Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H.H. Wesseler, co-promotor(en): D. Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven
This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.
The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.
The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.
Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.
In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.
Adding value through health claims: an empirical analysis of the Italian yogurt market
Bimbo, Francesco - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Alessandro Bonanno. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434508 - 130
milk products - yoghurt - food products - health foods - business economics - consumer preferences - nutrition labeling - italy - europe - melkproducten - yoghurt - voedselproducten - gezondheidsvoedsel - bedrijfseconomie - consumentenvoorkeuren - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - italië - europa
In recent years policymakers have aimed to increase the general awareness regarding the link between diet and health, providing food companies with an opportunity to add health-enhancing features in order to differentiate their products. The European market of these products, referred to here as functional foods, is regulated according to the European regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims on foods.
Even though the European functional foods’ market has grown steadily over the last 20 years, more than 3 out of 4 new functional products are withdrawn from the market within two years from launch. Indeed, firms have to overcome three main obstacles to market health-enhancing products successfully. First, consumer-related factors, such as the heterogeneity of consumer acceptance of, and preferences for, new functional products; second, firms' difficulties in selecting the optimal attribute profiles to meet consumer demand for health features and; third, firms' difficulties to target consumers with a high enough willingness to pay to ensure the profitability of those investments needed to develop and market functional products.
The general objective of this thesis is to assess quantitatively the implicit price of health claims as well as to generate new knowledge that will inform firms on how to target consumers with higher WTP for functional products.
This thesis uses the Italian yogurt market as a case study for three reasons. First, yogurt is considered intrinsically healthy and it is one of the most credible carriers of functional ingredients: the category of fermented functional dairy accounts for nearly 43 per cent of the total functional products’ market. Second, among European countries, Italy saw the launch of the highest number (592) of new healthy products in the period 2005-2009; the majority of the new products introduced were functional yogurts benefiting digestive health (336), the immune system (99) and cardiovascular health (65). Third, the Italian yogurt market is characterized by a high level of differentiation with respect of health attributes, with manufacturers offering a variety of products carrying health claims, appearing suitable to analyze the problem at hand.
The results of this thesis show that in the Italian yogurt market the implicit prices of “risk reduction” claim is higher than that of “general function” ones (respectively, +222.6% vs +85.5% of the baseline alternative’s price in the case of cholesterol reduction health claim), and in three out of four cases, health claims supported by familiar brands have higher implicit price than those supported by less-familiar ones. Those results confirm findings collected in the systematic literature review which highlights a consensus that claims supported by familiar brands as well as “risk reduction” (vis-à-vis “general function”) ones increase consumers’ acceptance of functional dairy products. The results also point out that “natural” and “organic” claims lead to implicit prices which are (approximately) +46.6% and +102.0% over the price of the baseline alternative, comparable to those of some of the health claims. Other results indicate that manufacturers operating in the Italian yogurt market investing in credence attributes (health claims, organic and natural) gain the ability to target consumers with higher WTP by including two or more products carrying credence attribute in their portfolio. Lastly, the findings of this thesis reveal that consumers’ body image dissatisfaction, along with not reading food labels and lower knowledge about leading functional yogurt brands, are associated with lower number of functional yogurt packages purchased by Italian yogurt consumers using a virtual shelf setting.
Feeding Dar es Salaam: a symbiotic food system perspective
Wegerif, Marc C.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): P.G.M. Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432061 - 291
agricultural society - rural society - farmers' markets - food products - agricultural products - supermarkets - rice - grain - tanzania - east africa - agrarische samenleving - plattelandssamenleving - boerenmarkten - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - supermarkten - rijst - graan - tanzania - oost-afrika
This thesis is a sociological analysis of the agri-food system that feeds most of the over four and a half million residents of the fast-growing city of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. It is based on qualitative research that has generated a picture of the food system that supplies the important foods for the majority of residents of the city. The research took an actor orientated approach and started from urban eaters and then followed the food back through retailers, processors and transporters to the primary producers. Methodological lessons are derived from this process in particular the elaboration of the ‘ride-along’ as a research method. Foods followed include maize, rice, potatoes, green vegetables, eggs and milk. Other foods such as beef and chicken have also been touched on especially in relation to marketing and slaughtering operations.
Instead of dismissing what has been found as ‘informal’ or trying to fit it into structuralist paradigms, from orthodox economic or political economy perspectives, I have applied a grounded theory approach in seeking to understand the core ordering principles and rationality of this system that has shown a remarkable resilience over many years. Of particular interest, especially when looking at the functioning of market places and how new actors enter into the food system, is that more important to the food system than competition are various forms of collaboration.
This study comes at a time when global food production and distribution is dominated by powerful transnational corporations through an agro-industrial food system that is widely critiqued for its negative environmental and social impacts. Many argue that this industrial food system is unsustainable, yet its expansion can seem inevitable and alternatives are seen by many as incapable of feeding the world’s growing and increasingly urban population. ‘Value chain’ interventions have become popular among ‘development’ practitioners and policy makers seeking to integrate more producers into the global industrial food system rather than challenging that food system.
What I have found, and present in this thesis, is a ‘symbiotic food system’ made up of multitudes of small-scale and interdependent actors that produce the food and get it to urban eaters at a city feeding scale. They do this without any vertically - or horizontally -integrated corporate structures nor with government planning and organization of the food system. This food system responds well to the needs of urban eaters, especially those in poverty, and to the interests and circumstances of small scale food producers. It is a food system that outperforms value chain interventions in returns to producers and value to eaters and has social, economic and environmental advantages when compared to the agro-industrial and corporate dominated system. This challenges assumptions that corporate food chains are necessary, or desirable, to feed cities sustainably. The symbiotic food system that feeds Dar es Salaam is not perfect, but it is working and I believe worthy of further research and interventions to create a more enabling environment for such foods systems to flourish in Tanzania and elsewhere.
What if the trucks stop coming? : exploring the framing of local food by cooperative food retailers in New Mexico
Constance, Cheron Z. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): L.G. Horlings; L. Shaw. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431941 - 261
food - agricultural products - cooperatives - cooperative farm enterprises - food products - new mexico - voedsel - landbouwproducten - coöperaties - coöperatieve landbouwbedrijven - voedselproducten - new mexico
Proponents of local food cite a variety of economic and environmental advantages of short food supply chains. Consumer interest in local food has also offered a point of differentiation for many players in the food industry, including restaurants and grocery stores. Engaging with local food has significant challenges, however, and many production and distribution systems engender and support more diffuse food provisioning, not less. Though food can travel thousands of miles from its point of origin to consumption, many cooperative (co-op) grocery stores have long sold locally-produced food and have deep ties to their supplier communities. This thesis offers case studies of two co-ops in the natural and organic food sector and examines how they think about and work with local food. The theories of embeddedness (after Polanyi) and diverse economies (from Gibson-Graham) undergird the analyses of these co-ops’ involvement with local food and how the cooperative business model relates to it.
Determination of phomopsin-A in lupin seeds and lupin-derived products : results of an interlaboratory validation study
Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.004) - 45
lupins - food products - determination - food analysis - phomopsins - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxins - lupinen - voedselproducten - bepaling - voedselanalyse - phomopsinen - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxinen
An interlaboratory study was performed for the determination of phomopsin A in lupin seeds and lupin derived products. This was done in the frame of the 2nd Standardization Mandate (M/520) in the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food, which had been issued by the European Commission in the framework of the Regulation EC 882/2004. The study was organized and carried out in accordance with collaborative study guidelines of AOAC. Test materials (seeds, flour, bakery product) were prepared by addition of naturally contaminated lupin seeds.
Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation
Shao, Qianqian - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Justus Wesseler, co-promotor(en): Maarten Punt; Dusan Drabik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430500 - 200
agricultural trade - genetically engineered foods - food biotechnology - political economy - food products - agricultural production - agricultural products - food technology - food policy - food security - agrarische handel - genetisch gemanipuleerde voedingsmiddelen - voedselbiotechnologie - politieke economie - voedselproducten - landbouwproductie - landbouwproducten - voedseltechnologie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselzekerheid
Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some policies aim to correct market failures, others aim to pursue politicians’ own interests, some are a combination. I discuss two policies in this thesis, the regulation of genetically modified (GM) food crops, and forest conservation policy.
The relationship between GM food technology and food supply is a dilemma for policymakers in many countries. Theoretical and empirical studies show that GM food technology helps increase crop yields, reduces pesticide and fertilizer use, and generates economic, environmental, and health benefits. However, many consumers are concerned about the potential risks from using the technology and treat GM and non-GM food products as different products. The differences in public attitude towards GM food technology influence GM food policy-making. Many scientists believe that the public attitude is not purely based on scientific evidence, but is influenced by different interest groups. The two major interest groups involved in the GM food policy debate can be clustered into the GM food-supporting and non-GM food-supporting groups, depending on their attitude towards the GM food technology.
The GM food group points to the high yields, environmental benefits, and potential for sustainable agricultural production. The non-GM food group, however, emphasizes the unconfirmed potential risks of genetic modification to human health and the environment. There are two major GM food policy regimes: the EU Member States have very strict GM food regulations, whereas the US has relatively lenient GM food policy regulations with respect to cultivation and imports. A stricter GM food policy would generate high welfare costs to countries that face food security issues, and possibly reduce a country's food self-sufficiency. Also, different GM food policy regulations give rise to different national standards, differentiate agricultural trade markets, and result in trade disputes.
Environmental policy regulates economic activity. To balance economic interests and environmental benefits, conservation policy is often needed for the protection of natural resources. Forests as a renewable resource provide both economic and environmental benefits. Forest conservation policy often requires governments to settle the trade-off between interests of the timber industry and the environmental benefit of maintaining parts of the forests. Political conflicts may exist between a profit-maximizing timber industry lobby and an environmental lobby. An industry-biased conservation policy could cause faster exploitation of this domestic resource, while a stricter protection of the resource could result in profit reduction for the timber industry, but increase environmental benefits.
I discuss the relationships between food security and GM food policy regulations in Chapter 2. I develop a standard political economy model of GM food policy regulations and model GM food policy as the outcome of a GM-versus-non-GM food lobbying game. I find that stricter GM food policy has negative effects on three aspects of food security: availability, access, and utilization. Politically determined GM food policy has a negative effect on the food security situation if lobbying is costly. I also discuss the situation in which the policymaker weighs the GM food and non-GM food lobbies’ contributions differently, depending on whether the food security target has been reached or not. The GM food lobby becomes more efficient in the political game than the non-GM food group when the country commits itself to improving its food security. If the non-GM food lobby is large and strong, it will make high lobbying contributions for stricter GM food policy, even when the country is food-insecure.
Chapter 3 studies the relationship between politically determined GM food policy and domestic food self-sufficiency. I first develop a theoretical model of a small-open economy and investigate the GM food policy. The government maximizes its own payoff, which is the weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. I take maize production in South Africa as an example for illustrating the politically influenced self-sufficiency rate. I find that the food self-sufficiency rate will decrease with an increase in GM food policy regulation cost. I also specify the mechanism of policy change in this small open economy case. I include changes in the lobby groups' sizes in the model, and assess the effect on food self-sufficiency. In the case of a large non-GM food group, the government payoff does not monotonically decrease when the government weighs social welfare at a low level in the political process. The GM food policy can be strict in this case. In addition, the food self-sufficiency rate can be high when a large non-GM food group is present and the government places a low weight on social welfare. Most importantly, this case demonstrates that the food self-sufficiency rate is not always a good indicator of food availability. In some cases, the food self-sufficiency rate can increase, while food availability may decrease.
In Chapter 4, given the two different GM food policy regimes and in light of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership negotiations, I discuss a bilateral negotiation regarding GM food trade policies. Two countries pursue an increase in trade volume for both GM and non-GM food products. With a high GM food non-tariff barrier (NTB) on the foreign GM food imports and a relatively high non-GM food NTB in the foreign country, I find that the Nash bargaining solution lies between the two countries’ optimal unilateral stances for a successful negotiation. Simulation results show that the foreign country would not like to reduce much of its non-GM food NTB in the negotiation. The level of the non-GM food NTB only influences the absolute payoffs of the domestic and foreign governments, but not the negotiation results. The outcome of the negotiation only depends on the level of GM food NTB reduction in the domestic country.
In Chapter 5, I discuss the effects of international trade on forest conservation and welfare in a two-country model with an industry-biased policymaker and Cournot-competing firms. I find that opening to trade increases the harvest taxes compared to the taxes under autarky. The tax increase is large enough to decrease the production levels, which increases the conservation level. In addition, the numerical simulation illustrates that the industry bias parameter monotonically decreases the output and increases the welfare gains from trade. As a result, industry-biased policymaking does not necessarily have to increase the environmental costs when opening to trade.
Three main conclusions can be drawn from this thesis. First, strict biotechnology regulations decrease the level of global food security, especially in developing countries. Second, in the GM food trade negotiations, the country that has high trade barriers has to make concessions for a successful trade agreement. Third, second-best conservation policies can still protect the environment in an open economy. This thesis does not provide solutions to either the GM-versus-non-GM or the environmental-versus-trade debates. It does, however, offer some insights into the politically determined GM food and conservation policy-making and the impact of lobbying.
Monitor voedselverspilling : update 2009-2014
Soethoudt, Han ; Vollebregt, Martijntje ; Burgh, Marianne van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Food & Biobased Research rapport 1703) - 31
voedselverspilling - monitoring - voedselproducten - consumentengedrag - verliezen - voedselafval - food wastage - monitoring - food products - consumer behaviour - losses - food wastes
What does Life-Cycle Assessment of agricultural products need for more meaningful inclusion of biodiversity?
Teillard, Félix ; Maia de Souza, Danielle ; Thoma, Greg ; Gerber, Pierre J. ; Finn, John A. - \ 2016
Journal of Applied Ecology 53 (2016)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1422 - 1429.
agricultural production systems - conservation - environmental assessment methods - environmental impact - food products - life-cycle assessment (LCA) - livestock - off-farm impact - policy - sustainable agriculture
Decision-makers increasingly use life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool to measure the environmental sustainability of products. LCA is of particular importance in globalized agricultural supply chains, which have environmental effects in multiple and spatially dispersed locations. Incorporation of impacts on biodiversity that arise from agricultural production systems into environmental assessment methods is an emerging area of work in LCA, and current approaches have limitations, including the need for (i) improved assessment of impacts to biodiversity associated with agricultural production, (ii) inclusion of new biodiversity indicators (e.g. conservation value, functional diversity, ecosystem services) and (iii) inclusion of previously unaccounted modelling variables that go beyond land-use impacts (e.g. climate change, water and soil quality). Synthesis and applications. Ecological models and understanding can contribute to address the limitations of current life-cycle assessment (LCA) methods in agricultural production systems and to make them more ecologically relevant. This will be necessary to ensure that biodiversity is not neglected in decision-making that relies on LCA.
Inventory control for a perishable product with non-stationary demand
Pauls-Worm, K.G.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Eligius Hendrix; Rene Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578500 - 142
logistics - food products - supply chain management - food wastes - industrial wastes - inventories - logistiek - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - voedselafval - industrieel afval - inventarisaties
Globally, around one-third of the edible parts of perishable food products is wasted every year. Adequate logistics management of the food supply chain is of importance. Inventory control of processed fresh food with a best-before or use-by date deals with the questions how much to order and how often, and how to review the inventory position. For perishable products, there exists a trade-off between desired product-availability and waste. A high order quantity or frequent ordering may result in high product-availability but also waste. A small order quantity or less frequent ordering results in lower inventory levels, but may cause out-of-stock. For the inventory control of a perishable product the age-distribution of the items should be considered. This is influenced by order picking at a food producer or warehouse, or consumer behaviour at a supermarket, picking First In First Out (FIFO), where first the oldest items are used, or Last In First Out (LIFO), where first the freshest items of the product are used. This thesis investigates periodic review order policies for a food producer and a retailer for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime and a non-stationary demand. For a food producer as well as a retailer, it is not always economically feasible to reorder in every period. For planning purposes it is desirable to set the timing of the orders in advance.
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to better decision making regarding inventory control in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket, in the trade-off between product-availability and waste. Methods are designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers for business rather than custom made solution procedures, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical inventory control problems discussed in this thesis are characterised by a perishable product with a fixed lifetime, non-stationary stochastic demand, a single-echelon production/inventory situation in a finite time horizon. The product has a service level requirement to ensure a certain product-availability. The decision problems deal with fixed setup or ordering cost, holding cost and disposal cost for wasted items. The age-distribution of the items in stock is considered in specific theoretical Stochastic Programming (SP) problems that deal with the service level requirement as a chance constraint or fill rate constraint. The studied problems vary in planning characteristics.
Fluctuations in demand combined with fixed setup or ordering costs imply that regular production or ordering is probably not optimal. This situation requires a strategy to deal with the fluctuations. In inventory literature, non-stationary demand for a perishable product with a fixed lifetime is hardly studied, and consequently also strategies to deal with it are little investigated. In this thesis, methods have been designed to generate practical order policies using commercial solvers, where at least the timing of ordering or production is set beforehand. The practical order policies have been benchmarked with custom made solution procedures. The developed practical policies are applicable in the practice of fresh food producers and in retail organisations, on the level of the store, as well as on the level of the distribution centre. An interesting conclusion is that the policies with fixed order timing are hardly more costly than the investigated policy with flexible order timing. The fixed order timing increases the ease of planning.
The studied cost functions in the models comprise disposal cost for which the value of the disposal cost in the experiments was varied. The results show that in the models with fixed order timing and corresponding order-up-to levels, increasing the disposal cost can reduce the percentage of waste, maintaining the service level. In setting a (fictitious) value for the disposal cost, one can steer the percentage of waste in determining the order policy, and thus contribute to better decision making in the food supply chain from food producer to supermarket in the trade-off between product-availability and waste.
Monitor voedselverspilling : zelfmonitoring pilots
Soethoudt, Han ; Vollebregt, Martijntje ; Burgh, Marianne van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Food & Biobased Research rapport 1702) - 28
voedselverspilling - reststromen - monitoring - voedselproducten - consumentengedrag - verliezen - voedselafval - food wastage - residual streams - monitoring - food products - consumer behaviour - losses - food wastes
Programa Nacional de Agrologística : informe 1: Resumen ejecutivo
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 87
logistics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural products - food products - supply chain management - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - mexico
National Agrologistics Program : report 1: Executive summary
Langelaan, H.C. ; Ravensbergen, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research - 87
logistics - agroindustrial sector - agricultural products - food products - supply chain management - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproducten - voedselproducten - ketenmanagement - mexico
The goal of the National Agrologistics Program is to define public policy measures that contribute to accomplish the potential of exporting agro-products, which will result in a transforming legacy for the sector. The horizon of this Program is the year 2030.
Onderzoek naar effecten van bepaalde stoffen op het alcoholslot : vervolgstudie
Muilwijk, Mirthe ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2015.011) - 25
alcoholinname - adem - in vivo experimenten - voedselproducten - non-food producten - verkeer - alcohol intake - breath - in vivo experimentation - food products - non-food products - traffic
Afgelopen jaar is er onderzoek verricht naar mogelijke vals-positieve meetresultaten van het alcoholslot (Muilwijk et al., 2014). Hierbij zijn verschillende producten geïdentificeerd die onder worstcase in vitro omstandigheden tot een uitslag van het alcoholslot leiden. In hetzelfde voorgaande onderzoek is in vivo onderzoek met proefpersonen uitgevoerd met een selectie van deze producten en een beperkt aantal proefpersonen. Doel van het huidige vervolgonderzoek is om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in de mate van uitslag van het alcoholslot en het verloop van de uitslag in de tijd na gebruik van producten door proefpersonen. Het betreft hier ‘food’ en ‘non-food’ producten die in het voorgaande onderzoek onder in vitro omstandigheden een uitslag van het alcoholslot veroorzaakten. Tevens is het onderzoek uitgevoerd met een groter aantal proefpersonen.
Logistics network design & control : managing product quality in a blooming sector
Keizer, M. de - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Rene Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576025 - 239
logistiek - netwerkanalyse - sierteelt - kwaliteitszorg - kwaliteit - productie - tuinbouw - verse producten - voedselproducten - simulatiemodellen - simulatie - logistics - network analysis - ornamental horticulture - quality management - quality - production - horticulture - fresh products - food products - simulation models - simulation
Wat moet je doen en laten als je gezonder wilt
Witkamp, R.F. - \ 2015
Universiteit van Nederland
diëten - voeding en gezondheid - voedselwetenschappen - fysiologie - voedselproducten - gezondheidsvoedsel - gezondheidsbevordering - voedingsonderzoek - diets - nutrition and health - food sciences - physiology - food products - health foods - health promotion - nutrition research
Slik jij de praatjes van afslankguru's als zoete koek? Ken jij alle diëten uit je hoofd? Renger Witkamp, hoogleraar Voeding en Farmacologie (Wageningen UR) bekijkt al deze hypes met een nuchtere en wetenschappelijke blik. Na dit praatje kun je alles wat je voorgeschoteld krijgt in de media over je gezondheid beter in perspectief plaatsen.
Inventarisatie van voedselfraude: mondiaal kwetsbare productgroepen en ontwikkeling van analytische methoden in Europees onderzoek
Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2015.014) - 25
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselproducten - voedselonderzoek - voedselinspectie - europa - inventarisaties - food safety - food quality - food products - food research - food inspection - europe - inventories
Het aantal gerapporteerde voedselfraude-incidenten is de laatste vijf tot tien jaar toegenomen en daarmee ook de publieke belangstelling voor deze zaken met een duidelijk toename na de paardenvleesaffaire van 2013. Toch is over de concrete omvang van fraude veel onduidelijk. Deze studie heeft tot doel het inventariseren van productgroepen die kwetsbaar zijn voor voedselfraude en het inventariseren van de voltooide en lopende Europese onderzoeksprojecten op dit terrein. Op basis van het aantal vermeldingen in beschikbare internationale databanken zijn de meest kwetsbare productgroepen geïdentificeerd. Vervolgens is geïnventariseerd voor welke productgroepen fraudegerelateerde methoden zijn ontwikkeld op Europees niveau.
Quick scan voedselfraude in Nederland; Wie verzamelt welke data? Welk onderzoek is er? Wat zijn de cijfers? Wat zijn mogelijke kennislacunes?
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Benninga, J. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI VR14-126) - 32
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedselinspectie - voedselproducten - gegevens verzamelen - inventarisaties - nederland - beleid inzake voedsel - food safety - food quality - food inspection - food products - data collection - inventories - netherlands - food policy
In Nederland is er geen database gevonden, die specifiek is ontwikkeld voor incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland. De NVWA en het bedrijfsleven vielen buiten de scope van dit onderzoek. Onderzoeken naar voedselfraude betreffen voornamelijk de ontwikkeling van een specifieke (analytische) detectiemethode voor specifieke producten. Incidenten van voedselfraude in Nederland opgenomen in het Europese Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of beschreven in dagbladen en vaktijdschriften betreffen vooral vlees(producten), vis(producten), veevoer en eieren. De fraude betreft toevoeging, verdunning of vervanging met goedkoop vreemd productmateriaal, of frauduleuze declaratie van het productie (management) systeem of van het productie proces. Geïdentificeerde lacunes in kennis betreffen risicofactoren voor voedselfraude, geschiktheid van (analytische) methoden voor de detectie van verschillende typen voedselfraude bij verschillende product(groep)en, het juridisch handhavingskader, en een risico-gebaseerd controlesysteem specifiek gericht op voedselfraude.
Zeewier voor de toekomst
Ramaker, R. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Wald, J. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 12 - 15.
mariene gebieden - zeewierenteelt - zeewieren - voedselproducten - oosterschelde - noordzee - toegepast onderzoek - aquatische biomassa - eiwit - financieren - marine areas - seaweed culture - seaweeds - food products - eastern scheldt - north sea - applied research - aquatic biomass - protein - financing
In 2050 moeten grote zeewierplantages op zee voorzien in onze behoefte aan voedsel en grondstoffen. In de Oosterschelde doen Wageningse onderzoekers nu experimenten met duurzame zeewierteelt.
Decision support modeling for sustainable food logistics management
Soysal, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573055 - 209
logistiek - voedsel - voedselketens - voedselproducten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ketenmanagement - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - kwantitatieve analyse - voedselafval - energiegebruik - modelleren - logistics - food - food chains - food products - sustainability - supply chain management - decision support systems - quantitative analysis - food wastes - energy consumption - modeling
For the last two decades, food logistics systems have seen the transition from traditional Logistics Management (LM) to Food Logistics Management (FLM), and successively, to Sustainable Food Logistics Management (SFLM). Accordingly, food industry has been subject to the recent challenges of reducing the amount of food waste and raising energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These additional challenges add to the complexity of logistics operations and require advanced decision support models which can be used by decision makers to develop more sustainable food logistics systems in practice. Hence, the overall objective of this thesis was to obtain insight in how to improve the sustainability performance of food logistics systems by developing decision support models that can address the concerns for transportation energy use and consequently carbon emissions, and/or product waste, while also adhering to competitiveness. In line with this overall objective, we have defined five research objectives.
The first research objective (RO), which is to identify key logistical aims, analyse available quantitative models and point out modelling challenges in SFLM, is investigated in Chapter 2. In this chapter, key logistical aims in LM, FLM and SFLM phases are identified, and available quantitative models are analysed to point out modelling challenges in SFLM. A literature review on quantitative studies is conducted and also qualitative studies are consulted to better understand the key logistical aims and to identify the relevant system scope issues. The main findings of the literature review indicate that (i) most studies rely on a completely deterministic environment, (ii) the food waste challenge in logistics has not received sufficient attention, (iii) traveled distance is often used as a single indicator to estimate related transportation cost and emissions, and (iv) most studies propose single objective models for the food logistics problems. This chapter concludes that new and advanced quantitative models are needed that take specific SFLM requirements from practice into consideration to support business decisions and capture food supply chain dynamics. These findings motivated us to work on the following research objectives RO2, RO3, RO4 and RO5.
RO2, which is to analyse the relationship between economic (cost) and environmental (transportation carbon emissions) performance in a network problem of a perishable product, is investigated in Chapter 3. This chapter presents a multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) model for a generic beef logistics network problem. The objectives of the model are (i) minimizing total logistics cost and (ii) minimizing total amount of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation operations. The model is solved using the e-constraint method. This study breaks away from the literature on logistics network models by simultaneously considering transportation emissions (affected by road structure, vehicle and fuel types, weight loads of vehicles, traveled distances), return hauls and product perishability in a MOLP model. We present computational results and analyses based on the application of the model to a real-life international beef logistics chain operating in Nova Andradina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and exporting beef to the European Union. Trade-off relationships between multiple objectives are observed by the derived Pareto frontier that presents the cost of being sustainable from the point of reducing transportation emissions. The results indicate the importance of distances between actors in terms of environmental impact. Moreover, sensitivity analysis on important practical parameters show that export ports' capacities put pressure on the logistics system; decreasing fuel efficiency due to the bad infrastructure has negative effects on cost and emissions; and green tax incentives result in economic and environmental improvement.
RO3, which is to investigate the performance implications of accommodating explicit transportation energy use and traffic congestion concerns in a two-echelon capacitated vehicle routing problem (2E-CVRP), is investigated in Chapter 4. The multi-echelon distribution strategy in which freight is delivered to customers via intermediate depots rather than using direct shipments is an increasingly popular strategy in urban logistics. Its popularity is primarily due to the fact that it alleviates the environmental (e.g., energy usage and congestion) and social (e.g., traffic-related air pollution, accidents and noise) consequences of logistics operations. This chapter presents a comprehensive mixed integer linear programming formulation for a time-dependent 2E-CVRP that accounts for vehicle type, traveled distance, vehicle speed, load, multiple time zones and emissions. A case study in a supermarket chain operating in the Netherlands shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. Several versions of the model, each differing with respect to the objective function, are tested to produce a number of selected Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) relevant to distance, time, fuel consumption and cost. This chapter offers insight in the economies of environmentally-friendly vehicle routing in two-echelon distribution systems. The results suggest that an environmentally-friendly solution is obtained from the use of a two-echelon distribution system, whereas a single-echelon distribution system provides the least-cost solution.
RO4, which is to investigate the performance implications of accommodating explicit transportation energy use, product waste and demand uncertainty concerns in an inventory routing problem (IRP), is investigated in Chapter 5. Traditional assumptions of constant distribution costs between nodes, unlimited product shelf life and deterministic demand used in the IRP literature restrict the usefulness of the proposed models in current food logistics systems. From this point of view, our interest in this chapter is to enhance the traditional models for the IRP to make them more useful for decision makers in food logistics management. Therefore, we present a multi-period IRP model that includes truck load dependent (and thus route dependent) distribution costs for a comprehensive evaluation of CO2 emission and fuel consumption, perishability, and a service level constraint for meeting uncertain demand. A case study on the fresh tomato distribution operations of a supermarket chain shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. Several variations of the model, each differing with respect to the considered aspects, are employed to present the benefits of including perishability and explicit fuel consumption concerns in the model. The results suggest that the proposed integrated model can achieve significant savings in total cost while satisfying the service level requirements, and thus offers better support to decision makers.
RO5, which is to analyse the benefits of horizontal collaboration in a green IRP for perishable products with demand uncertainty, is investigated in Chapter 6. This chapter presents a decision support model, which includes a comprehensive evaluation of CO2 emission and fuel consumption, perishability, and a service level constraint for meeting uncertain demand, for the IRP with multiple suppliers and customers. The model allows to analyse the benefits of horizontal collaboration in the IRP with respect to several KPIs, i.e., total emissions, total driving time, total routing cost comprised of fuel and wage cost, total inventory cost, total waste cost, and total cost. A case study on the distribution operations of two suppliers, where the first supplier produces figs and the second supplier produces cherries, shows the applicability of the model to a real-life problem. The results show that horizontal collaboration among the suppliers contributes to the decrease of aggregated total cost and emissions in the logistics system, whereas the obtained gains are sensitive to the changes in parameters such as supplier size or maximum product shelf life. According to the experiments, the aggregated total cost benefit from cooperation varies in a range of about 4-24% and the aggregated total emission benefit varies in a range of about 8-33%.
Integrated findings from Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 contribute to the SFLM literature by (i) reflecting the state of the art on the topic of quantitative logistic models which have sustainability considerations, (ii) providing decision support models which can be used by decision makers to improve the performance of the sustainable food logistics systems in terms of logistics cost, transportation energy use and carbon emissions, and/or product waste, and (iii) presenting the applicability of the proposed models in different case studies based on mainly real data, multiple scenarios, and analysis. The developed decision support models exploit several logistics improvement opportunities regarding transportation energy use and emissions, and/or product waste to better aid SFLM, as distinct from their counterparts in literature. To conclude, the case study implementations in this thesis demonstrate that (i) perishability and explicit consideration of fuel consumption are important aspects in logistics problems, and (ii) the provided decision support models can be used in practice by decision makers to further improve sustainability performance of the food logistics systems.
Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds
Berghout, J.A.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Boom, co-promotor(en): Atze Jan van der Goot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572287 - 165
lupinen - eiwitisolaten - fractionering - scheiding - mechanische eigenschappen - voedselproducten - lupins - protein isolates - fractionation - separation - mechanical properties - food products
Functionality-driven fractionation of lupin seeds
The growth in the world population requires an increase in the production of protein-rich foods from plant-based materials. Lupin seeds have potential to become a novel plant protein source for food products because they are rich in protein (about 37 wt%) and they can be grown in moderate temperature climates as in north-western Europe. Besides a high protein content, lupin seeds are rich in dietary fibres (soluble and insoluble), contain about 7-10 wt% oil, and are low in starch. To optimally use the proteins present in lupin, a fractionation process has to be developed. For other legumes, refining of protein is usually performed through wet fractionation techniques. However, wet fractionation methods are resource-intensive, as a result of which the potential reduction in environmental impact when using plant-based materials for foods decreases.
The aim of this thesis is to obtain understanding of the production of functional, protein-rich material from lupin seeds in a more efficient manner. In this thesis, it is shown that focus on functionality rather than purity can lead to simplified fractionation processes, which is a concept referred to as functionality-driven fractionation (Figure 1). The influence of these simplifications on protein functionality and on physical and chemical stability of the protein isolates was explored. Furthermore, we performed a sustainability assessment of fractionation processes, from which we concluded that focus on a dry product with high purity has a large impact on energy use. In case of lupin, avoiding the oil extraction step as well as the drying step could lead to large gains in sustainability.
Figure 1 Upper scheme: conventional ingredient production and product processing route, focusing on protein and yield. Lower scheme: novel approach, focusing on functionality and sustainability.
The results presented in this thesis provide steps towards more sustainable production of functional fractions for food applications obtained with simplified fractionation processes. This work provides future perspectives for functionality-driven fractionation processes that may be extended to other legumes and pulses as well. This approach leads to the development of ingredients and fractions of seeds and legumes that can be used for plant-based food products.