Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Modelling the formation of heat-induced contaminants during thermal processing of food
Nguyen, H.T. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Ine van der Fels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574588 - 172
voedsel - maillard-reactie - voedselbereiding - acrylamiden - voedselbesmetting - gezondheidsgevaren - modellen - food - maillard reaction - food preparation - acrylamides - food contamination - health hazards - models

Many of our food products have undergone a heat-treatment before consumption, either at home or at the food industry. Heat treatments not only bring out desired characteristics of the food products such as flavour, texture, taste and safety aspects but also leads to the formation of undesired compounds that may have negative impacts for human health. Such undesired compounds that are generated from the Maillard reaction are neo-formed food contaminants (NFC). NFC are present in many common heat-processed foods, such as potatoes-based products, cereal-based products, baby foods, and dairy products. Therefore, effective mitigation measures are being developed to minimize the generation of such undesired compounds while maintaining the organoleptic attributes of the food products as consumer’s demands. This thesis aimed at understanding the mechanistic pathways for the formation of three neo-formed food contaminants: acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), using multireponse kinetic modelling.

First, the topic of the Maillard reaction, occurrence and human exposure to the three NFC in heated foods, and multiresponse kinetic modelling is introduced. Then, scientific literature on analytical methods, formation pathways, occurrence in processed foods, and health impacts of CML was reviewed. Based on the literature, an experiment was set up to understand the formation pathway for CML in caseinate-lactose/glucose solutions, each heated at 120oC and 130oC. According to the best fitting mechanistic model, the formation of CML in the two model solutions originated from the reaction between lactose/glucose and lysine residues via the Amadori rearrangement product formation. Moreover, glucose and lactose were degraded via Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein (LA) arrangement. CML seems to be not thermally stable, and may thus not be an optimal indicator for heat damage of foods.

Another experiment was done for gaining insights into the formation of acrylamide and HMF in biscuits during baking at 200oC. Four biscuit recipes were prepared with three sugar types: (1) sucrose (35 g), (2) glucose (17.5 g) and fructose (17.5 g), (3) fructose (17.5 g), and (4) glucose. The molar ratio of total glucose and fructose to asparagine in each type of biscuit was higher than 1. The concentrations of acrylamide and HMF were lowest in the sucrose-prepared biscuits. Kinetic modelling results suggested that during baking of these four kinds of biscuits, acrylamide was formed via the specific amino acid route, i.e., a reducing sugar reacts with asparagine to form the Schiff base without the Amadori product formation (not via Strecker degradation), and that HMF was formed via caramelisation. Fructose played a key role in the formation of both acrylamide and HMF.

In a similar experiment, the effects of different types of wheat flour on acrylamide and HMF formation in sucrose-prepared biscuits during baking at 200oC were investigated. Four types of wheat flour, which had the most different concentrations of asparagine, and total glucose and fructose (the reducing sugar), were selected for the preparation of four kinds of biscuits. Out of four wheat flour types, two had the molar ratio of reducing sugars to asparagine lower than 1, and the other two had a ratio higher than 1. Results showed that those different molar ratios in wheat flour did not have effects on the pathways leading to the formation of acrylamide and HMF in all four types of biscuits. Acrylamide was formed via the specific amino acid route, and HMF was formed via caramelisation. No clear correlation was found between the concentration of either acrylamide or HMF in biscuits and the concentration of asparagine or the reducing sugars in wheat flour. Asparagine was not a limiting factor for acrylamide generation in biscuits.

The outcomes of this thesis give insights into the actual reaction pathways for the formation of acrylamide and HMF in biscuits during baking at 200oC and for the formation of CML in the model solutions. These modelling results may help to control the formation of these NFCs in a quantitative way.

Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia
Nugrahedi, P.Y. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): B. Widianarko; Matthijs Dekker; Ruud Verkerk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573048 - 155
glucosinolaten - bladgroenten - thermische afbraak - chemische samenstelling - voedselbereiding - kookmethoden - fermentatie - indonesië - glucosinolates - leafy vegetables - thermal degradation - chemical composition - food preparation - cooking methods - fermentation - indonesia


Glucosinolates during preparation of Brassica vegetables in Indonesia

Dutch translation of title:

Effecten van Indonesische bereidingsmethoden op gezondheidsbevorderende stoffen in groenten

Title/description for non-professionals:

Effects of Indonesian preparation methods on health promoting compounds in vegetables


Stir-frying, one of the most popular method to prepare Brassica vegetables in Indonesia, can retain the content of the alleged health promoting glucosinolates. Meanwhile, long-term steaming and fermentation considerably reduce the glucosinolate content. By analysing the mechanisms underlying glucosinolate changes during preparation, alternative procedures or conditions to enhance the retention of glucosinolates were proposed. For fermentation, prior inactivation of myrosinase enzyme resulted in a higher retention of glucosinolate. For steaming, a reduction of the steaming time was shown beneficial to have a higher glucosinolate content. A mathematical modelling approach was successfully applied to describe the effects of variation in the conditions and processes on the glucosinolate content of products and to optimise them in order to get a more optimal glucosinolate content in the prepared products. Besides improvement of the content of vegetable products, the present study also yields important information to make a more accurate estimation of the dietary intake of glucosinolates in prepared dishes. Such estimation is important for establishing the relation between intake of phytochemicals and health effects like reducing the risk of certain diseases.

Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter
Honfo, G.F. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; M.M. Soumanou, co-promotor(en): Anita Linnemann. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572737 - 237
sheaboter - voedselbereiding - plantaardige vetten - warmtebehandeling - extractie - inheemse kennis - kwaliteit - achteruitgang (deterioration) - benin - vitellaria paradoxa - shea butter - food preparation - plant fats - heat treatment - extraction - indigenous knowledge - quality - deterioration - benin - vitellaria paradoxa


The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and in cosmetic products as well as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate in others areas of Africa and at the international level. The butter is generally extracted by traditional methods, which vary throughout the production zones but involve some common processing operations viz. boiling of the fresh nuts, sun drying, shelling, crushing, roasting, milling, churning, and heating. This thesis investigated the influence of traditional processing of shea on quality attributes of shea kernels and butter.

The results showed that 2 mains techniques (differing in the heat treatment applied to the fresh nuts) are used to process shea fruits after their collection: the boiling followed by sun drying technique and the smoking technique. Boiled and sundried kernels contained a higher fat content (48 % dw) and yielded more butter (30 % of kernel mass) than smoked kernels that had a fat content of 39 % dw. The butter extracted from the boiled kernels had a better quality than the butter from smoked kernels with respect to the unsaponifiable fraction (7 %), tocopherol compounds (125 mg/g), peroxide value (8 meq O2/kg), and FFA (2 %). Some processing operations, namely the storage of fresh nuts as related to their boiling time and the roasting of kernels, were optimized using the response surface method to design the experiments. The conditions to obtain an optimal quality of kernels are to store the nuts for 3 days and boil them for 28 ± 3 min. Subsequently, optimal roasting conditions for kernels were found to be 15 min at 171 ºC, which resulted in kernels with a fat content of 49 % dw, a butter yield of 32 %, and butter with a FFA of 1.2 %. The results also revealed that shea butter extracted from roasted kernels contained more volatile compounds (58) than that from unroasted kernels (27). Additionally, storage temperature and storage duration significantly affected some quality characteristics of shea butter, whereas the influence of local packaging materials was less pronounced

Shea processors are advised to process shea fruits by integrating the optimal conditions of storage of fresh nuts, boiling and roasting found in this research, then pack the butter in clean and opaque plastic and store it in a relatively cool area to maintain the quality of the product during prolonged storage periods. Areas for future research were identified for further improvements of local shea processing.

Buitenland vult duurzaamheid anders in
Kannekens, E. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
V-focus 11 (2014)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
varkensvlees - voedselbereiding - varkenshouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - diergezondheid - houding van consumenten - vleesproductie - pigmeat - food preparation - pig farming - sustainability - animal health - consumer attitudes - meat production
Voedsel maakt een belangrijk deel uit van het culturele erfgoed. Veel van de gebruiken, bereidingswijzen en waardering van de dagelijkse maaltijd zijn ingegeven vanuit traditie en cultuur. De culturele verschillen in beleving van varkensvlees zijn niet alleen terug te zien bij de consument, ook in de productieketen zijn deze verschillen duidelijk zichtbaar. Dit bleek tijdens het vierde Expert Forum on Sustainable Pork Production dat dit jaar plaatsvond in Amsterdam.
The insect cookbook : food for a sustainable planet
Huis, A. van; Gurp, H. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
New York : Columbia University Press - ISBN 9780231166843 - 191
insecten als voedsel - kookboeken - eten koken - recepten - maaltijden - voedselbereiding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - insects as food - cookery books - cooking - recipes - meals - food preparation - sustainability
In The Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home yet boasting the international flair of the world’s most chic dishes. The book features delicious recipes and interviews with top chefs, insect farmers, political figures, and nutrition experts, including chef René Redzepi, whose establishment was elected three times as “best restaurant of the world”; Kofi Annan, former secretary-general of the United Nations; and Daniella Martin of Girl Meets Bug. The book contains all you need to know about cooking with insects, where to buy them, which ones are edible, and how to store and prepare them at home and in commercial spaces.
Smakelijk eten : aandacht voor eten bij het Leger des Heils
Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Klein Gebbink, S.A. ; Boogaard, K. van den; Delahay, E. ; Borgijink, J. ; Heuvel, E. van den; Houtman, J. ; Kleeven, N. ; Koenders, L. ; Saris, A. ; Steeghs, V. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 266) - ISBN 9789085851974 - 44
voedselafval - maaltijd-, drank- en logiesverstrekking - maaltijden - kook-koel systeem - kookmethoden - voedselbereiding - voedselverspilling - food wastes - hospitality industry - meals - cook-chill system - cooking methods - food preparation - food wastage
Het Leger des Heils wil meer aandacht voor eten. Het wil voedselverspilling tegengaan door reststromen voedsel uit de voedselindustrie te gebruiken bij de productie van warme maaltijden en waar mogelijk de kwaliteit en beleving van maaltijden verbeteren. Het voorliggend onderzoek gaat in op mogelijkheden om deze ambitie te bereiken.
Het insectenkookboek
Huis, A. van; Gurp, H. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2012
Amsterdam [etc.] : ATLAS - ISBN 9789045020310 - 191
insecten als voedsel - kookboeken - eten koken - recepten - maaltijden - voedselbereiding - insects as food - cookery books - cooking - recipes - meals - food preparation
Insecten zijn lekker en gezond. Tachtig procent van de wereldbevolking eet ze als delicatesse. Insecten zijn niet alleen een smakelijk en veelzijdig ingredient in de keuken, ze zitten ook vol eiwitten. Bovendien is het kweken van insecten veel duurzamer dan de productie van vlees. In Nederland en Belgie kun je inmiddels sprinkhanen, meelwormen en buffalowormen voor culinair gebruik kopen. Het Insectenkookboek bevat naast heerlijke recepten ook tal van wetenswaardigheden en interviews met topkoks, kwekers en voedingsdeskundigen.
Variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries : effects of control measures in food service establishments
Sanny, M.A.I. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731432 - 199
patates frites - acrylamiden - frituren - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteitszorg - voedselbereiding - chips (french fries) - acrylamides - deep fat frying - quality controls - quality management - food preparation

The aim of this thesis was first to identify the major technological and managerial factors and to investigate their contribution to variation in acrylamide concentrations. The second aim was to investigate the effect of technological and managerial control measures on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in the preparation of French fries in food service establishments (FSE). The variation ininitial concentration of reducing sugars, variable frying conditions and food handler’s inadequate control of these factors in their daily practice could lead to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations. The least variation in acrylamide was found in French fries prepared in chain fast-food services (CFS) compared to institutional caterers(IC) and restaurants, although the mean concentration of acrylamide among the three FSE types was not significantly different. The variation in frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide, followed by the variation in frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and variable frying practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in restaurants. Lowering the concentration of reducing sugars in par-fried potato strips can be an effective control measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries, but only if prepared under standardised frying conditions in CFS and IC. Frying instructions were shown to support food handlers’ decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175oC, although an inconsistent effect of the instructions on the food handlers’ decisions to end frying was observed. The mean concentration of acrylamide for the restaurants as a group was not significantly different, but data analysis for each restaurant showed that if the food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower compared to before instructions.

Urenlang garen wordt secondenwerk
Matser, A.M. - \ 2011
Kennis Online 8 (2011)1. - p. 6 - 6.
eten koken - snelheid - elektriciteit - pulsators - voedselbereiding - voedseltechnologie - huishoudelijke uitrusting - cooking - velocity - electricity - food preparation - food technology - household equipment
Het is geen magnetron, de door het Schalkwijkse bedrijf OMVE en het Wageningse onderzoeksinstituut Food & Biobased Research ontwikkelde Nutri-Pulse. Maar in de nabije toekomst vervangt het apparaat in onze keukens misschien wel die magnetron. Een uitvoering van de Nutri-Pulse is al op de markt. Niet voor consumenten, maar voor grootkeukens.
Leer kind veilig koken
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van - \ 2009
Kennis Online 6 (2009)dec. - p. 3 - 3.
voedselveiligheid - eten koken - voedselbereiding - kinderen - food safety - cooking - food preparation - children
Hoe goed producenten hun best ook doen, het valt nooit uit te sluiten dat er enkele ziekmakende bacteriën in een product zitten. Consumenten moeten in de keuken dus schoon blijven werken en ze moeten er ook steeds aan worden herinnerd, maakt Coen van Wagenberg van het LEI duidelijk. Omdat dit soort keukenhandelingen gewoontegedrag is, moet je kinderen al aanrechtmanieren leren
Een onderzoeksagenda naar de relatie tussen voedselrisico en consumentengedrag
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Winter, M.A. de; Asselt, E.D. van; Fischer, A.R.H. - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - 29
voedselbesmetting - microbiële besmetting - voedselveiligheid - voedselbereiding - houding van consumenten - gedragsveranderingen - risicovermindering - voeding en gezondheid - food contamination - microbial contamination - food safety - food preparation - consumer attitudes - behavioural changes - risk reduction - nutrition and health
Current government policy is striving to reduce the microbial contamination of foods to zero level. However, it is possible that consumers who perceive lower risks of contracting foodborne diseases will take less care of foods. A literature study was carried out to review scientific knowledge about the consequences of the reduction of foodborne infections to a zero level for consumer cooking behaviour. A workshop was then organised to determine the research agenda for this subject
Inbakverlies biologisch varkensvlees : verschil tussen gangbare en biologische filetlapjes
Stegeman, D. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group (Rapport / Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group 815) - ISBN 9789085851370 - 21
varkensvlees - biologische voedingsmiddelen - voedselproducten - vleeskwaliteit - gewichtsverliezen - voedselbereiding - bakken (in de pan) - vergelijkend onderzoek - pigmeat - organic foods - food products - meat quality - weight losses - food preparation - frying - comparative research
Binnen de biologische sector wordt door meerdere betrokkenen aangegeven dat het gewichtsverlies dat optreedt tijdens het bakken van vlees, het 'inbakverlies', bij biologisch varkensvlees lager is dan bij regulier varkensvlees. Hiervoor is, zover bekend, nog nooit eenduidig wetenschappelijk bewijs voor aangedragen. Om een eerste idee te krijgen of er verschillen zijn in inbakverlies en hoe groot deze verschillen kunnen zijn is dit kleinschalige onderzoek opgezet. Als modelproduct is binnen deze studie onderzoek verricht aan varkensfiletlapjes, een product dat zowel biologisch als gangbaar in deze vorm of met bot in de vorm van een karbonade geconsumeerd wordt
Met yacòn de boer op : vaststellen van de grenzen aan bruikbaarheid, verwerkbaarheid en geschiktheid van yacòn
Braaksma, A. ; Heijden, C.H.T.M. van der - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 233) - ISBN 9789085850755 - 20
groenten - wortelgewassen als groente - productontwikkeling - beschrijvingen - recepten - voedselbereiding - verkleuring - inuline - asteraceae - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - vegetables - root vegetables - product development - descriptions - recipes - food preparation - discoloration - inulin - new crops
Verkenningen voor een veerkrachtige pluimveevleesproductie
Houwers, H.W.J. ; Leenstra, F.R. ; Lokhorst, C. ; Ruth, J.A. van; Jong, I.C. de; Top, M. van den - \ 2004
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 308) - ISBN 9067548707 - 84
pluimveevlees - pluimveehouderij - marketing - tendensen - consumentengedrag - voedselbereiding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - innovaties - dierenwelzijn - ketenmanagement - toekomst - poultry meat - poultry farming - trends - consumer behaviour - food preparation - sustainability - innovations - animal welfare - supply chain management - future
Zonne-energie is bruikbaar
Leeuw, M. de; Wagenberg, V. van - \ 2002
Praktijkkompas. Varkens 16 (2002)4. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 12 - 13.
zonne-energie - varkens - varkenshouderij - zonnecollectoren - energiebronnen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - brijvoedering - varkensvoeding - biggenvoeding - voedselbereiding - verwarmingssystemen - verwarmingsapparatuur - zonne-energieverwarming - verwarming - kosten - kosten-batenanalyse - investering - solar energy - pigs - pig farming - solar collectors - energy sources - farm management - wet feeding - pig feeding - piglet feeding - food preparation - heating systems - heaters - solar heating - heating - costs - cost benefit analysis - investment
Verwarmen van brijvoer als nieuwe toepassing
Characterization of changes in potato tissue during cooking in relation to texture development
Marle, N. van - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Voragen. - S.l. : Van Marle - ISBN 9789054856610 - 141
solanum tuberosum - aardappelen - voedingsmiddelen - chemische samenstelling - voedselbereiding - eten koken - celwanden - kookkunst - celinteracties - solanum tuberosum - potatoes - foods - chemical composition - food preparation - cooking - cell walls - cookery - cell interactions

Texture of cooked potatoes is an important quality aspect. The diversity in texture types was sensory evaluated. Most of the differences between texture types could be explained by differences between mealy and non-mealy characteristics. Furthermore, cultivars with similar mealy/non-mealy characteristics could be discriminated on basis of firmness of cooked potato tissue.

Cryo-scanning electron microscopy showed differences in intercellular contact and appearance of cell walls between fracture planes of cooked tissue from mealy and non- mealy cooking potato cultivars. Therefore, further research was focused on structure and composition of cell walls from the mealy cooking cv. Irene and the nonmealy cooking cv. Nicola.

The degradation of middle lamellae during cooking was determined by recording the release of pectic material in cooking media. It was found that a given percentage release of pectic material results in more cell sloughing for cv. Irene than for cv. Nicola.

Firstly, the effect of differences in ionic conditions in cell walls and middle lamellae on the degradation of pectic material was studied by recording the transfer of calcium, potassium and citrate during cooking of potato tissue. The transfer rates of potassium and citrate for cv. Irene are lower than expected in comparison with cv. Nicola. Calcium showed a deviant behaviour, since 80% of the calium initially present remains in tissue during cooking.

Furthermore, composition and structure of the pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls and middle lamellae of both cultivars were studied. Although, isolated cell wall material has a comparable molar composition for both cultivars, different types of pectic polysaccharides are solubilized during cooking.

The structure of pectic polysaccharides; was further elucidated using chemical fractionation and enzymic degradation. It is proposed that the pectin matrix in the primary cell wall of cv. Irene had a thicker and/or less porous structure than the matrix in the cell wall of cv. Nicola. Additionally, the primary cell wall of cv. Irene has a more dense and/or thicker cellulose-xyloglucan network than the primary cell wall of cv. Nicola.

Bereiding en kwaliteit van biologische voedingsmiddelen; samenvatting.
Duysens, M. - \ 1997
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 125) - ISBN 9789067545150 - 16
voedselbereiding - eten koken - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - maaltijden - borden - alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - kwaliteit - prestatieniveau - inspectie - huishoudens - voedselbewaring thuis - voedselopslag - ovens - kachels - keukengerei - groenten - groenteteelt - alternatieve methoden - food preparation - cooking - food - foods - meals - dishes - alternative farming - organic farming - quality - performance - inspection - households - home food preservation - food storage - stoves - cooking utensils - vegetables - vegetable growing - alternative methods
Voedingskwaliteit van biologische voedingsmiddelen; effecten van de bereidingswijze in de magnetron, op gas en inductiekookplaat.
Brouwer, N.M. ; Duysens, M.M.A. ; Beekman, W. ; Huber, M.A.S. ; Wijk, R. van - \ 1997
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 141) - ISBN 9789067545129 - 122
voedselbereiding - eten koken - voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - maaltijden - borden - alternatieve landbouw - biologische landbouw - kwaliteit - prestatieniveau - inspectie - huishoudens - voedselbewaring thuis - voedselopslag - ovens - kachels - keukengerei - groenten - groenteteelt - voedingswaarde - voedselsamenstelling - eigenschappen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - kookkunst - alternatieve methoden - food preparation - cooking - food - foods - meals - dishes - alternative farming - organic farming - quality - performance - inspection - households - home food preservation - food storage - stoves - cooking utensils - vegetables - vegetable growing - nutritive value - food composition - properties - organic foods - cookery - alternative methods
Onderzoek naar de kwaliteit van koelverse en diepvriesmaaltijden
Egmond, H.J. van; Labrijn, J.F. - \ 1996
Wageningen : RIKILT-DLO (Rapport / DLO-Rijkskwaliteitsinstituut voor Land- en Tuinbouwprodukten 96.07) - 11
voedselbewaring thuis - voorbereide voedingsmiddelen - voorgekookt voedsel - voedselkwaliteit - home food preservation - prepared foods - precooked foods - food quality - food preparation - meals - freezing - nutritive value - foods - quality - convenience foods
In opdracht van de Consumentenbond zijn in de maanden september en oktober 1995, 22 monsters koelverse maaltijden en 16 monsters diepvriesmaaltijden onderzocht. De 38 maaltijden varieerden van lasagne, bami goreng, tortellini, andijvie, kip-kerrie tot chili con carne. Het chemisch onderzoek betrof het vocht-, vet-, eiwit-, as-, ruwe celstof-, zout-, vitamine C-, 81- en 82-gehalte. Het totaal-koolhydraatgehalte en de voedingswaarde zijn berekend. Microscopisch is de samenstelling (% verschillende ingrediênten) bepaald.
Growing interest in minimal processing (in Dutch)
Bartels, P.V. - \ 1996
Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 29 (1996)26. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 66 - 68.
koeling - eten koken - koelen - voedselbereiding - voedselbewaring - voedingsmiddelen - kookkunst - chilling - cooking - cooling - food preparation - food preservation - foods - cookery
Levensmiddelen met een hoge isostatische druk (HID). De conservering berust op de afdodende werking van hoge druk op micro-organismen. Het minimaal verwerken van grondstoffen tot koelverse maaltijdingredienten
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