Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.M.J. Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - internet - nederland - voedselinkoop

In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

Influence consumer behaviour for product development (LEI Wageningen UR)
Reinders, M.J. - \ 2015
LEI Wageningen UR
product development - marketing - marketing policy - marketing techniques - food merchandising - food advertising - consumer attitudes - food acceptability - consumer behaviour - food technology - productontwikkeling - marketingbeleid - marketingtechnieken - reclamecampagne van voedsel - levensmiddelenreclame - houding van consumenten - voedselacceptatie - consumentengedrag - voedseltechnologie
LEI Wageningen UR can give you insights to better understand consumer considerations and to integrate them in your product development. Please contact Machiel Reinders from LEI Wageningen UR for more information.
Naar een gezondere voedselkeuze
Winter, M.A. de; Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2010
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 2010 (2010)14/15. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 26 - 28.
voedselconsumptie - consumentengedrag - levensstijl - voedingsgewoonten - reclamecampagne van voedsel - gezondheidsgevaren - gedragsveranderingen - gezondheidsbescherming - westerse wereld - voeding en gezondheid - food consumption - consumer behaviour - lifestyle - feeding habits - food merchandising - health hazards - behavioural changes - health protection - western world - nutrition and health
Meer wetenschappelijk onderzoek met inbegrip van keiharde data om onderbouwd en gericht maatregelen te kunnen nemen. Dat was de belangrijkste aanbeveling uit een bijzonder rondetafelgesprek, gehouden op initiatief van Wageningen UR en Ahold. Een internationale groep topmensen uit de industrie, universiteit en onderzoekswereld inventariseerde de redenen waarom er in de westerse wereld steeds minder gezond wordt gegeten en formuleerde oplossingsrichtingen om mensen aan te zetten tot een gezondere voedselkeuze. Aanwezig waren onder meer Gerda Verburg (minister LNV), Louise Fresco (Universiteit van Amsterdam) en Frans Kok (Wageningen Universiteit).
Deliverable 1.2.7: Cross-cultural benefit segmentation of consumers
Reinders, M.J. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Berg, I. van den; Jasiulewicz, A. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Guerrero, L. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 80
fruit - consumentenvoorkeuren - voeding en gezondheid - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedselconsumptie - perceptie - levensstijl - reclamecampagne van voedsel - fruit - consumer preferences - nutrition and health - food marketing - food consumption - perception - lifestyle - food merchandising
The present report, deliverable D.1.2.7, gives a final view of the work done in ISAFruit Work Package (WP) 1.2. Average Europe fruit consumption is below the recommended level and moreover the consumption level is still decreasing in Europe. A large survey was carried out in four European countries that consisted of questions regarding the importance consumers attach to food related benefits in general and for specific situations, personal orientations of the consumers, personal characteristics of the consumers, the perception of fruit products, and the fruit consumption behaviour of the consumers. A cross-cultural benefit situation segmentation was conducted. Based on the results of this cross-cultural benefit segmentation two scientific papers are presented.
Ik Kies Bewust; Effecten van het logo op het koopgedrag
Kornelis, M. ; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld Consument & gedrag ) - ISBN 9789086154159 - 49
etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - consumentenvoorkeuren - consumentengedrag - effecten - gezondheidsbevordering - keuzegedrag - voeding en gezondheid - nutrition labeling - food merchandising - consumer preferences - consumer behaviour - effects - health promotion - choice behaviour - nutrition and health
Dit rapport beschrijft de effecten van het Ik Kies Bewust-logo in de markt. Daarbij wordt gekeken of en in welke mate de vraag naar de producten met het Ik Kies Bewust-logo groter wordt en welke effecten dit heeft op de vraag naar andere producten in diezelfde of andere productcategorieën.
Verhaal rond tomaat en gebruik beter uitdragen (interview met o.a. Wouter Verkerke)
Visser, P. ; Verkerke, W. - \ 2009
Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 2009 (2009)28. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 14 - 15.
tomaten - smakelijkheid - testen - smaakpanels - consumentenonderzoeken - consumentengedrag - marketing - reclamecampagne van voedsel - tomatoes - palatability - testing - taste panels - consumer surveys - consumer behaviour - marketing - food merchandising
Discussie over de smaak van tomaten en de promotiekansen van de geselecteerde speciality-tomaten
De consument overtuigen: meer dan een norm opleggen
Melnyk, V. ; Kornelis, M. ; Herpen, E. van - \ 2008
Voeding Nu 10 (2008)6. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 25 - 27.
consumenten - consumentenonderzoeken - verkoopbevordering - reclamecampagne van voedsel - normen - consumers - consumer surveys - sales promotion - food merchandising - standards
Beleidsmakers besteden jaarlijks miljoenen euro's aan campagnes om mensen over te halen zich volgens gewenste normen te gedragen. Bijvoorbeeld om hen aan te zetten om vooral gezonde voedselproducten te kopen, om te stoppen met roken of om milieuvriendelijke verpakkingen te kiezen. Maar of die boodschap ook aankomt, is afhankelijk van meerdere factoren. Onlangs is onderzoek gedaan naar de effectiviteit van normen in samenhang met de mate waarin de consument een boodschap bewust op zich in laat werken
Fruit Promotion Campaigns in Europe
Zimmermann, K.L. ; Kozarzewska, M.A. - \ 2008
reclamecampagne van voedsel - verkoopbevordering - fruit - groenten - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - voedselconsumptie - food merchandising - sales promotion - fruit - vegetables - food marketing - food consumption
General result and general conclusions of analyzing fruit and vegetables'promotion campaigns in European countries, which aim at increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables among the citizens of EU 27 and other European countries
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