Cholecystokinin regulates satiation idependently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy
Ripken, D. ; Wielen, N. van der; Meulen, J. van der; Schuurman, T. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. ; Koopmans, S.J. - \ 2015
Physiology and Behavior 139 (2015)2015. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 167 - 176.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - paracetamol absorption - physiological-role - appetite control - exendin 9-39 - rats - glp-1 - antagonist - afferents
The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to further explore the relative contribution of the abdominal vagal nerve in mediating the satiating effects of endogenous CCK and GLP-1. Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation was combined with administration of CCK1 and GLP-1 receptor antagonists devazepide and exendin (9–39) in 12 pigs, applying an unbalanced Latin Square within-subject design. Furthermore, effects of vagotomy on preprandial and postprandial acetaminophen absorption, glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and CCK plasma concentrations were investigated. Ad libitum liquid meal intake (mean ± SEM) was similar in sham and vagotomized pigs (4180 ± 435 and 3760 ± 810 g/meal). Intake increased by about 20% after blockade of CCK1 receptors, independently of the abdominal vagal nerve. Food intake did not increase after blockade of GLP-1 receptors. Blockade of CCK1 and GLP-1 receptors increased circulating CCK and GLP-1 concentrations in sham pigs only, suggesting the existence of a vagal reflex mechanism in the regulation of plasma CCK1 and GLP-1 concentrations. Vagotomy decreased acetaminophen absorption and changed glucose, insulin, CCK and GLP-1 concentrations indicating a delay in gastric emptying. Our data show that at liquid feeding, satiation is decreased effectively by pharmacological blockade of CCK1 receptors. We conclude that regulation of liquid meal intake appears to be primarily regulated by CCK1 receptors not located on abdominal vagal nerve endings.
Octopus life history relative to age, in a multi-geared developmental fishery
Leporati, S.C. ; Hart, A.M. ; Larsen, R. ; Franken, L.E. ; Graaf, M. de - \ 2015
Fisheries Research 165 (2015). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 28 - 41.
tetricus mollusca-cephalopoda - cadiz sw spain - vulgaris cuvier - reproductive-biology - female octopus - common octopus - food-intake - growth - temperature - pallidus
The ability to obtain broad-scale age information for an exploited octopus population enables the identification of essential life history information, such as age at maturity, recruitment pulses and seasonal effects on growth. This study uses stylet weight (reduced internal shell) as a proxy to age 3494 Octopus (cf) tetricus, the target species of a rapidly developing octopus fishery in Western Australia. Samples were collected during 2008–2012 using passive shelter pots and active trigger traps. Both males and females were found to have similar maximum ages at 1.5 years, with males reaching maturity at 243 days compared to 379 days for females. The two gear types selected for different parts of the population, with shelter pots catching mostly octopus 1 kg total weight, of which 75% of the total catch were mature males. This variation in catch composition coupled with the inshore (shelter pot) and offshore (trigger trap) depth profiles of the gear types suggests offshore migration may be occurring. Back-calculated hatch months revealed six-monthly recruitment pulses and a positive relationship with ascending sea surface temperature and growth up to 22 °C.
Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?
Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J. ; Ripken, D. ; Hendriks, H.F. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2015
International Journal of Obesity 39 (2015). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 235 - 243.
glucagon-like peptide-1 - food-intake - hormone-release - energy-intake - antropyloroduodenal motility - gastrointestinal hormones - intestinal motility - duodenal glucose - plasma-levels - healthy-men
Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ileal infusion of sucrose and casein on food intake, release of GI peptides, gastric emptying rate and small-bowel transit time with safflower oil as positive control.Design:This randomized, single-blind, crossover study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26.4±2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8±0.4¿kg¿m-2) who were intubated with a naso-ileal catheter. Thirty minutes after the intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing control ((C) saline), safflower oil ((HL) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose casein ((LP) 17.2¿kcal) or high-dose casein ((HP) 51.7¿kcal), low-dose sucrose ((LC) 17.2¿kcal) and high-dose sucrose ((HC) 51.7¿kcal), over a period of 90¿min. Food intake was determined during an ad libitum meal. Visual analogue score questionnaires for hunger and satiety and blood samples were collected at regular intervals.Results:Ileal infusion of lipid, protein and carbohydrate resulted in a significant reduction in food intake compared with control (HL: 464.3±90.7¿kcal, P
Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves
Mirzaei, M. ; Khorvash, M. ; Ghorbani, G.R. ; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M. ; Riasi, A. ; Nabipour, A. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den - \ 2015
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 99 (2015)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 553 - 564.
neutral detergent fiber - early-weaned calf - feeding-behavior - holstein calves - sodium-butyrate - milk-production - early lactation - acid production - physical form - food-intake
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors supplementation level (low, 8%; or high, 16% on DM basis) and PS (medium, 2.92 mm; or long, 5.04 mm as geometrical means) of alfalfa hay. In addition, a control group without alfalfa hay was used. Hence, treatments were: control (C); low level with medium PS (LM); low level with long PS (LL); high level with medium PS (HM) or high level with long PS (HL). Growth performance of alfalfa-fed calves did not differ from control calves, but alfalfa supplementation decreased corneum thickness of the rumen wall. In alfalfa-fed calves, post-weaning starter intake was greater for LL calves than for LM calves. During the entire rearing period, starter intake was 26–32% higher for LL and HM calves than for LM calves. Pre-weaning average daily gain was higher for LL and HM calves than for HL calves, but this effect was not persistent over the entire rearing period. Final body weight decreased from 86 to 79 kg when the level of long PS alfalfa hay increased from 8 to 16%, but increased from 78 to 87 kg when the level of medium PS alfalfa increased from 8 to 16%. Regardless of PS and level, morphometric characteristics of rumen wall were generally similar among alfalfa feeding groups, but corneum thickness decreased from 8.7 to 6.1 µm with greater PS at the low level. These results indicate that adequate, but not excessive, physical stimulation is required for appropriate rumen development and growth performance of dairy calves.
Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake
Boer, J.H.W. van den; Mars, M. - \ 2015
Appetite 86 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 25 - 30.
food-intake - social facilitation - behavior - humans - perception - duration - power - size
Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f¿=¿8/22, age: 21.2¿±¿1.9¿years, BMI: 21.2¿±¿1.6¿kg/m2) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3¿bites/min), medium (5¿bites/min) or fast (7¿bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9¿±¿1.3, medium: 4.0¿±¿1.1, fast: 4.0¿±¿1.3¿bites/min (p¿=¿0.75), as was average bite size (11¿±¿2.6¿g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9¿±¿3.6¿min) and fast condition (14.4¿±¿3.7¿min) compared to the slow condition (16.8¿±¿4.8¿min) (post hoc in both cases p¿
Longer Oral Exposure with Modified Sham Feeding Does Not Slow Down Gastric Emptying of Low- and High-Energy-Dense Gastric Loads in Healthy Young Men
Wijlens, G.M. ; Erkner, A. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 365 - 371.
food-intake - appetite - stimulation - fat - responses - humans - satiation - ghrelin - liquids - volume
Background: A long oral exposure to food and a high-energy density of food are shown to increase satiety feelings. The effect of energy density is predominantly caused by an inhibition of gastric emptying. It is hypothesized that prolonging oral exposure may have an additional effect on this inhibition of gastric emptying. However, little human data are available to support this hypothesis. Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of oral exposure duration to food on gastric emptying rate of gastric loads (GLs) low and high in energy density and on satiety feelings. Methods: Twenty-six healthy men (22 ± 3 y, 23 ± 1 kg/m2) participated in a randomized crossover trial with 4 treatments and a control. Treatments consisted of either 1- or 8-min modified sham feeding (MSF) of cake, and a GL of either 100 or 700 kcal infused in the stomach via a nasogastric tube (500 mL, 62.5 mL/min). The control consisted of no MSF and a GL of 500 mL of water. Gastric emptying rate was assessed with a 13C breath test. Breath samples and satiety feelings were collected at fixed time points until 90 min after start of the treatment. Results: Gastric emptying rate and satiety feelings were not affected by duration of MSF (P = 0.27). However, the 700-kcal GL treatments slowed gastric emptying [41% lower area under the curve (AUC)] and increased satiety feelings (22–31% higher AUC) compared with the 100-kcal GL treatments (P <0.001). No interaction between MSF duration and energy density of GL was found (P = 0.44). Conclusions: Higher gastric energy density inhibited gastric emptying and increased satiety feelings in healthy young men. However, prolonging oral exposure to food did not have an additional effect. This study provides more insight in satiety regulation. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR3601.
It's my party and I eat if I want to. Reasons for unhealthy snacking
Verhoeven, A.A.C. ; Adriaanse, M.A. ; Vet, E. de; Fennis, B.M. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de - \ 2015
Appetite 84 (2015). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 20 - 27.
implementation intentions - self-regulation - food-intake - behavior - questionnaire - consequences - adolescents - overweight - habit - plans
Investigating the reasons that people give for unhealthy snacking behavior is important for developing effective health interventions. Little research, however, has identified reasons that apply to a large audience and most studies do not integrate multiple factors, precluding any conclusions regarding their relative importance. The present study explored reasons for unhealthy snacking among a representative community sample. Participants (N¿=¿1544) filled out the newly developed Reasons to Snack inventory assessing an elaborate range of motives at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Exploratory and replication factor analyses identified six categories: opportunity induced eating, coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion, rewarding oneself, social pressure, and gaining energy. The highest mean scores were obtained for enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating. Regression analyses with participant characteristics as independent variables and each category of reasons as dependent variables showed differences for age. For all reasons except to enjoy a special occasion, younger people reported a higher score. Women indicated a higher score than men on coping with negative emotions, enjoying a special occasion and gaining energy. People who diet to a stronger extent reported a higher score for snacking because of social pressure, to reward oneself and to cope with negative emotions, with the latter also being related to a higher BMI. Finally, a higher education was associated with enjoying a special occasion. Future health interventions could allocate more attention to diminishing unhealthy snacking with regard to the six identified categories, specifically focusing on enjoying a special occasion and opportunity induced eating.
PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index
Poelman, M.P. ; Vet, E. de; Velema, E. ; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C. ; Steenhuis, I.H.M. - \ 2015
Annals of behavioral medicine 49 (2015)1. - ISSN 0883-6612 - p. 18 - 28.
energy-intake - food-intake - consumption volume - relapse prevention - obesity epidemic - college-students - young-adults - impact - maintenance - consumers
Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was conducted. PortionControl@HOME aimed to increase: portion size awareness, portion control behavior, portion control cooking skills, and to create a home environment favoring portion control. Results Intention-to-treat multi-level regression analysis indicated statistically significant effects of the intervention on portion control behavior at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. The effect on body mass index was significant only at 3 months follow-up and when outliers (n¿=¿3) were excluded (B¿=¿-0.45; 95 %CI¿=¿-0.88 to -0.04). The intervention effect on body mass index was mediated by portion control behavior. Conclusions The intervention improves portion control behavior, which in turn influence body mass index. Once the intervention ceased, sustained effects on body mass index were no longer evident. (Current-Controlled-Trials ISRCTN12363482).
Assessment of Metabolic Flexibility of Old and Adult Mice Using Three Noninvasive, Indirect Calorimetry-Based Treatments
Duivenvoorde, L.P.M. ; Schothorst, E.M. van; Swarts, J.J.M. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2015
Journals of Gerontology. Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences 70 (2015)3. - ISSN 1079-5006 - p. 282 - 293.
type-2 diabetes-mellitus - adipose-tissue - energy-metabolism - gene-expression - dietary restriction - hypobaric hypoxia - laboratory mice - down-regulation - weight-gain - food-intake
Indirect calorimetry (InCa) can potentially be used to noninvasively assess metabolic and age-related flexibility. To assess the use of InCa for this purpose, we tested the sensitivity and response stability over time of three InCa-based treatments in old versus adult mice. Diurnal patterns of respiratory exchange ratio were followed for 24 hours under standard conditions (Treatment 1), but the results were not stable between test periods. As a challenge, fasted mice received glucose to test switch-effectiveness from fat to glucose oxidation (Treatment 2). No differences between groups were observed, although old mice showed higher adiposity and lower white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial density, indicative of age-impaired metabolic health. Lastly, adaptation to a challenge of oxygen restriction (OxR, 14.5% O2) was assessed as a novel approach (Treatment 3). This treatment stably detected significant differences: old mice did not maintain reduced oxygen consumption under OxR during both test periods, whereas adult mice did. Further biochemical and gene expression analyses showed that OxR affected glucose and lactate homeostasis in liver and WAT of adult mice, supporting the observed differences in oxygen consumption. In conclusion, InCa analysis of the response to OxR in mice is a sensitive and reproducible treatment to noninvasively measure age-impaired metabolic health.
The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Schrieks, I.C. ; Stafleu, A. ; Kallen, V.L. ; Grootjen, M. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
heart-rate-variability - food-intake - individual-differences - emotion elicitation - frequency-domain - effects scale - red wine - carbohydrate - performance - drinking
Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state.
Steviol glycoside rebaudioside A induces glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY release in a porcine ex vivo intestinal model
Ripken, D. ; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)33. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8365 - 8370.
enteroendocrine cell-line - nutrient-driven satiety - hormone-release - taste receptor - glp-1 release - fatty-acids - food-intake - secretion - gut - sweeteners
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are hormones important for satiation and are involved in the process called "ileal brake". The aim of this study was to investigate the GLP-1- and PYY-stimulating efficacy of rebaudioside A, casein, and sucrose. This was studied using tissue segments collected from various regions of the pig small intestine. GLP-1 release was strongest from the distal ileum. There, control release was 0.06 ± 0.01 (GLP-1) and 0.07 ± 0.01 (PYY) pmol/cm(2) of tissue. Rebaudioside A (2.5, 12.5, and 25 mM) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.14 ± 0.02, 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.13 ± 0.02 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.19 ± 0.02, 0.42 ± 0.06, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001). Sucrose stimulated GLP-1 release (0.08 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.05) only at 10 mM. Casein (0.5%, 1%, and 2.5%, w/v) stimulated GLP-1 release (0.15 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, and 0.14 ± 0.01 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.001) and PYY release (0.13 ± 0.02, 0.20 ± 0.03, and 0.27 ± 0.03 pmol/cm(2) of tissue, p <0.01). These findings may help in developing dietary approaches for weight management.
Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors
Keijer, J. ; Hoevenaars, F.P.M. ; Nieuwenhuizen, A.G. ; Schothorst, E.M. van - \ 2014
Nutrients 6 (2014)10. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 4531 - 4551.
blood mononuclear-cells - diet-induced obesity - high-fat diet - adipose-tissue - metabolic-rate - adaptive thermogenesis - food-intake - nutrition transition - energy-requirements - mass-spectrometry
Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.
Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses
Spetter, M.S. ; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
Physiology and Behavior 137 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 9 - 17.
cephalic phase responses - placebo-controlled trial - sensory-specific satiety - plasma ghrelin levels - food-intake - eating behavior - short-term - circulating ghrelin - energy-intake - c-peptide
The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6 ± 3.8y, BMI 22.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/0 kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500 mL/1770 kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30 min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (P <0.0001). Gastric infusion of a caloric load increased insulin and cholecystokinin-8 and decreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P <0.0001). No differences in active ghrelin response were observed between conditions. Ad libitum intake did not differ between oral and gastric administration of chocolate milk (P > 0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.
Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Haenen, D. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Kemp, B. ; Müller, M.R. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)09. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1402 - 1411.
chain fatty-acids - adult female pigs - nonstarch polysaccharides - appetite regulation - feeding motivation - serotonin content - dietary-fibers - food-intake - insulin - fermentation
Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P
Dinner Rituals That Correlate with Child and Adult BMI
Wansink, B. ; Kleef, E. van - \ 2014
Obesity 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1930-7381 - p. E91 - E95.
family meals - diet quality - eating behavior - food-intake - adolescents - patterns - television - illusions - program
Objective: What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. Methods: In this study of 190 parents (BMI529.167.2) and 148 children (BMI520.364.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Results: Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r520.31) and children (r520.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r50.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r520.31). Conclusions: Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet—both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity.
A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows
Nieuwamerongen, S.E. van; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Soede, N.M. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)3. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 448 - 460.
ranging domestic pigs - maternal-behavior - suckling behavior - farrowing system - environmental enrichment - growth-performance - nursing behavior - food-intake - solid food - litters
Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group housing of lactating sows in comparison with individual housing by describing the variety in group housing systems and discussing animal behaviour and performance compared with individual housing. Group housing systems can be divided in multi-suckling (MS) systems, in which sows are grouped with their litters, and get-away (GA) systems, which include a separate communal area accessible to sows only. These systems differ in many aspects regarding management and layout but, compared with individual housing, generally provide more environmental complexity, more freedom of movement for the sows and more freedom to express behaviours related to, for example, maternal care and social interactions. Group housing poses several risks, such as disrupted nursing and an increased level of crushing during the MS phase, and in the GA systems there is a risk for early cessation of nursing. On the other hand, pre-weaning mingling of litters clearly benefits piglet social development and may improve adaptation to the post-weaning situation. In addition, group-housed sows may show lactational ovulation, which provides opportunities for insemination during an extended lactation period, which benefits the piglets. Gradual transitions in social and physical environment around gestation, farrowing, grouping and weaning seem to be key success factors for group housing systems during lactation. In addition, selection of suitable sows and quality of stockmanship seem important.
The Sum of lts Parts-Effects of Gastric Distention, Nutrient Content and Sensory Stimulation on Brain Activation
Spetter, M.S. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. ; Viergever, M.A. ; Smeets, P.A.M. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
body-weight regulation - food-intake - feeding-behavior - eating behavior - human amygdala - appetite - humans - satiety - taste - fat
During food consumption the brain integrates multiple interrelated neural and hormonal signals involved in the regulation of food intake. Factors influencing the decision to stop eating include the foods' sensory properties, macronutrient content, and volume, which in turn affect gastric distention and appetite hormone responses. So far, the contributions of gastric distention and oral stimulation by food on brain activation have not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of gastric distention with an intra-gastric load and the additional effect of oral stimulation on brain activity after food administration. Our secondary objective was to study the correlations between hormone responses and appetite-related ratings and brain activation. Fourteen men completed three functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions during which they either received a naso-gastric infusion of water (stomach distention), naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk (stomach distention + nutrients), or ingested chocolate-milk (stomach distention + nutrients + oral exposure). Appetite ratings and blood parameters were measured at several time points. During gastric infusion, brain activation was observed in the midbrain, amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus for both chocolate milk and water, i.e., irrespective of nutrient content. The thalamus, amygdala, putamen and precuneus were activated more after ingestion than after gastric infusion of chocolate milk, whereas infusion evoked greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Moreover, areas involved in gustation and reward were activated more after oral stimulation. Only insulin responses following naso-gastric infusion of chocolate milk correlated with brain activation, namely in the putamen and insula. In conclusion, we show that normal (oral) food ingestion evokes greater activation than gastric infusion in stomach distention and food intake-related brain areas. This provides neural evidence for the importance of sensory stimulation in the process of satiation.
Identification of genes regulating growth and fatness traits in pig through hypothalamic transcriptome analysis
Perez-montarelo, D. ; Madsen, O. ; Alves, E.R. ; Rodriguez, C. ; Floch, J.M. ; Groenen, M. - \ 2014
Physiological genomics 46 (2014)6. - ISSN 1094-8341 - p. 195 - 206.
fatty-acid-composition - rna-seq - food-intake - rt-pcr - porcine transcriptome - insulin sensitivity - expression analysis - energy-expenditure - extreme phenotypes - body-weight
Previous studies on Iberian x Landrace (IBMAP) pig intercrosses have enabled the identification of several QTL regions related to growth and fatness traits; however the genetic variation underlying those QTLs are still unknown. These traits are not only relevant because of their impact on economically important production traits, but also because pig constitutes a widely studied animal model for human obesity and obesity related diseases. The hypothalamus is the main gland regulating growth, food intake and fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and/or gene transcripts involved in the determination of growth and fatness in pig by a comparison of the whole hypothalamic transcriptome (RNA-seq) in two groups of phenotypically divergent IBMAP pigs. Around 16,000 of the ~25.010 annotated genes were expressed in these hypothalamic samples, with most of them showing intermediate expression levels. Functional analyses supported the key role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of growth, fat accumulation and energy expenditure. Besides, 58,927 potentially new isoforms were detected. More than 250 differentially expressed genes and novel transcript isoforms were identified between the two groups of pigs. Twenty-one DE genes/transcripts that co-localized in previously identified QTL regions and/or whose biological functions are related to the traits of interest were explored in more detail. Additionally, the transcription factors potentially regulating these genes and the subjacent networks and pathways were also analyzed. This study allows us to propose strong candidate genes for growth and fatness based on expression patterns, genomic location and network interactions
Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake
Wanders, A.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jonathan, M.C. ; Schols, H.A. ; Graaf, C. de; Mars, M. - \ 2014
Physiology and Behavior 128 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 212 - 219.
body-weight - food-intake - guar gum - satiety - viscosity - glucose - meal - satiation - glycemia - humans
An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber properties, including methods of supplementation, on appetite and energy intake. This was a randomized crossover study with 29 subjects (21 ± 2 y, BMI: 21.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2) consuming dairy based liquid test products (1.5 MJ, 435 g) containing either: no pectin, bulking pectin (10 g), viscous pectin (10 g), or gelled pectin (10 g). The gelled pectin was also supplemented as capsules (10 g), and as liquid (10 g). Physicochemical properties of the test products were assessed. Appetite, glucose, insulin and gastric emptying were measured before ingestion and after fixed time intervals. Energy intake was measured after 3 h. Preload viscosity was larger for gelled > viscous > bulking > no pectin, and was larger for gelled > liquid > capsules. Appetite was reduced after ingestion of gelled pectin compared to bulking (p <0.0001), viscous (p = 0.005) and no pectin (p <0.0001), without differences in subsequent energy intake (p = 0.32). Gastric emptying rate was delayed after gelled pectin (82 ± 18 min) compared to no pectin (70 ± 19 min, p = 0.015). Furthermore, gelled (p = 0.002) and viscous (p <0.0001) pectin lowered insulin responses compared to no pectin, with minor reductions in glucose response. Regarding methods of supplementation, appetite was reduced after ingestion of the gelled test product compared to after capsules (p <0.0001) and liquid (p <0.0001). Energy intake was lower after ingestion of capsules compared to liquid (- 12.4%, p = 0.03). Different methods of supplementation resulted in distinct metabolic parameters. Results suggest that different physicochemical properties of pectin, including methods of supplementation, impact appetite and energy intake differently. Reduced appetite was probably mediated by preload physical properties, whereas inconsistent associations with metabolic parameters were found.