Rural livelihoods and agricultural commercialization in colonial Uganda: conjunctures of external influences and local realities
Haas, Michiel A. de - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema, co-promotor(en): N.B.J. Koning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436281 - 250
cum laude - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - communities - rural areas - farmers - history - colonies - colonialism - income - gender - social inequalities - food crops - cash crops - uganda - east africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - gemeenschappen - platteland - boeren - geschiedenis - kolonies - kolonialisme - inkomen - geslacht (gender) - sociale ongelijkheden - voedselgewassen - marktgewassen - uganda - oost-afrika
The economic history of Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by geographically and temporally dispersed booms and busts. The export-led ‘cash-crop revolution’ in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era is a key example of an economic boom. This thesis examines how external influences and local realities shaped the nature, extent and impact of the ‘cash-crop revolution’ in colonial Uganda, a landlocked country in central east Africa, where cotton and coffee production for global markets took off following completion of a railway to the coast. The thesis consists of five targeted ‘interventions’ into contemporary debates of comparative African development. Each of these five interventions is grounded in the understanding that the ability of rural Africans to respond to and benefit from trade integration during the colonial era was mediated by colonial policies, resource endowments and local institutions.
The first chapter reconstructs welfare development of Ugandan cash-crop farmers. Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This chapter presents a new approach to reconstructing rural living standards in a historical context, building upon the well-established real wage literature, but moving beyond it to capture rural realities, employing sub-national rural survey, census, and price data. The approach is applied to colonial and early post-colonial Uganda (1915–70), and yields a number of findings. While an expanding smallholder-based cash-crop sector established itself as the backbone of Uganda’s colonial economy, farm characteristics remained largely stagnant after the initial adoption of cash crops. Smallholders maintained living standards well above subsistence level, and while the profitability of cash crops was low, their cultivation provided a reliable source of cash income. At the same time, there were pronounced limits to rural welfare expansion. Around the time of decolonization, unskilled wages rose rapidly while farm incomes lagged behind. As a result, an urban–rural income reversal took place. The study also reveals considerable differences within Uganda, which were mediated to an important extent by differential resource endowments. Smallholders in Uganda’s banana regions required fewer labour inputs to maintain a farm income than their grain-farming counterparts, creating opportunities for additional income generation and livelihood diversification.
The second chapter zooms in on labour migration which connected Belgian-controlled Ruanda-Urundi to British-controlled Buganda, the central province of Uganda on the shores of Lake Victoria. The emergence of new labour mobility patterns was a key aspect of economic change in colonial Africa. Under conditions of land abundance and labour scarcity, the supply of wage labour required either the ‘pull’ forces of attractive working conditions and high wages, or the ‘push’ forces of taxation and other deliberate colonial interventions. Building upon primary sources, I show that this case diverges from the ‘conventional’ narrative of labour scarcity in colonial Africa. I argue that Ruanda-Urundi should be regarded as labour abundant and that migrants were not primarily ‘pushed’ by colonial labour policies, but rather by poverty and limited access to agricultural resources. This explains why they were willing to work for low wages in Buganda. I show that African rural employers were the primary beneficiaries of migrant labour, while colonial governments on both sides of the border were unable to control the course of the flow. As in the first chapter, this chapter highlights that the effects of trade integration on African rural development were uneven, and mediated by differences in resource endowments, local institutions and colonial policies.
The third chapter zooms out of the rural economy, evaluating the broader opportunity structures faced by African men and women in Uganda, and discussing the interaction of local institutions and colonial policies as drivers of uneven educational and occupational opportunities. The chapter engages with a recent article by Meier zu Selhausen and Weisdorf (2016) to show how selection biases in, and Eurocentric interpretations of, parish registers have provoked an overly optimistic account of European influences on the educational and occupational opportunities of African men and women. We confront their dataset, drawn from the marriage registers of the Anglican Cathedral in Kampala, with Uganda’s 1991 census, and show that trends in literacy and numeracy of men and women born in Kampala lagged half a century behind those who wedded in Namirembe Cathedral. We run a regression analysis showing that access to schooling during the colonial era was unequal along lines of gender and ethnicity. We foreground the role of Africans in the spread of education, argue that European influences were not just diffusive but also divisive, and that gender inequality was reconfigured rather than eliminated under colonial rule. This chapter also makes a methodological contribution. The renaissance of African economic history in the past decade has opened up new research avenues to study the long-term social and economic development of Africa. We show that a sensitive treatment of African realities in the evaluation of European colonial legacies, and a critical stance towards the use of new sources and approaches, is crucial.
The fourth chapter singles out the role of resource endowments in explaining Uganda’s ‘cotton revolution’ in a comparative African perspective. Why did some African smallholders adopt cash crops on a considerable scale, while most others were hesitant to do so? The chapter sets out to explore the importance of factor endowments in shaping the degrees to which cash crops were adopted in colonial tropical Africa. We conduct an in-depth case study of the ‘cotton revolution’ in colonial Uganda to put the factor endowments perspective to the test. Our empirical findings, based on an annual panel data analysis at the district-level from 1925 until 1960, underscore the importance of Uganda’s equatorial bimodal rainfall distribution as an enabling factor for its ‘cotton revolution’. Evidence is provided at a unique spatial micro-level, capitalizing on detailed household surveys from the same period. We demonstrate that previous explanations associating the variegated responses of African farmers to cash crops with, either the role of colonial coercion, or the distinction between ‘forest/banana’ and ‘savannah/grain’ zones, cannot explain the widespread adoption of cotton in Uganda. We argue, instead, that the key to the cotton revolution were Uganda’s two rainy seasons, which enabled farmers to grow cotton while simultaneously pursuing food security. Our study highlights the importance of food security and labour seasonality as important determinants of uneven agricultural commercialization in colonial tropical Africa.
The fifth and final chapter further investigates the experience of African smallholders with cotton cultivation, providing a comparative explanatory analysis of variegated cotton outcomes, focusing in particular on the role of colonial and post-colonial policies. The chapter challenges the widely accepted view that (i) African colonial cotton projects consistently failed, that (ii) this failure should be attributed to conditions particular to Africa, which made export cotton inherently unviable and unprofitable to farmers, and that (iii) the repression and resistance often associated with cotton, all resulted from the stubborn and overbearing insistence of colonial governments on the crop per se. I argue along three lines. Firstly, to show that cotton outcomes were diverse, I compare cases of cotton production in Sub-Saharan Africa across time and space. Secondly, to refute the idea that cotton was a priori unattractive, I argue that the crop had substantial potential to connect farmers to markets and contribute to poverty alleviation, particularly in vulnerable, marginal and landlocked areas. Thirdly, to illustrate how an interaction between local conditions and government policies created conducive conditions for cotton adoption, I zoom in on the few yet significant ‘cotton success stories’ in twentieth century Africa. Smallholders in colonial Uganda adopted cotton because of favourable ecological and marketing conditions, and policies had an auxiliary positive effect. Smallholders in post-colonial Francophone West Africa faced much more challenging local conditions, but benefitted from effective external intervention and coordinated policy. On a more general level, this chapter demonstrates that, from a perspective of rural development, colonial policies should not only be seen as overbearing and interventionist, but also as inadequate, failing to aid rural Africans to benefit from new opportunities created by trade integration.
Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients
Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.M. Boom, co-promotor(en): A.J. van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431378 - 188
sugarbeet - leaves - thylakoids - cellulosic fibres - food - surface proteins - food crops - protein extraction - suikerbieten - bladeren - thylakoïden - cellulosevezels - voedsel - oppervlakte-eiwitten - voedselgewassen - eiwitextractie
Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich nutritional profile (e.g. dietary fibres, minerals and secondary metabolites) and consist of complex biological structures (e.g. chloroplastic membranes) that can be explored as novel fractions that ultimately broaden the use of leaves. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore green leaves as a food source, with emphasis on neglected leaf fractions. This thesis describes a processing approach that aims at separating/generating enriched- functional fractions rather than pure components, and highlights the implications for value creation out of green leaves. The extraction of leaf membrane proteins is investigated using a proteomics extraction method, while the properties of other valuable leaf components (complexes and fibres) are analysed for techno-functional applications. Furthermore, the feasibility of leaves as a food source is studied at an industrial scale, considering large scale processing and options for leaf stabilisation.
The extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves is evaluated in Chapter 2 by using a traditional heat coagulation method. The heat treatment is thought to precipitate the insoluble proteins together with fibres, chlorophyll and other components, resulting in a green curd. Therefore, the distribution of soluble and insoluble proteins was followed along the extraction process to discern the effect of the heating step on protein fractionation. This study showed that both soluble and insoluble protein distribute almost evenly over the leaf fractions juice, pulp, supernatant and final pellet. The even distribution of the proteins was attributed to the anatomy of leaves and their biological function, which is predominantly the enzymatic activity related to photosynthesis instead of protein storage, which occurs in other plant tissues. This chapter further concludes that striving for high purity severely compromises the yield, and consequently results in inefficient use of the leave proteins.
Chapter 3 describes the application of proteomic analytical extraction protocols to analyse the fractionation behaviour of leaf proteins. This analysis lead to the translation into food- grade processes based on four fundamental extraction steps: (1) tissue disruption, (2) enzymatic inhibition, (3) removal of interfering compounds, and (4) protein fractionation and purification. Part of these extraction steps can be translated into food-grade alternatives, while the processing conditions determine the potential properties for food of the final products. Nevertheless, it was concluded that harsh and/or non-food grade conditions were required to isolate the leaf membrane proteins with high purity. Those results were explained by the fact that membrane proteins are heterogeneous w.r.t. charge, hydrophobicity, post- translational modification and complexation, leading to non-selective behaviour when compared with a single pool of proteins.
Given the large challenges in isolating membrane proteins from leaves, we studied another approach in which green leaves are considered as a source of naturally structured elements that have relevant techno-functional properties for food products, like the chloroplastic membranes (i.e. thylakoid membranes) and cellulose-rich fibres. Chapter 4 describes the properties of thylakoid membranes and their emulsifying mechanism. These membranes showed surface active properties and their adsorption kinetics were typical for large molecules or soft particles. The thylakoid fragments can effectively stabilise emulsion droplets, even though aggregation was observed already during emulsion preparation and increased with increased thylakoid concentration. Both composition and structure make thylakoid membranes suitable as a biobased material for food and pharma applications.
To continue exploring valuable fractions from leaves, Chapter 5 reports on the interfacial behaviour of cellulose-rich particles obtained from leaf pulp. Cellulosic particles were produced from the pulp obtained after leaf pressing. The particles spontaneous adsorption onto the oil-water interface and interfacial behaviour similar to that of solid particles. Addition of cellulosic particles to oil-in-water emulsions resulted in stable emulsions above a particle concentration of 0.1 w/v%, although phase separation was observed. The particle fines (0.04 – 1.0 µm) stabilised the droplet interface, while large particles formed a network in the continuous phase and rendered a top (green) phase in the emulsions. Finding applications for leaf side streams, like leaf pulp, broadens the options for total leaf processing and contributes to resource use optimisation.
A sustainability assessment of leaf processing is discussed in Chapter 6, considering the challenges that may appear at industrial scale. The seasonal availability of sugar beet plants implies the need of processing large amounts of biomass within a short time due to their high moisture content (85 - 90%) and their sensitivity to spoilage. Processing options were evaluated on their resource use efficiency in terms of energy requirement and exergy indicators. A decentralised process constitutes a good option compared to freezing, since solid side streams can be directly returned the land, leaving nutrients to the soil, and reducing transportation loads. With a decentralised process, freezing of the leaves becomes unnecessary; the leaf juice is transported while chilled, resembling the transportation of fresh milk that is also chill-transported from the farm to a central factory.
Chapter 7 concludes this thesis with a general discussion of the main findings. An integrated process for leaf valorisation is described, which combines the production of functional fractions with the production of bulk products such as protein-rich and fibre-rich fractions. A compilation of data on protein yield and protein purity of fractions obtained from protein crops (e.g. soy, lupine beans, pulses) and from photosynthetic active tissues (e.g., leaves, algae, duckweed) is included. Protein crops reach 50 - 60% protein yield with a protein purity of ~ 90%, whereas leaves and other photosynthetic active tissues reach similar protein purity (60 – 80 w/w% protein) but at much lower yields (10%). We hypothesize that the low yields are due to the small length scale in which protein is structured inside the leaves and the lack of protein storage anatomy in these tissues. Therefore, we conclude that leaf valorisation requires non-conventional approaches that go beyond higher extraction yields but that consider a complete use of the biomass.
Uganda Early Generation Seed Study : Unlocking Pathways for Sustainable Provision of EGS for Food Crops in Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Ntare, Bonny - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-030 ) - 120
seeds - seed quality - food crops - sustainability - farmers - uganda - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - voedselgewassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren - uganda
One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was conducted between October 2015 to March 2016 to analyse pathways for promoting commercial and sustainable production and delivery of EGS. Five crops (hybrid maize, rice, beans, sesame and finger millet) were selected. The analysis provides real examples of potential business models that could scale in a commercially sustainable manner. For areas that are best suited to public sector investment, opportunities for public-private collaboration and increased efficiencies in the sector are outlined. Generalizable principles and recommendations to guide key stakeholders as they pursue policies, investments, and interventions are proposed.
GroentenFruit Huis - Factsheet
Fels, H.J. van der - \ 2015
RIKILT Wageningen UR
tuinbouw - voedselgewassen - pathogene organismen - humane pathogenen - hygiëne - monitoring - gewasbescherming - bedrijfshygiëne - verontreinigingsbeheersing - horticulture - food crops - pathotypes - human pathogens - hygiene - monitoring - plant protection - industrial hygiene - pollution control
Dit topsector PPS project (PPS 296) met een looptijd van 2013 tot en met 2016 heeft als doel inzicht te krijgen in de werkelijke microbiologische risico’s in de Nederlandse voedingstuinbouwsector door te monitoren en, waar nodig, het vaststellen van effectieve beheersmaatregelen. Wat zijn humane pathogenen? Welke mogelijke besmettingsroutes zijn er? Gevaarevaluatie voor telers om mogelijke microbiële gevaren in hun teelt te identificeren. Het sectorale microbiologisch monitoring programma is uitgevoerd om de aanwezigheid van humaan pathogene micro-organismen op/in verse, onbewerkte groenten en fruit te onderzoeken.
Plantenveredeling Domesticatie en voedselzekerheid
Jacobsen, Evert - \ 2015
plant breeding - varieties - domestication - plant breeding methods - genetic variation - food crops - genetic resources - resistance breeding - food security
Onderzoek Schapkwaliteit Biologische Aardappelen
Wijk, C.A.P. van; Spits, H.G. ; Pereira da Silva, F.I.D.G. ; Otma, E.C. ; Gottschall, J. ; Bastiaanssen, J. - \ 2015
Biokennis (PPO rapport 640) - 43
aardappelen - voedselgewassen - consumptieaardappelen - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - biologische productie - kwaliteit na de oogst - behandeling na de oogst - biologische landbouw - biologische voedingsmiddelen - potatoes - food crops - table potatoes - keeping quality - biological production - postharvest quality - postharvest treatment - organic farming - organic foods
Samenvattend verslag van: Onderzoek naar de kwaliteit van biologische aardappelen in het winkelschap, Effect van kiemremmingsproducten op het schapleven, en Effect van licht op vergroening in de retail.
LUMINEX®: fast fluorescent detection : multiplex detection for the agricultural and food industries
Bergervoet, J.H.W. ; Currie, H.T. - \ 2014
precisielandbouw - teeltsystemen - gewasbescherming - voedselgewassen - detectie - enzymimmunoassay - elisa - immunoassay - voedselveiligheid - fluorescentie - precision agriculture - cropping systems - plant protection - food crops - detection - enzyme immunoassay - elisa - immunoassay - food safety - fluorescence
Luminex®: Detection of mycotoxins, pathogenic fungi, proteins, DNA/RNA
Uptake and distribution of iodine in cucumber, sweet pepper, round, and cherry tomato
Voogt, W. ; Steenhuizen, J.W. ; Eveleens, B.A. - \ 2014
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Reports Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horiculture 1329) - 70
glastuinbouw - tomaten - paprika's - komkommers - opname (uptake) - voedselgewassen - jodium - bemesting - meststoffen met sporenelementen - steenwol - recirculatiesystemen - teeltsystemen - greenhouse horticulture - tomatoes - sweet peppers - cucumbers - uptake - food crops - iodine - fertilizer application - trace element fertilizers - rockwool - recirculating systems - cropping systems
Eénderde van de wereldbevolking lijdt aan een tekort aan het essentiële voedingselement jodium. De verrijking van groenten met jodium (biofortificatie) kan dit jodiumtekort helpen voorkomen. Daarom werd het effect bestudeerd van toediening van jodium-verrijkte meststoffen op de jodiumgehalten in komkommer, ronde - en kerstomaten en paprikavruchten, opgekweekt in steenwol met hergebruik van het drainwater.
René van der Vlugt over schade aan landbouwgewassen
Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2014
landbouw - gewasbescherming - plantenvirussen - niet-geclassificeerde plantenvirussen - voedselgewassen - besmetting - kennisniveau - agro-ecologie - ecologie - agriculture - plant protection - plant viruses - unclassified plant viruses - food crops - contamination - knowledge level - agroecology - ecology
In de natuur zijn vele ongetwijfeld heel veel plantenvirussen die niet bij mensen bekend zijn. Maar die visrussen kunnen op een gegeven moment overslaan van de wilde natuur naar landbouwgewassen. Dat kan zorgen voor veel schade en zelfs hongersnoden veroorzaken. Die ‘wilde’ virussen vroegtijdig in de smiezen krijgen is dus bittere noodzaak, bepleit René van der Vlugt, buitengewoon hoogleraar Ecologische plantenvirologie aan Wageningen University.
Eten als de Inca's : Quinoa verovert de wereld
Smit, A. ; Timmer, R.D. ; Loo, E.N. van; Minor, M. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)3. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 34 - 39.
akkerbouw - chenopodium quinoa - voedselgewassen - plantenveredeling - gewasteelt - rassen (planten) - landbouwkundig onderzoek - voedselproductie - nederland - arable farming - chenopodium quinoa - food crops - plant breeding - crop management - varieties - agricultural research - food production - netherlands
Quinoa is immens populair. Dit van oorsprong Zuid-Amerikaanse voedselgewas is wereldwijd aan een opmars bezig. Mede dankzij Wageningse veredelaars is er nu ook quinoa uit Frankrijk, Engeland en Duitsland. En binnenkort misschien ook uit Nederland. ‘Dit wordt een beslissend jaar.’
Perspectives for the growth of salt tolerant cash crops : a case study with potato
Blom-Zandstra, M. ; Wolters, W. ; Heinen, M. ; Roest, C.W.J. ; Smit, A.A.M.F.R. ; Smit, A.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Report / Plant Research International 572) - 36
gevalsanalyse - akkerbouw - zouttolerantie - aardappelen - marktgewassen - brakwater - zoutwaterlandbouw - irrigatiewater - voedselgewassen - teeltsystemen - case studies - arable farming - salt tolerance - potatoes - cash crops - brackish water - saline agriculture - irrigation water - food crops - cropping systems
Aardappel, een zouttolerant voedselgewas, is als testgewas gebruikt om te onderzoeken of productie met beregening met brak- of zoutwater mogelijk is en de invloed op de opbrengst.
Uniformer mondiaal dieet heeft gevolgen voor voedselzekerheid
Struik, P. ; Khoury, C.K. - \ 2014
Bionieuws 24 (2014)5. - ISSN 0924-7734 - p. 10 - 11.
landbouwproductie - voedselgewassen - diversiteit - agricultural production - food crops - diversity
De afgelopen vijftig jaar vonden in het wereldwijde eetpatroon drastische veranderingen plaats, waaronder grotere hoeveelheden oliehoudende gewassen en minder stapelgewassen van regionaal belang. Een wereldwijde studie toont aan dat eetpatronen de afgelopen vijftig jaar op elkaar zijn gaan lijken.
Loo, E.N. van - \ 2014
akkerbouw - chenopodium quinoa - voedselgewassen - rassen (planten) - plantenveredeling - landbouwkundig onderzoek - tests - noord-europa - voeding en gezondheid - arable farming - chenopodium quinoa - food crops - varieties - plant breeding - agricultural research - tests - northern europe - nutrition and health
Over het telen van quinoa in Europa is nog nauwelijks iets bekend. Daarom zijn onderzoekers van Wageningen UR in april 2014 gestart met teeltonderzoek aan quinoa. In het onderzoek worden verschillende quinoarassen vergeleken die specifiek zijn veredeld voor de teelt in Noord-Europa. Kenmerken als ziekteresistentie, optimale zaaitijdtijd, opbrengst en kwaliteit worden getoetst.
The value chain for seed and ware potatoes in Kenya: Opportunities for development
Janssens, S.R.M. ; Wiersema, S.G. ; Goos, H.J.Th. ; wiersma, W. - \ 2013
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI Wageningen UR 13-080) - 57
aardappelen - pootaardappelen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - tropische gewassen - opbrengsten - voedselgewassen - kenya - potatoes - seed potatoes - small farms - tropical crops - yields - food crops - kenya
In Kenya potato is an important food crop, second after maize. Potatoes are grown on 128,000 ha per year with average yields of about 8 tonnes per ha. The yield is far below its po-tential and should be improved to enhance food security. Of all potato growers in Kenya, 98% are characterised as small-scale farmers, producing less than 0.4 ha of potatoes per year per farm (total of two planting seasons). They produce 83% of the national production. Lack of good quality seed is a main reason for low yields. The fast-track seed project aims to improve availability of certified seed. Imported seed needs to be multiplied locally once or twice to reduce the cost price and make it affordable for small-scale growers. It is estimated that there is potential for at most 1,000 ha of professional seed production in Kenya to meet the market demand for certified seed. In Kenya about 98% of ware potatoes are sold for 'fresh' consumption. For industrial processing the most favourable opportunities are the production of crisps and fresh - not frozen - French fries. To change the low-input low-output strategy of many small-scale farmers linkages between producers and markets need to be improved. In the short term, improvement of potato growing and crop management should receive higher priority than storage and mechanisation. Storage and mechanisation should be adapted to local conditions and needs. Two cases have been indicated in which investments in professional cooled storage facilities are necessary; - storage of seed potatoes of varieties with a long dormancy period; - storage of ware potatoes for processing industry and some high-end retailers. Long-term seed storage in modern stores required for varieties with long dormancy increases the cost price of seed by 50% compared with short-term storage in diffused light stores. This makes short dor-mancy an important trait for potato varieties in Kenya, where potatoes are planted during two growing seasons. Machinery supplied for potato growing in Kenya should be geared to local needs. Higher yields and more multiplications of imported seed reduce the cost price of seed potatoes produced in Kenya. The cost price of imported seed after two multiplications is competitive with locally produced seed from minitubers after three multiplications. This report describes the current situation of the potato sector in Kenya and opportunities for further de-velopment. The study focuses on possibilities of the Dutch agribusiness to facilitate these developments. Existing information has been collected, although information on potato production was not easily availa-ble. In addition, during a mission to Kenya stakeholders were visited and interviewed. This resulted in cost- price calculations for seed potato production (short and long-term storage, imported seed and minitubers) and market information.
Managing technological aspects of Lupinus mutabilis from a food sovereignty perspective in Ecuador
Carvajal Larenas, F.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Anita Linnemann; Rob Nout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736789 - 222
lupinus mutabilis - bitterheid - voedselverwerking - voedselgewassen - ecuador - toxiciteit - voedselsoevereiniteit - lupinus mutabilis - bitterness - food processing - food crops - ecuador - toxicity - food sovereignty
The present thesis deals with the technological aspects of the debittering process of lupin in a food sovereignty framework. Of all investigated lupin species,Lupinus mutabilishas the best nutritional composition, which is similar to that of soya bean (Glycine max). Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of many products. In addition, specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display functional properties of industrial interest (as emulsifier, gelling and foaming agent). On the other hand, lupins contain bitter alkaloids that have to be removed prior consumption because are toxic (the fatal acute dose of lupin alkaloids was reported as 10 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) for infants and children, and 25 mg kg-1 bw for adults). However, alkaloids also have medical uses for their hypocholesterolemic, anti-arrhythmic and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins have been detoxified by biological, chemical or aqueous processes. However, our research concentrated on the aqueousprocessing because this is the only way to produce debittered lupin for human consumption in an environment-friendly manner.The process investigated involved soaking, cooking, and washing of the raw seeds. This process showed to be inefficient because it took 5.7 ±1.0 days, used water at almost 62 times the weight of the raw dry and bitter lupine, and caused a 22% loss of total solids, principally fat, minerals, and carbohydrates. In addition, the microbiological quality deteriorated during this debittering process. Mathematical modeling based on Fickian diffusion suggested that the diffusion coefficient of alkaloids would be expected to vary between 10-10 and 10-11 m2s-1 because the process is carried out in unsteady conditions. In this scenario, it was clear that a new technology for debittering lupins is needed. For this purpose ahydro-agitator was designed, built and used to test the effect of different washing conditions on alkaloids content, solids in the product, final weight, processing time and water and energy consumption. Results were modeled and optimal processing conditions were inferred from a technological point of view; the optimum solution comprised 18h of soaking, 1h cooking, 3 changes of water/day and 22h of agitation/day. For estimating the washing time a mathematic function was inferred (∂c / ∂t = kc;k= -0.188- 4.973-3*Agitation – 0.0043 * Changes - 1.681-3 Agitation*Changes). Then, the products obtained from different processing conditions were evaluated by consumers on the basis of their willingness to pay in relation to their appreciation scores and product price. Results were modeled. Treatments with more processing increased the product price and diminished liking level. However, the willingness to pay is the combined effect of both variables. For example, people would accept an increase in price of 0.3$/kg if the liking level increases from “like slightly” to “like moderately”. The new developed technology could be used to optimize processes such as hydration and/or removal of undesired materials of legumes and other seeds. The approach used in this study also seems suitable to estimate relationships between processing conditions, liking, price and willingness to pay in other products. The generated information can be helpful in decision making, such as selection of consumers´ preferred process and liking in relation to pricing.
Blauw maanzaad / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
gewassen - medicinale planten - olieleverende planten - papaver somniferum - planten met oliehoudende zaden - akkerbouw - biobased economy - voedselgewassen - crops - medicinal plants - oil plants - papaver somniferum - oilseed plants - arable farming - biobased economy - food crops
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas blauwmaanzaad. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Veldboon- Fithio Faba / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
tuinbonen - vicia faba - voedergewassen - voedselgewassen - eiwitbronnen - droge bonen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - faba beans - vicia faba - fodder crops - food crops - protein sources - dry beans - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas veldboon. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Quinoa- Chenopodium quinoa / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
chenopodium quinoa - pseudogranen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - gewassen - akkerbouw - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - chenopodium quinoa - pseudocereals - food crops - fodder crops - crops - arable farming - new crops
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas quinoa. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Gele Erwt- Pisum Sativum / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
erwten - pisum sativum - droge bonen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - peas - pisum sativum - dry beans - food crops - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas gele erwt. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie
Blauwe lupine- Lupinus Angustifolius / Eiwit en oliepad
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2012
lupinus angustifolius - lupinen - voedselgewassen - voedergewassen - eiwitbronnen - gewassen - akkerbouw - plantaardig eiwit - humane voeding - lupinus angustifolius - lupins - food crops - fodder crops - protein sources - crops - arable farming - plant protein - human feeding
Factsheet van het Eiwit en Oliepad met korte informatie over het gewas Blauwe lupine. Met het project Eiwit & Oliepad wil Innovatief Platteland samen met de gemeente Venray en andere partners het publiek de gelegenheid geven zich een beeld te vormen van de enorme multifunctionaliteit en de nog steeds verder te ontdekken mogelijkheden van in Europa te telen gewassen als grondstof voor de biobased economie