Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bacterial Microcompartment-Dependent 1,2-Propanediol Utilization Stimulates Anaerobic Growth of Listeria monocytogenes EGDe
Zeng, Zhe ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Boeren, Sjef ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Abee, Tjakko - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
1,2-propanediol utilization cluster - anaerobic growth - food safety - metabolosome - pathogen - shell protein - virulence

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are proteinaceous organelles that optimize specific metabolic pathways referred to as metabolosomes involving transient production of toxic volatile metabolites such as aldehydes. Previous bioinformatics analysis predicted the presence of BMCs in 23 bacterial phyla including foodborne pathogens and a link with gene clusters for the utilization of host-derived substrates such as 1,2-propanediol utilization, i.e., the Pdu cluster. Although, transcriptional regulation of the Pdu cluster and its role in Listeria monocytogenes virulence in animal models have recently been reported, the experimental identification and the physiological role of BMCs in L. monocytogenes is still unexplored. Here, we ask whether BMCs could enable utilization of 1,2-propanediol (Pd) in L. monocytogenes under anaerobic conditions. Using L. monocytogenes EGDe as a model strain, we could demonstrate efficient utilization of Pd with concomitant production of 1-propanol and propionate after 24 h of anaerobic growth, while the utilization was significantly reduced in aerobic conditions. In line with this, expression of genes encoding predicted shell proteins and the signature enzyme propanediol dehydratase is upregulated more than 20-fold in cells anaerobically grown in Pdu-induced versus non-induced control conditions. Additional proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of BMC shell proteins and Pdu enzymes in cells that show active degradation of Pd. Furthermore, using transmission electron microscopy, BMC structures have been detected in these cells linking gene expression, protein composition, and BMCs to activation of the Pdu cluster in anaerobic growth of L. monocytogenes. Studies in defined minimal medium with Pd as an energy source showed a significant increase in cell numbers, indicating that Pdu and the predicted generation of ATP in the conversion of propionyl-phosphate to the end product propionate can support anaerobic growth of L. monocytogenes. Our findings may suggest a role for BMC-dependent utilization of Pd in L. monocytogenes growth, transmission, and interaction with the human host.

The Evolution and Cultural Framing of Food Safety Management Systems—Where From and Where Next?
Manning, Louise ; Luning, Pieternel A. ; Wallace, Carol A. - \ 2019
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 18 (2019)6. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 1770 - 1792.
food safety - food safety culture - HACCP - private food safety and quality standards - risk assessment

The aim of this paper is to review the development of food safety management systems (FSMS) from their origins in the 1950s to the present. The food safety challenges in modern food supply systems are explored and it is argued that there is a need for a more holistic thinking approach to food safety management. The narrative review highlights that while the transactional elements of how FSMS are developed, validated, implemented, monitored, and verified remains largely unchanged, how organizational culture frames the operation and efficacy of FSMS is becoming more important. The evolution of a wider academic and industry understanding of both the influence of food safety culture (FS-culture) and also how such culture frames and enables, or conversely restricts the efficacy of the FSMS is crucial for consumer well-being. Potential research gaps worthy of further study are identified as well as recommendations given for the application of the research findings within the food industry.

Entomophagy: Nutritional, ecological, safety and legislation aspects
Raheem, Dele ; Raposo, António ; Oluwole, Oluwatoyin Bolanle ; Nieuwland, Maaike ; Saraiva, Ariana ; Carrascosa, Conrado - \ 2019
Food Research International 126 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969
ecology - edible insects - food legislation - food safety - food security - nutrition - sustainability

Globally, there is a need to seek alternative sources of protein in addition to meat. This has led to considerable interest in edible insects. Such insects form part of cultures and diets in many Asian and African countries, and are an excellent source of essential nutrients, minerals, vitamins and proteins. Furthermore, they have been reported to be sustainable. The ecological importance of insects is related to their short life cycles when reared and farmed. This makes them ideal in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, cutting land uses and polluted water, and reducing environmental contamination. However, the use of edible insects as food in Europe is minimal. To ensure safety of insects when eaten as food, considerations should be made on: microbiological contamination; toxicological hazards, e.g. chemical hazards and antinutrients; allergenicity issues that are related to different exposures, including injection, ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. In this review, we summarize the nutritional and sustainable values of edible insects, look at safety and legislative measures and we finally discuss future issues.

Consumer confidence in the safety of milk and infant milk formula in China
Li, Saiwei ; Sijtsema, Siet J. ; Kornelis, Marcel ; Liu, Yumei ; Li, Shengli - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8807 - 8818.
consumer confidence - food safety - infant milk formula - trust

A series of food safety incidents related to domestically produced dairy in China harmed consumer confidence and caused a dramatic decrease in dairy consumption from 2008 to 2010. Compared with previous studies that mainly assessed consumer confidence in food or dairy in general, this study focused on 2 specific dairy products, milk and infant milk formula (IMF). Based on data from 934 Chinese consumers, confidence in the safety of milk and IMF was measured by using a multi-item scale with 2 dimensions—optimism and pessimism. We found that Chinese consumers were optimistic about the safety of milk and IMF but, at the same time, were concerned about the risks related to milk and IMF. Chinese consumers have less confidence in IMF than in milk. Structural equation modeling indicated that consumer trust in manufacturers and third parties in the dairy supply chain and confidence in other foods, such as meat and fish, can foster consumer confidence in the safety of milk and IMF, while the extent of recall of the melamine infant formula incident in 2008 and trait worry exert negative effects. In addition, consumers with more children or less family income are likely to be more confident in domestically produced IMF. These insights into consumer confidence and its determinants can assist dairy supply chains and regulatory institutions in formulating effective risk communication strategies to strengthen consumer confidence.

A health risk for consumers: the presence of adulterated food supplements in the Netherlands
Biesterbos, Jacqueline W.H. ; Sijm, Dick T.H.M. ; Dam, Ruud van; Mol, Hans G.J. - \ 2019
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 36 (2019)9. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1273 - 1288.
adulterants - dietary supplement - enforcement - food safety - Food supplement - pharmaceutical drug - regulation

The use of food supplements is increasing. They are marketed as beneficial for health, well-being, physical or mental condition and performance, or to prevent diseases. Producers add synthetic compounds or illicit herbal material to food supplements to claim desired effects. Claims made to support marketing without scientific evidence are, however, illegal. Intake of adulterated food supplements may lead to serious adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to report the results of analyses of (adulterated) food supplements conducted by the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority between October 2013 and October 2018. In total, 416 supplements were analysed of which 264 (64%) contained one or more pharmacological active substances or plant toxins, such as caffeine, synephrine, sildenafil, icariin, sibutramine, higenamine, hordenine, phenethylamine, methylsynephrine, DMAA, phenolphthalein, octopamine and ephedrine. When compared to dose levels that are considered safe, daily doses of the substances in the food supplements were sometimes much higher, causing a risk for consumers who are unaware of the presence of these pharmacologically active substances. In many cases, neither food nor medicines legislation (easily) enables enforcement actions. This means that some products containing pharmacologically active substances (i.e. synthetic medicines and their illicit analogues), stay available on the market. An undesirable situation because for many of these substances no detailed toxicity data are available.

Rapid Analysis of Illegal Cationic Dyes in Foods and Surface Waters Using High Temperature Direct Analysis in Real Time High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Wen, Ruizhi ; Zeng, Dong ; Yang, Zihui ; Jiang, Le ; Ma, Ming ; Chen, Bo ; Beek, Teris A. Van - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66 (2018)28. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7542 - 7549.
crystal violet - direct analysis in real time - food safety - high-resolution mass spectrometry - illegal cationic dyes - induced phase separation extraction - malachite green - methylene blue - rhodamine B

A high temperature desorption (HTD) direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometric (DART-HRMS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of four banned cationic dyes. Rhodamine B is used to dye foods, while malachite green, crystal violet, and methylene blue are added to fishponds as antimicrobials. A simple induced phase separation extraction was used to pretreat samples. The DART-HRMS method employed two temperature steps, i.e., 200 °C for drying, purification, and enrichment of sample solution and 500 °C for thermal desorption and ionization of analytes. The calibration curves of dyes in the range of 50-2000 ng/mL were linear using deuterated malachite green as an internal standard. The LODs vary for all analytes between 0.1 and 30 ppb depending on the matrix and experimental conditions. Through analyses of real samples, two chili powders and one chili oil were found to be contaminated by rhodamine B. The concentrations were comparable with those found by an HPLC-MS/MS method.

Stadsvarkens als schakel in de circulaire economie
Vijn, M.P. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)10. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 24 - 25.
varkens - varkenshouderij - stadslandbouw - cradle to cradle - wetgeving - reststromen - voedselveiligheid - varkensvlees - pigs - pig farming - urban agriculture - cradle to cradle - legislation - residual streams - food safety - pigmeat
Aan welke regelgeving moet je voldoen om varkens in de stad te houden en te voeden met reststromen? Wageningen University & Research heeft hier onderzoek naar gedaan voor de Stichting Stadsvarkens in Ede. Deze stichting heeft als doelstelling het realiseren van een lokale circulaire economie door de inzet van (stads)varkens en de educatie hierover.
National Reference Laboratories RIKILT Wageningen University & Research : annual report 2016
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. ; Lee, M.K. van der; Gerssen, A. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Sterk, S.S. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Jong, J. de; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Alewijn, M. ; Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Ginkel, L.A. van; Meijer, Nathan ; Noordam, M.Y. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT Report 2017.007) - 49
reference standards - laboratories - food legislation - europe - annual reports - food safety - food quality - feeding standards - referentienormen - laboratoria - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - europa - jaarverslagen - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - voedingsnormen
National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) are part of the system responsible for the control and enforcement of EU food and feed law. RIKILT Wageningen University & Research has been designated as the NRL for twelve subjects. The tasks of a NRL depend on its research field. This report gives an overview of the activities performed by all of RIKILT's NRLs in 2016.
Stadsvarkens : schakel in een circulaire economie : ruimte in wet- en regelgeving voor stadsvarkens : een advies aan Stichting Stadsvarkens Ede
Vermeij, I. ; Bikker, P. ; Holster, H. ; Raamsdonk, L. van; Vijn, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research Wetenschapswinkel rapport 336) - ISBN 9789463434577 - 32
varkens - varkenshouderij - stadslandbouw - cradle to cradle - wetgeving - reststromen - voedselveiligheid - varkensvlees - duurzame ontwikkeling - pigs - pig farming - urban agriculture - legislation - residual streams - food safety - pigmeat - sustainable development
De Stichting Stadsvarkens te Ede wil weten aan welke regelgeving moet worden voldaan om vier varkens in een bosperceel te houden en te voeden met reststromen. Het doel is het sluiten van kringlopen binnen een circulaire economie. Dit rapport gaat in op de wet- en regelgeving rond diervoeding en op de afzet van het vlees in de setting van Stadsvarkens. Daarnaast wordt het voeren van reststromen in relatie tot diergezondheid belicht. Door studenten is binnen een ACT-traject gekeken naar relevante wetgeving en is een viertal scenario’s geschetst voor het houden van stadsvarkens die gevoerd worden met lokale reststromen. De scenario’s zijn door de onderzoekers tegen het licht gehouden en van kanttekeningen en een advies voorzien. Dit heeft geresulteerd in een ander advies, omdat verschillende knelpunten de eerdere scenario’s niet mogelijk maken.
Cadmium in soil, crops and resultant dietary exposure
Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Mol, G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2784) - 39
cadmium - soil - food intake - crops - exposure - fertilizers - food safety - toxicology - bodem - voedselopname - gewassen - blootstelling - kunstmeststoffen - voedselveiligheid - toxicologie
A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food
Raptis, Ioannis ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Makarona, Eleni ; Salapatas, Alexandros ; Petrou, Panagiota ; Kakabakos, Sotirios ; Botsialas, Athanasios ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo ; Lees, Michelle ; Valamontes, Evangelos - \ 2016
In: Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems VIII. - SPIE (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging 37) - ISBN 9781628419597
food safety - lab-on-a-chip - Mach-Zehnder interferometry - optoelectronic chip

Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

ESBL Evaluation framework
Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2016
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-020) - ISBN 9789462578517 - 45
extended spectrum beta-lactamases - livestock - epidemiology - animal welfare - animal health - public health - food safety - risk management - verbreed spectrum bèta-lactamases - vee - epidemiologie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - volksgezondheid - voedselveiligheid - risicobeheersing
Extended-spectrum bèta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become increasingly common in animals and humans. The goal of the presented ESBL evaluation framework is to help policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of possible interventions aimed to reduce ESBL levels in livestock. An objective-driven ESBL policy approach (i.e., setting more clear and stringent objectives, for example maximum ESBL prevalence on national level) is preferable since much is unknown about other potential relevant measures and moreover the accountability of individual agents is hampered, which are both requisites for a measure-driven policy approach. In addition, for the nearby future, an additional measure is to extend the ban on some other antibiotics that are related to ESBLs.
Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature
Frewer, L.J. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Brennan, M. ; Bánáti, D. ; Lion, R. ; Meertens, R.M. ; Rowe, G. ; Siegrist, M. ; Verbeke, W. ; Vereijken, C.M.J.L. - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016)10. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 1728 - 1745.
benefit communication - food hazard - food safety - risk communication - Risk perception - trust

A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

A systematic assessment of quality assurance-based food safety management system of Chinese edible oil manufacturer in view of context characteristics
Ren, Yingxue ; He, Zhen ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2016
Total Quality Management & Business Excellence (2016). - ISSN 1478-3363 - 15 p.
diagnostic instrument - edible oil - food safety - food safety management system - quality management

This study uses a framework of a food safety management system-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI), for the assessment of the context of a Chinese edible oil manufacture through the view of a case study, and an evaluation of the performance of the FSMS of a Chinese edible oil company. The study includes a structured interview with the quality assurance manager. FSMS-DI is used to diagnose the core control and assurance activities, as well as the riskiness of context factors and output of the system. A factory tour is done to verify the information collected during the interview. The company is operating in a low to moderate risk context. The control activities are overall operating at an advanced level, while the assurance activities are at an average level. Although the food safety output of the FSMS is good, improvements are advised on the assurance activities to develop towards a more robust FSMS. This study gives an insight into the current situation of implemented FSMS in view of the context riskiness of the food business. Quantitative studies and further exploration of typical Chinese context characteristics may help food safety authorities, supporting (branch of industry) organisations, and food companies to advance towards a more effective food safety control in the food sector.

Impact of microbial variability on food safety and quality
Aryani, D.C. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577381 - 190
listeria monocytogenes - lactobacillus plantarum - growth analysis - kinetics - growth models - inactivation - heat stress - strain differences - food safety - milk - ham - microbial diversity - food quality - listeria monocytogenes - lactobacillus plantarum - groeianalyse - kinetica - groeimodellen - inactivatie - warmtestress - stamverschillen - voedselveiligheid - melk - ham - microbiële diversiteit - voedselkwaliteit
Potential food hazards from organic greenhouse horticulture
Alsanius, B.W. ; Dorais, M. ; Doyle, O. ; Oancea, F. ; Spadaro, D. ; Meijer, R.J.M. - \ 2016
BioGreenhouse (Fact sheet BioGreenhouse ) - 3
organic farming - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - plant diseases - food safety - agricultural research - biologische landbouw - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - voedselveiligheid - landbouwkundig onderzoek
This factsheet describes the critical hazards in organic greenhouse horticulture (OGH) crop production and identifies the crucial knowledge gaps.
'Extra regels zorgen ook voor schaalvergroting' : landbouwbeleid in spagaat
Poppe, Krijn - \ 2015
market competition - sustainable agriculture - sustainable animal husbandry - agricultural policy - animal welfare - food safety - agricultural economics - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal housing

Aan de ene kant streeft Nederland naar een vrije wereldmarkt, waarbij concurrentie op kostprijs een belangrijke factor is. Dus zoveel mogelijk produceren voor zo weinig mogelijk geld. Aan de andere kant wil de maatschappij een landbouw gebaseerd op duurzaamheid, diervriendelijkheid en voedselveiligheid met veel ruimte voor gezinsbedrijven. Een spagaat waar het landbouwbeleid nog niet uit is. Wel constateert Reinout Burgers dat met het rechtser worden van maatschappij en politiek het beleid steeds meer in liberale richting beweegt, een beweging die – paradoxaal genoeg – juist versterkt wordt door extra regels voor duurzaamheid en diervriendelijkheid
Voedselveiligheid bij luchthavens : rapportage van gewasmetingen spinazie en boerenkool bij de luchthavens van Lelystad en Bremen
Simons, H.A.E. ; Dijk, C.J. van; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van - \ 2015
Nieuwegein : LBP/Sight - 35
luchthavens - gewasanalyse - gewaskwaliteit - gewasteelt - gewasmonitoring - monitoring - voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - spinazie - boerenkool - airports - plant analysis - crop quality - crop management - crop monitoring - monitoring - food safety - food quality - spinach - curley kales
In de Kabinetsreactie op het door de Alderstafel uitgebrachte advies omtrent de ontwikkeling van de luchthaven Lelystad, heeft het kabinet het advies overgenomen om Lelystad gecontroleerd te ontwikkelen naar een luchthaven met circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar. Voor de uitwerking van het advies is door de Alderstafel Lelystad een werkprogramma opgesteld. In dit werkprogramma is opgenomen dat er een monitoringsprogramma wordt uitgewerkt om de effecten van de uitbreiding van de luchthaven op de duurzame landbouw te beoordelen. Dit monitoringsprogramma is in overleg met de betrokken partijen opgesteld en is in uitvoering. Onderdeel van het programma zijn gewasmetingen bestaande uit een nulmeting bij Lelystad en een referentiemeting bij Bremen (de luchthaven van Bremen komt qua aantal vliegbewegingen overeen met de toekomstige omvang van Lelystad). De onderzoeksopdracht behorende bij deze gewasmetingen is het beantwoorden van de volgende twee hoofdvragen. 1) Heeft een luchthaven als Lelystad een onderscheidenlijke invloed op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden? 2) Heeft de ontwikkeling naar circa 45.000 vliegtuigbewegingen per jaar een mogelijk onder-scheidenlijk effect op de kwaliteit van de gewassen die in de omgeving geteeld worden?
Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014 : eerste resultaten
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Alewijn, M. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J.J.M.M. ; Etemad, Z. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0170) - 40
voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - besmetters - voedingsonderzoek - food consumption - noxious substances - nutrition and health - food safety - children - child health - contaminants - nutrition research
This report describes the consumption of children who participated in a
duplicate diet study. Furthermore it provides additional information on
the collected duplicate diets, for example if a child had followed a
specific diet. Duplicate diet studies are conducted periodically since 1976
in the Netherlands and provide the opportunity to monitor the quantities
of certain substances people ingest daily over time (chemicals,
mycotoxins). Moreover, it can be assessed if these quantities remain
within the safety limits.
This duplicate diet study was conducted during the spring and autumn of
2014 by RIVM and RIKILT and was commissioned by the Dutch Food and
Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Parents/ carers of 126
children aged 2 to 6 years in the region of Wageningen participated in
the study. They collected duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of all foods
and beverages their child consumed over a 24-hour period. They also
kept food diaries to record what the child had consumed during the day.
The duplicate diets were processed into freeze-dried samples and stored
The results of this study showed that for many children less duplicate
diet was collected than what they probably consumed. This should be
taken into account when interpreting the results of dietary exposure to
harmful substances.
Probabilistic dietary exposure models : relevant for acute and chronic exposure assessment of adverse chemicals via food
Boon, Polly E. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2015
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM letter report 2015-0191) - 41
exposure assessment - exposure - models - chemicals - toxic substances - intake - food consumption - food safety - probabilistic models - blootstellingsbepaling - blootstelling - modellen - chemicaliën - toxische stoffen - opname (intake) - voedselconsumptie - voedselveiligheid - waarschijnlijkheidsmodellen
Exposure models are used to calculate the amount of potential harmful chemicals ingested by a human population. Examples of harmful chemicals are residues of pesticides, chemicals entering food from the environment (such as dioxins, cadmium, lead, mercury), and chemicals that are generated via heating (such as acrylamide and furans). In this report we describe the characteristics of two types of models: the first for calculating the short term-intake, and the second for calculating long-term intake. These models currently result in the most realistic estimation of chemical intake via food.
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