as well as their willingness to use such products on a more regular basis (i.e. repeat purchase) (Chapter 5). For a small group of elderly, tailoring proves to be ineffective, however, as they categorically reject all types of protein-enriched foods presented to them. These elderly are relatively uninterested in the concept of functional foods, which may be due to negative inferences surrounding such products. Overcoming the activation of such negative inferences may be useful in motivating elderly consumers to use protein-enriched foods. A field study in a hospital setting shows that the implementation of a verbal prompt intervention that motivates consumers to make decisions without much can increase the consumption of protein (Chapter 6). By understanding and capitalizing on cognitive biases in human decision-making, interventions like these can motivate consumers to form consumption intentions even when they hold negative inferences about products or services.

    Overall, this thesis shows that although elderly consumers share an age bracket they are strongly heterogeneous in their wants, inferences and intentions. This heterogeneity is robust, as it can even be observed when zooming in on decision-making regarding a specific product category (i.e. protein-enriched foods). Our understanding of the elderly consumer population increases by studying this heterogeneity, as it provides insights beyond those that apply to the group of elderly that reflect the average. In studying heterogeneity, it pays off to focus on bases that are predictive of behaviour while demographic characteristics like age provide only few insights. Industry and health institutions can also benefit from an increased understanding of the composition of the elderly population and how they make decisions. Such understanding may provide them with concrete instructions for the development and commercialization of products and services for this growing group of consumers.

    "Foodsharing": Unscharfe Grenzen einer Lebensstilbewegung
    Wahlen, S. - \ 2017
    In: Beiträge zur Verbraucherforschung
    food consumption - Social movements - foodsharing - lifestyle movement
    Moralities of sharing and caring : Gender and food in the moral household economy
    Niehof, A. ; Wahlen, S. - \ 2017
    Jaarboek voor Vrouwengeschiedenis 36 (2017). - ISSN 1574-2334 - p. 147 - 163.
    moral economy - household - food security - gender - food consumption
    This paper propounds the concept of the moral household economy in order to understand and explain gender performances in food practices of sharing and caring in the socio-cultural domain of unpaid food work. Households are the immediate context for meeting people’s food and nutrition needs and for everyday practices of caring and sharing, which are based on moral responsibilities. By applying the concept of moral economy to households, the boundary that separates abstract morality from the morality acknowledged and implied by social practices is challenged. Since the household is a gendered sphere, moral household economies are gendered. We integrate these notions into one theoretical construct, drawing on illustrative cases to exemplify linkages and processes. The paper offers a novel theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between gender and food by looking at food practices of sharing and caring in the context of the household as a space of gendered morality.
    Kansen voor meer groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen
    Meeusen-van Onna, Marieke ; Bouwman, Emily ; Immink, Victor ; Sijtsema, Siet - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2016-089) - ISBN 9789462577688 - 53
    voedselconsumptie - fruit - groenten - gezondheidszorginstellingen - eetpatronen - streekgebonden producten - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - fruit - vegetables - health maintenance organizations - eating patterns - regional specialty products - organic foods - nutrition and health
    Dit rapport verkent de mogelijkheden om de inname van groenten en fruit in zorginstellingen te
    verhogen. Met aanvullend de vraag of (i) de biologische variant en/of (ii) de regionale herkomst
    meerwaarde biedt. Er zijn mogelijkheden om de consumptie van groenten en fruit te vergroten, vooral
    wanneer er meerdere eetmomenten ontwikkeld worden. Producten uit de streek bieden meerwaarde
    vanwege de (verse) smaak en leiden ertoe dat de zorginstellingen goed ingebed raken in de regionale
    How convenient!? Adolescents’ vistas on food competences in a convenience context
    Wahlen, S. ; Horst, Hilje van der; Pothoff, Roosje - \ 2016
    British Food Journal 118 (2016)11. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2828 - 2838.
    competences - social practices - convenience foods - adolescence - food consumption
    Purpose – Adolescents are at a stage in their life course in which they increasingly become choosers, buyers and preparers of food. Hence, they develop and employ required competences. Current food-related competences of adolescents are shaped in an environment with an abundance of convenience foods. Simultaneously food education has been limited in many western countries. The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize how young practitioners engage with the notion of convenience in a context with a strong presence of convenience foods.
    Design/methodology/approach – Empirical data for this paper have been collected in a Dutch high school context following a participatory approach in focus group discussions. Data have been gathered from different food-related exercises within a classroom context.
    Findings – The findings indicate that adolescents’ food competences and meanings are heavily shaped by the abundant presence of convenience foods. Adolescents perceive a nuanced picture of a skilful consumer that incorporates convenience foods in ways that minimize time efforts, preserves some preparatory tasks for fun cooking and has knowledge about health effects of fatty and salty foods. Originality/value – The investigation takes a novel look on convenience food consumption from a practice perspective scrutinizing competences through the lens of adolescent practitioners. The authors make a plea for tapping into the potential of research on children and adolescents as novice performers of practices to understand how practices are shaped and changed and how practices recruit new practitioners.
    De boon op de troon
    Weele, Cor van der; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Giller, Ken ; Jager, Ilse de - \ 2016
    food security - human feeding - beans - grain legumes - lentils - food consumption - protein sources - food and agriculture organization - meat alternates - soil fertility - pisum sativum

    Geinterviewd voor artikel in Wageningen World Nr.3 2016 In het kader van het Internationaal jaar van de peulvruchten.

    Proteomics as a tool to gain more insight into sub-lethal toxicological effects
    Miller, Ingrid - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk, co-promotor(en): A.C. Gutleb; T. Serchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578210 - 182
    proteomics - laboratory methods - sublethal effects - toxic substances - endocrine disruptors - food consumption - toxicology - animal experiments - eiwitexpressieanalyse - laboratoriummethoden - subletale effecten - toxische stoffen - hormoonverstoorders - voedselconsumptie - toxicologie - dierproeven

    This thesis focuses on a modern analytical method, proteomics, to investigate its use in the field of toxicological research. Proteomics is a high resolution method which separates all proteins present in a sample at a clearly defined state and compares this pattern to another one, under slightly different conditions (e.g. after exposure to a chemical). Protein changes may give rise to or reflect disease/harm of the individual and can be attributed to alterations in body functions/regulation systems. Analysis conditions and different varieties of proteomic methods are explained, and a brief introduction given where proteomics is already applied in toxicology. A specific investigation has been performed with the flame retardant HBCD (i.e. hexabromocyclododecane). It is a compound that accumulates in lipid tissue from where it is only slowly removed. Its mechanism of action is not yet completely understood and sometimes seems to be contradictory. Rats were exposed to HBCD in very low doses for just one week and liver proteins were compared to those of unexposed animals. As HBCD is suggested to disturb the thyroid system, both healthy and hypothyroid rats were investigated, of both genders. In female rats, not in males, some specific liver protein changes were seen in glucose/carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also in some stress related proteins. Changes were not dependent on the thyroid function of the females. These results are in line with previous findings that female rats were more susceptible to HBCD than males. In a further step, protein patterns of unexposed animals of both genders were compared, revealing gender-dependent differences that exceeded the effects seen in any of the other comparisons, mainly in the pathways that were also affected by HBCD in females. A previous proteomic study on serum proteins has also shown clear gender-dependent concentration differences in rats. This underlines the importance of performing studies both in female and male individuals. The detection of considerable gender-dependent protein alterations confirms that proteomics is a biochemical tool with high sensitivity and large potential also in toxicological research.

    Stadslandbouw in 'gastropool' New York
    Pineda Revilla, Beatriz ; Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2016
    Agora 32 (2016)2. - ISSN 1380-6319 - p. 36 - 39.
    stedelijke gebieden - voedselconsumptie - gezondheid - onderwijs - sociale gebruiken - urban areas - food consumption - health - education - social customs
    In de metropool New York draait het leven voor een belangrijk deel om eten. Voedsel wordt steeds vaker gezien als een verbindend element in het dagelijks leven. Het raakt aan uiteenlopende zaken als gezondheid, onderwijs, ontspanning en sociale cohesie.
    Understanding place brands as collective and territorial development processes
    Donner, M.I.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Fort; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577992 - 178
    rural sociology - food consumption - food - branding - marketing - morocco - france - regional development - rural development - tourism - international tourism - rurale sociologie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - brandmerken - marketing - marokko - frankrijk - regionale ontwikkeling - plattelandsontwikkeling - toerisme - internationaal toerisme

    Place branding strategies linking marketing to places have received increasing attention in practice and theory in the past two decades. It is generally assumed that place branding contributes to the economic, social, political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries. But there exists neither a commonly accepted definition nor a sound theoretical framework for place branding research. Studies have until now mainly focused on nations and cities, while the regional scale has rather been neglected, even more in the context of Mediterranean countries. In addition, little is yet known about the conditions, processes, and outcomes of place branding.

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the clarification of the place branding concept and to a broader understanding of this rich and complex phenomenon. The focus is on the underlying conditions, processes and dynamics of place branding in regions that contributes to territorial development. Place branding is related to local food products and tourism for sustainable territorial development in Mediterranean rural regions (in France and Morocco).

    The introduction chapter outlines the societal and theoretical context of place branding regarding this thesis. Place brands have emerged as attempts to respond to intertwined and multifaceted economic, political and socio-cultural challenges: to the externalities of globalisation, to local development challenges due to regionalisation and decentralisation processes, and to socio-economic tensions in the Mediterranean basin and its food domain. Accordingly, three established literature streams are mobilized: the marketing and branding of places, regional studies and sociology. It is supposed that insights from the three disciplines are needed to understand the conditions, processes and development outcomes of regional branding. This leads to three units of analysis: the first deals with place branding in a narrow sense, understanding it as marketing strategy for the development of places and their local assets based on a distinctive territorial identity; the second considers territorial development policies and public-private interactions; and the third analyses place-based, collective and embedded processes among various actors in rural areas.

    Chapter 2 comprises a case study of the Sud de France brand in the region Languedoc-Roussillon, which is mainly used for the valorisation and promotion of local wines, food and tourism, but also serving institutional aims. It is a study of local dynamics and the process of regional branding, leading to beneficial outcomes stemming from a public development intervention. It demonstrates various economic and non-economic benefits created by a place brand and unfolds some of its working mechanisms, such as horizontal and vertical relations among different territorial actors, a multiple stakeholder involvement, or the linkage of a place brand with its political, social and economic context.

    Chapter 3 is a continuation of Chapter 2, as it further investigates the kind of value that can be created by a place brand for different stakeholders, using the Sud de France case. Based on stakeholder and brand equity theory, it develops a measurement model and monitoring tool for the value of place brands. Results show that various place brand value dimensions coexist, according to the expectations of four identified key stakeholder groups. These value dimensions include economic, socio-cultural and environmental indicators.

    Chapter 4 offers a comparison of four regional branding initiatives in Europe, with the aim to gain insights into the general conditions, as well as context-dependent factors for successfully developing and maintaining place brands. It combines a marketing perspective with the sociology of food and endogenous rural development, and analyses strategic and operational brand management aspects, as well as contextual factors. Findings indicate the importance of various embeddedness dimensions for regional branding, such as public policies, cooperation and governance forms, territorial identity and the anchorage of local actors in their places.

    Chapter 5 is an explorative case study of place branding in the province of Chefchaouen, Morocco, in order to find out whether and how it would be possible to implement there a place brand as a coherent and collective territorial development project. Preconditions and various initiatives towards place branding are analysed at three action levels (macro, meso, micro). Specific attention is given to local cooperation and network activities, to leadership and political unity, being strongly related to the question of territorial governance. The main insight gained from the Chefchaouen case is that a collective place brand could be a useful tool for cross-sector cooperation, territorial governance and development, but that currently Moroccan regions still lack sufficient autonomy to fully develop their own territorial projects.

    The final chapter builds upon the research findings to highlight conceptual differences between diverse brands related to places. The main conclusion of this thesis is that place brands in regions – in order to be able to support agribusiness and local development – must be considered as more than mere marketing instruments, but as dynamic, collective and embedded territorial development processes. These insights lead to conceptual and theoretical, methodological, as well as policy and managerial implications, for place branding research and practice. A main suggestion for further research is to use complex systems theory to cover the complexity of place brands.

    Meten wat jij moet eten
    Luijendijk, Liesbeth ; Feskens, Edith - \ 2016
    diet counseling - nutrition and health - food consumption - gastrointestinal microbiota - intestinal physiology - nutrition physiology - diet

    Wat gezond eten is voor de één, kan voor de ander averechts uitpakken. Voedingonderzoekers zijn op zoek naar de oorzaken van deze individuele verschillen en de consequenties voor het dieet. Uiteindelijk willen ze de consument voorzien van een persoonlijk voedingsadvies.
    Negatief keurmerk werkt beter
    Dam, Ynte van - \ 2016
    food consumption - consumer behaviour - consumer attitudes - certification - labelling - sustainability - choice behaviour
    ESA Consumption Research Network Midterm Conference 2016
    Wahlen, Stefan - \ 2016
    food consumption - sharing economy - collaborative lifestyle - social movements
    Sharing economies and collaborative consumption can be considered lifestyle movements, with private action and participation aiming at social change. Enhanced by new network technologies, instances of sharing have spread along with the conviction that sharing addresses societal and environmental challenges. Food sharing is a particular example of a collaborative consumption movement. The food sharing movement aims to counteract food squandering and to reduce food waste. This research examines a German context where consumers can either make superfluous food available for pick up on an online platform or bring their surplus food to publicly accessible cupboards or refrigerators, so-called share points. Around 300 of these share points exist in Germany, of which 25 are located in Berlin. In early 2016, municipal food authorities in Berlin published novel food safety requirements that would not allow publicly available food in share points. This decision resulted in conflict between the food movement and the government. In the light of these incidents, this paper investigates the positioning of food sharing as a non-conformist consumption activity in contestation. Particular interest lies in the accounts of politicisation and mobilisation of consumer practices that resist public authorities. Empirically I investigate discursive struggles in newspapers articles related to the introduction of new food safety requirements. The contribution of this paper lies in disentangling the position of sharing in collaborative consumption. Moreover, it assists in understanding the positioning of food sharing and food safety in the politics of food waste.
    Effectiveness of nutrition education in Dutch primary schools
    Fries, M.C.E. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer; Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576537 - 169
    schools - elementary schools - primary education - dietetic education - taste - education - vegetables - psychosocial aspects - food consumption - scholen - basisscholen - primair onderwijs - voedingsonderwijs - smaak - onderwijs - groenten - psychosociale aspecten - voedselconsumptie

    “Nutrition education in Dutch primary schools”

    School-based nutrition education programmes have increasingly been used to teach children about nutrition and to provide them with the skills to make healthy food choices. As these programmes differ in content and delivery, it is hard to identify what intervention components and implementation conditions are most effective. Furthermore, as nutrition education is not mandatory in the Netherlands, it is not clear what effects can be achieved with nutrition education in Dutch primary schools. In this thesis therefore two versions of Taste Lessons were evaluated. Taste Lessons is a practice-driven school-based nutrition education programme on taste development, healthy nutrition, and food quality. The programme was evaluated on its aims to increase children’s interest in food, and their knowledge and skills regarding healthy and conscious eating behaviour. Furthermore, the influence of adding experiential learning activities and implementation factors on effectiveness are addressed.

    The first evaluation showed that partial implementation of the 10-12 lessons of Taste Lessons (first version) by the teachers during one school year resulted in small increases in psychosocial determinants of healthy eating behaviour. The highest increase was observed in children’s knowledge, which still persisted six months after the programme.

    A second evaluation was conducted with the aim to compare effectiveness of the revised and shorter version of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on change in (psychosocial determinants of) vegetable consumption and willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables. Results from this second study showed that, with almost complete implementation of the five lessons of Taste Lessons by the teachers during a couple of weeks, similar results as the first effect evaluation. Again with knowledge as the strongest intervention effect. Additional experiential learning activities, such as an extended cooking lesson with a dietician and the parents, an excursion to a grower and a supermarket assignment with the parents, showed more and stronger increases in several psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption than Taste Lessons without these additional activities. No significant intervention effects were found on children’s willingness to taste unfamiliar vegetables during a taste test, and also not on their daily vegetable consumption and food neophobia.

    Analyses on process indicators in both studies revealed that teachers and children highly liked Taste Lessons and that children most liked the experiential learning activities. Furthermore, children’s programme appreciation and interpersonal communication about the programme activities after the lessons were found to be positively associated with their change in psychosocial determinants.

    In conclusion, evaluation of Taste Lessons showed an increase in children’s knowledge and several other psychosocial determinants of eating behaviour. Implementation of (additional) experiential learning methods in school-based nutrition education is likely to enhance the intervention’s effectiveness, as children mostly liked these activities and children’s enthusiasm was the strongest predictor of effectiveness. No effects were found on children’s vegetable consumption. To achieve behavioural change, school-based nutrition education should be complemented with a consistent set of changes in children’s environment.

    'Duurzame voedselvoorziening onmogelijk zonder veehouderij'
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Kernebeek, H.R.J. van - \ 2015
    food supply - sustainability - livestock farming - food consumption - life cycle assessment - land use - animal protein

    Voor optimaal landgebruik is matige consumptie van dierlijk eiwit vereist. Bij een hoge populatiedruk is een veganistische dieet net zo min mogelijk als een dieet met veel dierlijk eiwit. Het aandeel dierlijke producten in het dieet is bij hoge populatiedruk afhankelijk van het aandeel van marginaal land in de beschikbare grond. Zo luidden de conclusies van de lezing van prof. Imke de Boer op een studiedag van FrieslandCampina eerder dit jaar.

    Potential impacts on sub-Saharan Africa of reducing food loss and waste in the European Union : A focus on food prices and price transmission effects
    Rutten, M.M. ; Mhlanga, Nomathemba - \ 2015
    FAO - ISBN 9789251090282 - 64
    food consumption - food policy - food wastes - food prices - africa - europe - european union - voedselconsumptie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselafval - voedselprijzen - afrika - europa - europese unie
    This paper investigates, by means of scenario analyses, how reductions in food loss and waste in the European Union (EU) could influence prices in sub-Saharan Africa – as a source and destination of traded agricultural and food products. Four 50 percent reduction scenarios are enacted, using the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET), in addition to a baseline “business as usual” (BaU) scenario. The analysis provides insights on potential impacts in terms of medium- to long-term global and local price changes in sub-Saharan Africa and the mechanisms behind them (changes in production, consumption and trade patterns). It also provides insights in terms of potential welfare impacts.
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